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Ancient Greece
Greek World
The most important cities of the
Mycenaean culture period in
Mycenaean remains of the city in 1876 discovered by the
famous archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, following
Homer's descriptions. (At the entrance to the citadel - a
circular tomb.)
Mycenaean cities were surrounded by strong walls, with a huge defensive walls (Lion Gate, ~1250 BC).
Cyclopean masonry
One of the most significant contributions to
architectural history – megaron. Throne room
space has become a prototype for future temples,
including the Parthenon.
Perhaps the most impressive prehistoric
Greece architectonic monument:
Agamemnon tomb. ~1250 BC
Structurally distinctive triangular arches
Dark ages
(ca. 1200 BC–800
BC) Kr.)
Archaic period in
Greece (800 – 480 BC)
Classical period
Amfora, 332 BC
Lekythos, c. 420-410
Hellenistic period(~323-31)
Proportions, symmetry, the
rectangular shape of a strict
architectonic structure, where
one of the most significant role
plays the columns.
Temple of Hephaestus, Athens c. 450 BC
Strongest feature of Greek
architecture in perfected design
system creating Order
Temple of Hera in Paestum, Italy, 540 BC
Structure of order
Doric order, from c. 600 BC
Temple of Apollo, Corinth, c. 550 BC
Temple of Hera, Olympia c. 600 BC
Parthenon, c. 447-438 BC
Architects: Iktinos and Kallikrates
Ionic order
(from c. 560 BC)
Temple of Athena Nike, Athens Acropolis, c. 427 BC
Corinthian order.
Starting from ~IV c. BC
Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens.
Finished by romans, 129 AD
Tuscan order introduced by romans ~ I c. BC
On basis of Ionic and Corinthian orders
Roman architects developed a new –
composite order
Arch of Titus, Rome, c. 82 AD
Erechtheion, arch. Mnesicles, 421 – 405 BC, Caryatids.
“golden section”
a : b= 1: 1,618; (0,618 – “fi”)
a = 0,383, o b=0,618
fibonacci sequence: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21. (3 :
5=0,6; 5 : 8=0,625; 8 : 13=0,615).
5:8, 8:13, 13:21, 21:34
Phidias working on Parthenon. 1868, Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
Polykleitos (V-IV c. BC.) – Greek cannon of sculpture (proportions,
contrapposto, naturalism) – Hercules, Roman copy (Museo Nazionale Romano,
Roma); Amazon, Roman copy. (Musei Capitolini, Roma)
The predominant method employed by the ancient Greeks was the post and lintel
method. Post and lintel is a simple architrave where one horizontal beam, or lintel,
is supported by two vertical posts.
Early temples were built
of limestone.
Later, the most
important building in
Built without mortar,
leveling the surface very
carefully, and joining by
Built on a stone
foundation – euthynteria
Block chaining
Stone masonry techniques.
Roofing techniques: a)
Laconian (for living houses);
b) Corinthian (for public
architecture); c) Sicilian
Eupalinian aqueduct - is a tunnel of
1,036 m (3,399 ft) length in Samos,
built in the 6th century BC.
Consists of two parts - the service
tunnel and the water tunnel.
Arches. Stadium of Delphes, from 5 c. BC.
Public nature of
architecture.There is no
Royal Palace.
Classical Ancient
(a) rectangle (and later,
in Rome, and sometimes
circular plan)
(b) architectural order
(c) oriented towards
(d) the statue of the
deity inside
(e) the altar outside the
main entrance
(f) Temple came along
with the Treasury.
Temple of Hephaestus, Athens c. 450 BC
Elements of the temple:
a) pronaos – the front part of the porch
b) naos –
the most important room in which stood themstatue of deity
c) opistodomos – rear of the house, sometimes equipped with a treasury.
Types of Temples
Temple of Artemis
~ 550 under the Cretan
architect Chersiphron.
From marble.
127 columns, 18 m. high.
356 BC destroyed in an
act of arson by a young
arsonist seeking fame
named Herostratus. 323
BC rebuilt. 256
destroyed again.
Temple of Zeus at Olympia ,
466-456 BC
Fortuna Virilis Rome, 2 c BC.
Roman temples followed the
example of the Greeks
(Gr. akros, akron, edge, extremity
+ polis, city,).
Reconstructed Acropolis of Helenistic period, Pergamon
Agora – the main town
square, which has grown
along with the Greek city
Bouleuterion – house of
council – boule.
Public facilities in the western
part of the Athens Agora : a) old
bouleuterion; b) new
bouleuterion; c) tholos,
Bouleuterion of Miletus, 1200 places
Prytaneion –seat of government
ancient Greece. The Prytaneion
normally stood in centre of the
city, in the agora. The building
contained the holy fire of Hestia,
the goddess of the hearth, and
symbol of the life of the city.
Stoa - covered walkways or porticos,
commonly for public usage
Stoa of Miletus.
The Theatre of Dionysus, Athens . An
enlarged, stone-version of the theatre, which
was built c. 325 BCE, seated between 14,000
to 17,000 spectators
Amphiteater of Epidaurus. ~300 BC.
10 t. seats. ~ II c BC.
Odeion – built for singing exercises,
musical shows and poetry competitions.
They were generally small in size..
Ephesus odeion (Roman period, c. 150 AD.)
Stadium – elongated, narrow, rectangular
field for athletic competition. Approximately
200 meters in length. Delphes, from 5 c. BC.
Stadium of Olympia. Up to 45 t. people
Hippodrome – stadium for horse
racing and chariot racing.
Gymanasium – complex for
sports and training.
Gymnasium of Pompeya
A kind of public recreational
space which gives a beginning for
a public park
Reconstruction of Sparta Gymnasium, J. Hoffmann, c. 1870
The ruins of gymnasium, Cyrenaica
Palaestra wrestling school (in Olympia).
Beginning of the formation of
public gardens and parks, as a
precursor to the current city park.
Defensive architecture
Early rectangular
Paestum, 7 c. BC.
Hippodamus of Miletus
(498 BC — 408 BC)
Piraeus. Urban plan by Hippodamus
The houses were built in blocks of 10 houses.
Each house took approximately 18x18 area.
Reconstruction of wealthy residential
building in Olynthus
Water is supplied to Athens by terracotta
pipes to fountains and public pools.
Peristyle (c. 300 BC). Pella.