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Transcript
Name:
World History
Chapter 1- Section 4 and 5
Section 4: European Cultures
European Society
•
Crusades- _________ - Pope Urban II launches military to regain the _______________.
– Launches _______________ of European society
•
____________ Empire- Dominated most of Europe for centuries, until about _________.
•
____________________: 500-1400 AD.
– Political and economic collapse, trade decline, infrastructure destroyed, no law,
no money used.
•
__________________- a king would give estates to nobles in exchange for their loyalty
and military support.
– Popular throughout Europe by 1100
– Weak central government, so wars were common; castles built for defense.
•
The Manorial System
– Peasants get:
•
_______________
– Nobles get:
•
_______________
•
_______________
– ____________- peasants who were bound to the manor and could not leave it
without permission
•
Economy
– Bad shape since the ________________________
– Began improving around 1000
– Better plows + horses instead of oxen= ________________________
– More crops = _________________________
•
The Church
– _________________________ struggled after the fall of Rome
– Own set of laws, courts
– Disobedience to the church could result in:
•
______________________________
•
__________________________________
Expanding Horizons
•
___________________ brought Western Europe into contact with Eastern Europe and
the Middle East (largely _____________)
– Demand for luxury goods in the region ________________
– Trade __________________
•
As trade increased, many merchants and traders began only accepting ____________ for
goods.
•
This led to the rise of the _______________________________
– ________________ were manufactured in Africa and used as currency during the
1200s
•
Mongol Empire (_____________)- 1200s
– One of the largest empires in history
– Integrated Asia's economy
– Made trade with Europe _________________
•
Mongol Empire _________________ in 1300s
•
Europe could not trade with _____________________ anymore
•
They needed a new way to get to China without using roads or trails
New States, New Technology
•
1300s- Western Europeans began exploring ________________ to China thanks to new
technology
Strong States Emerge
•
1400s and 1500s- _______________________ begins exploring the world
– ______________________ was in decline
– ________________________ began taxing townspeople and merchants on the
profits they earned
– Merchants loaned money to _____________________ to ensure a strong
economy
•
Mid 1400s:
– _________________
– _________________
– _________________
– _________________
•
________________ was the first to begin exploration
The Renaissance Spurs Discoveries
•
Renaissance- ____________________________________________________________
– Philosophy, geography, mathematics, art
– _________________ AD
– Triggered a commitment to new learning, rather than blindly accepting the way
things were
New Technology
•
Exploration created demand for better ships and reliable navigating equipment
– Early 1400s
•
_____________________- invented by ancient Greeks, refined by Arab navigators
– Uses the sun to determine direction, latitude, and local time.
•
Compass- invented in China
•
________________________- triangle shaped. Perfected by Arab traders. Allowed ships
to sail against the wind.
– Transition from one big sail to multiple smaller sails for speed
– Moved rudder from side to the stern for easier steering
– ____________________- Portuguese ship, 1400s. Fast, small, very useful.
Portuguese Exploration
•
_________: Henry the Navigator (Prince Henry) set up a center to study astronomy and
graphs.
– Invited mapmakers, astronomers, and shipbuilders.
•
_________: Portuguese captains began mapping Africa’s west coast
•
1488: _____________________ reached the Cape of Good Hope
•
1497: Four ships commanded by ___________________________ sailed from Portugal,
around Africa, to India’s SW coast.
•
Europe found it’s water route to eastern Asia
Section 5: Europe Encounters America
The Vikings arrive in America
•
_________________: the first European group to arrive in the Americas.
•
Longboats
•
_________________________- 1001 AD
•
•
Group of 35- explored Labrador and Newfoundland
Permanent colony failed
•
Native Americans did not want them there
Spain Sends Columbus West
A New Geography
•
By the 1400s, most people knew the world was ________________
•
BUT, the best maps of the time only included the Mediterranean, Europe,
the Middle East, and Africa’s northern coast
•
After research of some ancient maps, Europeans finally had a better idea
of what eastern _______________ and the _______________________
looked like.
Columbus’s Plan
•
________________________________- Italian navigator interested in exploring west
from Europe to India
•
King ________________ and Queen _______________ of Spain agreed to fund his
journey with hopes that it would bring wealth, empire, and converts to Catholicism
The First Voyage
•
August ____________
•
Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
•
Believed he had landed in India, but was actually in ___________________
•
Called the natives “Indians” because he thought he had reached ________________
•
After the Bahamas, he went to Cuba and Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic)
•
He thought they were ____________ and mainland ________________
•
Columbus’ crew and the natives were equally confused about each other.
•
Christmas Eve 1492- __________________ struck a reef off of Hispaniola
•
Columbus left a crew of 40 while he returned home with the other ships
Columbus’s Later Voyages
•
Less than 6 months after he got back to Spain, he left to return to the Hispaniola
•
November 1493- returned to find that all of his men had been ______________
and their fort was ___________________
•
•
He abandoned the site and founded the colony of __________________
•
Discovered gold, enslaved the native people to mine
1496- Columbus left for Spain.
•
His brother founded ___________________________, which would become the
first capital of the Spanish empire in America
•
1498- Columbus returns to South America
•
Discovers the ________________________
•
1502- Columbus mapped the American Coastline from _____________ to ___________
•
By the early 1500s, the _________________ established colonies on Hispaniola, Cuba,
Jamaica, and Puerto Rico, and began exploring the mainland.
Spain Claims America
The Treaty of Tordesillas
•
Spain wanted to claim ____________________.
•
Portugal claimed the right to ________________________
•
They went to the Pope for a decision
•
1493- Pope Alexander VI established the line of ____________________
•
•
Imaginary vertical line running through the Atlantic Ocean
•
Everything west belonged to ______________, everything east to ____________
•
King John of Portugal did not agree with the placement of the line
•
This treaty moved the line 1,000 miles west.
TWO MAIN RESULTS OF THE TREATY
•
Confirmed Portugal's right to control the route around ____________ to
___________________
•
•
Confirmed Spain's claim to new lands in ____________________
However, the line had been moved so far west that a significant portion of Brazil now
belonged to ________________
Naming America
•
1501- ____________________________ explored the new continent and realized that it
could not be India.
•
1507- A German scholar named Martin Waldseemuller proposed the new continent be
named __________________ for “Amerigo the discoverer.”
Continuing Spanish Expeditions
•
1513: Juan Ponce de Leon- governor of Puerto Rico- discovered ___________________
•
1513: Vasco de Balboa- first European to reach the American ________________ coast
•
1520: Ferdinand Magellan- discovered the southern tip of South America, named the
Pacific Ocean. Died in the Philippines, but his crew continued back to Spain.
•
They were the first known people to _____________________ the globe.
•
Circumnavigate: _______________________________________
The Columbian Exchange
•
The series of complex _____________ and ____________________ interactions
between Europe and the Americas which began with Columbus’ first voyage.
From America to Europe
•
farming methods, corn, squash, pumpkins, beans, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, chili peppers,
peanuts, chocolate, potatoes, tobacco, chewing gum, canoes, snowshoes, hammocks,
ponchos, toboggans, parkas, disease
From Europe to America
•
Wheat, oats, barley, rye, rice, coffee, dandelions, onions, bananas, oranges, other citrus
fruits, chickens, cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, metalworking, shipbuilding, firearms,
influenza, measles, chicken pox, mumps, typhus, smallpox