Download Put ESTAR in its PLACE and everything else is SER!

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Germanic weak verb wikipedia, lookup

Modern Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Scottish Gaelic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia, lookup

Sanskrit grammar wikipedia, lookup

Georgian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Kannada grammar wikipedia, lookup

French grammar wikipedia, lookup

Udmurt grammar wikipedia, lookup

Old Norse morphology wikipedia, lookup

Ukrainian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Old English grammar wikipedia, lookup

Germanic strong verb wikipedia, lookup

Macedonian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Lithuanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Yiddish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Future tense wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Italian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Pluperfect wikipedia, lookup

Hungarian verbs wikipedia, lookup

Chichewa tenses wikipedia, lookup

Tense–aspect–mood wikipedia, lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia, lookup

Portuguese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Icelandic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Swedish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Serbo-Croatian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Polish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Latin conjugation wikipedia, lookup

English clause syntax wikipedia, lookup

Grammatical tense wikipedia, lookup

English verbs wikipedia, lookup

Bulgarian verbs wikipedia, lookup

Latin syntax wikipedia, lookup

Spanish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
1
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
1|Página
2
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
2|Página
3
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
3|Página
4
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
4|Página
5
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
5|Página
6
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
6|Página
7
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
7|Página
8
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
8|Página
9
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
9|Página
10
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
10 | P á g i n a
11
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
11 | P á g i n a
12
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
12 | P á g i n a
13
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
13 | P á g i n a
14
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
14 | P á g i n a
15
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
15 | P á g i n a
16
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
16 | P á g i n a
17
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
17 | P á g i n a
18
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
18 | P á g i n a
19
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
“How you feel and where you are, always use the verb ESTAR”
AND
“Put ESTAR in its PLACE and everything else is SER!”
POSITION * LOCATION* ACTION * CONDITION*EMOTION
19 | P á g i n a
20
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
20 | P á g i n a
21
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
The Present Subjunctive
The Subjunctive is not a tense but a mood. What does that mean? It is called a mood
because it doesn't deal with factual reality but with opinions, feelings, suppositions, dreams
and speculation. We use the Subjunctive to mentally and emotionally organize our world in
terms of others.
We use the Indicative tense (Present, Preterite, Imperfect...) to express what occurs in the
present or past reality.
Some people say there is no Subjunctive in English but this isn't true. It is less apparent and
less conscious than in Spanish. The Subjunctive form in English is identical to the infinitive,
we can only see the Subjunctive in irregular verbs or in the third-person singular form (He,
She, It.)
For instance, if your mother has a cold, the doctor might recommend that she drink 4 glasses
of water a day. Normally, the conjugation is "She drinks"; but the Subjunctive form drops the
"s".
Another example is that the State requires that you be 21 years old to purchase alcohol. Or
even, "If I were King, I would eat Ben & Jerry's ice cream daily." These are all examples of
the Subjunctive Mood in English.
In Spanish there are defined conjugations for the Subjunctive that are used frequently in
everyday conversations. In Spanish, the Subjunctive represents the things we imagine others
doing (or not doing) or how we feel about events that have happened to others. It
encompasses things that are rhetorical in our minds or emotional in our hearts.
There is a 3 part formula for using the Subjunctive. Each one of these three
components MUST be in place.
1
2
3
Que
Subject #1 (indicative verb)
(Select one of the WEIRDO or
WEDDING categories)
21 | P á g i n a
This is the
conjunction
necessary to
introduce the
subjunctive
clause
Subject #2 + verb in the
subjunctive
(the person or thing in our WEIRDO
or WEDDING world)
22
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
W E D D
WISH/WANT
querer
desear
pedir
ordenar
aconsejar
rogar
ansiar
mandar
necesitar
prohibir
permitir
recomendar
insistir en
sugerir
obligar
preferir
decir*
escribir*
(*=mandato)
22 | P á g i n a
EMOTION
DOUBT
dudar
esperar
no estar
alegrarse
seguro
sorprenderse
lamentar
temer
sentirse
molestar
enojarse
enfadarse
estar
contento
I
N G
DENIAL
IMPERSONAL
NEGATION
negar
es importante no creer
es necesario no pensar
es preciso
es esencial
es lástima
es posible
es imposible
es fácil
es difícil
es mejor
es dudoso
es increíble
es probable
es
indispensable
es menester
conviene
parece
mentira
más vale
no parece
importa
basta
GOD
> Ojalá
> Que...
When you
know the
subjunctive,
it’s a “piece of
cake”
23
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
The Conditional, Conditional Perfect, and “If” Clauses
I.
The conditional
A.
Forms of the conditional. To form the conditional, use:
1.
The same stem as for the future tense (normally, the infinitive; a list of irregular verbs is
given below).
2.
The same endings as for the imperfect of -er and -ir verbs: -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, ían.
3.
hablar
comer
vivir
hablaría hablaríamos
comería comeríamos
viviría viviríamos
hablarías hablaríais
comerías comeríais
vivirías viviríais
hablaría hablarían
comería comerían
viviría vivirían
Verbs with irregular future and conditional stems:
decir
B.
23 | P á g i n a
to say
dir-
diría, dirías, diría, ...
haber there to be [impersonal]; habrto have [helping verb]
habría, habrías, habría, ...
hacer to make, do
har-
haría, harías, haría, ...
poder to be able
podr- podría, podrías, podría, ...
poner to put, place, set
pondr- pondría, pondrías, pondría, ...
querer to want, love
querr- querría, querrías, querría, ...
saber to know [a fact]
sabr-
salir
to leave, go out
saldr- saldría, saldrías, saldría, ...
tener
to have
tendr- tendría, tendrías, tendría, ...
valer
to be worth
valdr- valdría, valdrías, valdría, ...
venir
to come
vendr- vendría, vendrías, vendría, ...
sabría, sabrías, sabría, ...
Usage. There are several ways in which the conditional is used in Spanish:
1.
To indicate future time within the past. (Remember that the conditional is a
combination of future stem with imperfect endings.)
24
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Dije ayer que lo haríamos
hoy.
2.
Yesterday I said that we would [were going to] do it
today.
The same idea could also be expressed with the imperfect of ir plus a plus the
infinitive:
Dije ayer que lo íbamos a hacer hoy. Yesterday I said that we were going to do it today.
3.
To indicate conjecture or probability in past time (roughly an equivalent of
probablemente plus the imperfect).
¿Dónde estaría María anoche? Where do you think Mary was last night?
Estaría en casa.
4.
She was probably at home.
To indicate deference or softening of a statement or request. Compare these three
examples:
Quiero cinco dólares.
I want $5.00.
[forceful, present tense]
Querría cinco dólares.
I would like $5.00. [deferential, conditional]
Quisiera cinco dólares. I would like $5.00. [almost apologetic, imperfect subj.]
5.
NOTE: The past subjunctive was used in the third example above to indicate deference, politeness,
or an almost apologetic tone. This usage is found primarily with the verbs querer, deber, and
poder:
¿Pudieras hacerlo?
Could you (possibly) do it?
Debieras estudiar más. (Maybe) you should study more.
6.
To indicate something hypothetical (in present or future time).
¡Yo viajaría a la luna mañana (si pudiera)! I would go to the moon tomorrow (if I could)!
7.
24 | P á g i n a
This type of situation will be studied below in the section on contrary-to-fact or
unreal conditions.
25
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
II.
The conditional perfect
A.
Forms. The conditional perfect is formed by using the conditional forms of the helping verb
haber with the past (or passive) participle:
yo
habría
hablado/comido/vivido
tú
habrías
hablado/comido/vivido
él/ella/usted
habría
hablado/comido/vivido
nosotros/nosotras habríamos hablado/comido/vivido
vosotros/vosotras habríais
hablado/comido/vivido
ellos/ellas/ustedes habrían
hablado/comido/vivido
B.
(I would have spoken/eaten/lived)
C.
Usage. It is used primarily to indicate something hypothetical or unreal in past time, in a
context where the subjunctive is not required such as in the main clause of a sentence:
Sí, yo habría ido a la luna. Yes, I would have gone to the moon [but they didn't ask me].
III.
Real vs. unreal conditions
A.
A real condition is one which may actually come about or at least is viewed as a possibility; thus,
in Spanish, the indicative is normally used both in the “if”clause and in the main part of the
sentence:
Si ella viene mañana, iremos al If she comes tomorrow [she may actually come], we will go to
cine.
the movies.
Si nieva mucho, podré esquiar. If it snows a lot [it may really snow], I can ski.
B.
Note that the English versions of the above conditions suggest the indicative by the lack
of hypothesis-suggesting words such as “would”, and by not using the past tense to refer
to a present-time situation.
C.
In contrast, an unreal or contrary-to-fact condition is one which will not come about or is
viewed as being completely hypothetical. In this case, the “if” clause in normally in a past
subjunctive tense, and the main verb is in a conditional tense.
1.
Present or future time situations. The imperfect subjunctive is used in the “if” clause,
and the conditional in the main clause:
25 | P á g i n a
26
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Si yo fuera rico compraría un coche. If I were rich [I am not rich] I would buy a car.
¿Qué harías si fueras presidente?
What would you do if you were president? [you
aren't]
Si Juana estuviera aquí, ¿le dirías la If Juana were here [she isn't here], would you tell
verdad?
her the truth?
2.
IV.
Past time situations. Past perfect subjunctive in the “if” clause, conditional
perfect in the main clause:
Si la hubiera visto, habría dicho
algo.
If I had seen her [I didn't see her] I would have
said something.
Si hubieras venido, te habrías
divertido mucho.
If you had come [you didn't come] you would
have had a great time.
¿Habrías ido a la fiesta si yo la
hubiera planeado?
Would you have gone to the party if I had planned
it? [I didn't plan it]
Reminders/tips
A.
B.
The present subjunctive is NOT used after si (“if”)!
In unreal conditions the standard pattern is a past subjunctive in the “if”clause and a conditional
tense in the main clause:
“if” clause
26 | P á g i n a
main clause
si + imperfect
subjunctive
conditional
Si hablaras,
te creerían.
If you spoke,
they would believe
you.
si + past perfect
subjunctive
conditional perfect
time aspect
present/future time actions (but expressed by the
past tense in both English and Spanish)
past time actions (expresed by previous-past time
tenses both in English and Spanish)
27
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
C.
Si hubieras
hablado,
te habrían creído.
If you had spoken,
they would have
believed you.
There are frequent tip-offs in English sentences that the conditional/past subjunctive
combination is required in the corresponding Spanish sentence. (Compare with the examples
above):
1.
Use of the past tense (“spoke”) in the “if” clause to indicate a present/future situation.
(“If you spoke [right now]...”).
2.
Use of the word “would” in the main clause to indicate conjecture for present/future
time. (“...they would believe you [now or in the future]”).
3.
Use of “would have” to in either clause to indicate conjecture/hypothesis in past time.
(“...they would have believed you”).
THE PRETERITE V. THE IMPERFECT
Trying to decide when to use the Preterite and when to use the Imperfect is one of the
challenges of learning these two tenses. Review the uses of the Imperfect and the Preterite,
make a chart for yourself listing the differences.
The Imperfect past tense is used to describe a scene while the Preterite is used to list series of
completed actions. It can be a little more subtle, especially with verbs that change meaning
depending on the tense.
You will use the Imperfect


When you "set a scene" describing what your house or dog used to look like and what your family was
like. Think of looking at a photograph and describing the people in it and what they were doing. Since
the photograph is static, the people in it can't start doing something different. So you can only describe
the scene you see.
When you are describing what people were doing (in the process of doing) or used to do or when you
describe what it was like when you arrived at the party last night.
However, the stories that occur within these settings happen in the Preterite! (which we will look at after our
example.)
27 | P á g i n a
28
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
For example, let's set a scene:


Eran las nueve de la noche. Era viernes. Hacía mal tiempo. Llovía. Todos estábamos en casa. Mamá y
Papá miraban la televisión; yo leía una novela de StarTrek; mi hermana hablaba por teléfono con su
novio en su cuarto. Esnupi (nuestro perro) dormía detrás del sillón en la sala.
It was 9:00 at night. It was Friday. It was bad weather. It was raining. We were all at home. Mom and
Dad were watching television; I was reading a StarTrek novel; my sister was talking on the phone with
her boyfriend in her room. Esnupi (our dog) was sleeping behind the armchair in the living room.
This has all been written in the Imperfect.
But now let's get to the action:


De repente, ¡Entró un ladrón! Pasó por la escalera y caminó hasta la recámara de mis padres. Miró en
el cuarto cuando oyó la voz de mi hermana. Se volvió y bajó las escaleras. Trató de huir de la casa,
pero Esnupi se despertó y mordió la pierna del ladrón.
Suddenly, a robber entered! He went upstairs and walked down to my parent's bedroom. He looked in
the room but then he heard my sister's voice. He turned and went down the stairs. He tried to flee the
house, but Esnupi woke up and bit the robber's leg.
This is a series of actions in the Preterite which happened within the setting established by the
Imperfect.
28 | P á g i n a
29
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
The focus of the Preterite is on completed action(s). The Imperfect focuses on a state of
being.
Let's look at some examples:
PRETERITE
IMPERFECT
(Completed action)
(description, scene)
Comí la cena.
Comía la cena...
I ate my dinner (and I finished it)
I was eating my dinner...[when something
happened]
-or- I used to eat my dinner...
Tuvo que devolver la camisa
Tenía que devolver la camisa
She had to -and did- return the shirt.
She had to return the shirt (She was
supposed to return it - but we don't know if
she did or not.)
Some verbs have different meanings in the Imperfect and Preterite forms:
29 | P á g i n a
Preterite
Imperfect
(completed action)
(description, scene)
Conocer
to have met someone
to have known someone
Saber
to have found out something
to have known something
Querer
tried
wanted
No Querer
refused
didn't want
Poder
managed to (suceeded)
was able to (capable of)
No Poder
failed to
wasn't able to (not capable)
30
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Examples of how these verbs change in meaning:
Preterite
Imperfect
(completed action)
(description, scene)
Quise hacerlo pero no pude.
Quería ir a la playa cada fin de semana. Y por no
trabajar los fines de semana, podía ir
frecuentemente.
I tried to do it but I failed (to do it)
I wanted to go to the beach every weekend. And
because I didn't work weekends, I was able to go
frequently.
La conocí el año pasado.
Nos conocíamos por tres meses antes de casarnos.
I met her last year.
We knew each other for three months before
marrying.
30 | P á g i n a
31
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
THE FUTURE TENSE
There is only one set of endings in the future, regardless if the verb is an -Ar or Ir or -Er.
Yo
Tú
Él, ella, usted
Nosotros*
Vosotros
Ellos, ellas,
Uds.
é
ás
á
emos
éis
án
* Note: all endings carry an accent mark EXCEPT for the Nosotros form.
We make the Future Tense by adding one of the above endings to the Infinitive itself (the same
as we do with the Conditional.)
For example, let's look at Comer:
Comeré a las ocho.
I will eat at eight o'clock.
Comeremos en el restaurante Habana el viernes.
We'll eat at Habana Restaurant on Friday.
Pretty easy, huh?
The irregulars in the Future tense follow the same pattern (and are the same verbs!) as the
irregulars in the Conditional.
Nosotros
Vosotros
Ellos,
ellas,
Uds.
Irregular root
Yo
Tú
Él, ella,
usted
Decir: dir-
diré
dirás
dirá
diremos
diréis
dirán
Tener: tendr-
tendré
tendrás
tendrá
tendremos
tendréis
tendrán
Poner: pondr-
pondré
pondrás
pondrá
pondremos
pondréis
pondrán
Poder: podr-
podré
podrás
podrá
podremos
podréis
podrán
31 | P á g i n a
32
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Salir: saldr-
saldré
saldrás
saldrá
saldremos
saldréis
saldrán
Hacer: Har-
haré
harás
hará
haremos
haréis
harán
Haber: Habr-
habré
habrás
habrá
habremos
habréis
habrán
Venir: Vendr-
vendré
vendrás
vendrá
vendremos
vendréis
vendrán
We use the Future Tense to express "will do something":
Viviré en California el próximo verano.
I will live in California next summer.
Irás ir a la playa cada día.
You will go to the beach every day.
Buscaremos conchas.
We will look for seashells.
We also use the Future to express Conjecture ("I wonder") and Probability:

¿Qué hora será?
I wonder what time it is?
Estarán casados Barbie y Ken?
I wonder if Barbie and Ken are married?
Note: the Future Tense does not reflect the meaning of "will" in terms of your "willingness" to
do something.
As you know, you can also use the Ir + a + Infinitive to express Future actions and events:
Voy a tomar el sol en la playa el viernes.
I'm going to sunbathe on the beach on Friday.
or even the Present Tense can be used:
Salgo a las cinco.
32 | P á g i n a
I'm leaving at five o'clock.
33
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Indirect Object Pronouns
An indirect object is usually a person receiving the direct object. The pronouns in Spanish are
basically the same as the ones used for the direct objects, with the exception of the third
person. It is important to remember that in Spanish, anytime that an indirect object is
expressed, the pronoun must be present even if the indirect object is expressed in some other
way (i.e., prepositional clause).
Singular
Plural
Me (me)
Nos (us)
Te (you)
Os (you [all])
Le/se (him/her/it)
Les/se (them)
As you see, we have one that can be used only for the singular (le), one used only for the
plural (les), and yet another one (se) that can be used for both! Nevertheless, the 'se' form is
used only when the direct object pronoun is also used for reasons that seem to be primarily
aesthetic (such as the use of the 'n' with the indefinite article in English: "an apple" vs. "a
apple"). Although you'll see the pesky 'se' everywhere in standard writing in Spanish (i.e.,
newspaper articles, literature, manuals, etc.), you should be aware that there are many uses of
'se', and that it's not always used as an indirect object pronoun. Just click here to see some
other uses.
First, let's see a few examples where we substitute the indirect object without using the direct
object pronoun, and then we'll see how these two pronouns act together.
Spanish
English
With prepositional clause (Tú) Le das el libro a Pedro
You give the book to Pedro
No prepositional clause
(Tú) Le das el libro
You give him the book [incorrect to
express a prepositional clause].
With prepositional clause
Yo te doy el libro [a ti:
redundant/emphasis]
I give the book to you
No prepositional clause
Yo te doy el libro
I give you the book.
33 | P á g i n a
34
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Note how in both languages we can use the prepositional clause to know who is receiving the
book. The prepositional clause is mainly used for clarification or for emphasis. Generally, in
Spanish the prepositional clause is used at the end, whereas in English it would be incorrect to
use it sometimes, as in the second sentence. In that case, we can identify the indirect object
by using the name: "You give Pedro the book."
Using the Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns at the Same Time
When both pronouns are used, they will continue to be placed in front of the verb (linguists say
that these pronouns become part of the verb). The order a declarative sentence will follow
when both pronouns are present is: subject-indirect object pronoun-direct object pronoun-verb,
or SIODOV for short. Remember that you might not see the subject expressed at the
beginning of the sentence due to the fact that it is implied in the verb. However, a personal
pronoun or name of the subject could be placed at the beginning of the sentence.


Direct object
Indirect object
Spanish
English
(Yo) te doy el libro [a ti]
I give the book to you
(Yo) te lo doy
I give it to you [I give you it]
(Nosotros) les damos el libro a las niñas
We give the book to the girls
(Nosotros) se lo damos
We give it to them
34 | P á g i n a
35
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
The Perfect Tenses
I.
Introduction. The perfect tenses [tiempos perfectos] are compound tenses [tiempos compuestos]; that
is, they are made up of two parts, a helping verb [verbo auxiliar] and a past participle [participio
pasado], for example: he hablado (I have spoken), habías hablado (you had spoken), habremos hablado
(we will have spoken). There are three main perfect tenses in the indicative: present perfect, past
perfect, and future perfect. They are “perfect” or “pefective”, as opposed to “imperfect” or
“imperfective”, in the sense that they portray an action or state as completed and not in progress, from
the point of view of present, past, or future time, respectively.
The perfect tenses in Spanish are formed with:
1.
2.
The helping verb haber, in the appropriate tense and mood, plus:
The masculine singular form of the past participle.
Past participles are normally formed by taking the infinitive, dropping off the last two letters, and
adding -ado for -ar verbs, or -ido for -er and -ir verbs:
hablar > hablado (spoken), comer > comido (eaten), vivir > vivido (lived)
Second- and third-conjugation verbs whose stems end in a vowel need a written accent mark:
leer > leído; oír > oído. Some verbs with irregular past participles include:
abrir
abierto
opened
cubrir
cubierto
closed, shut
decir
dicho
said, told
describir
descrito
described
descubrir descubierto discovered
devolver
devuelto
returned, given back
escribir
escrito
written
hacer
hecho
done, made
morir
muerto
died, dead
poner
puesto
put, placed, set
romper
roto
broken, torn
ver
visto
seen
volver
vuelto
returned
35 | P á g i n a
36
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Note: Compound words based on these roots typically show these same irregularities: componer > compuesto;
deshacer > deshecho; oponer > opuesto; suponer > supuesto; prever > previsto.
II.
The present perfect tense [el perfecto or el presente perfecto]:
To form the present perfect, use the present tense of haber plus the masculine singular form of
the past participle:
he hablado
I have spoken
has hablado
you have spoken
ha hablado
he/she has spoken
hemos hablado we have spoken
habéis hablado you have spoken
han hablado
they have spoken
Yo digo que ella lo ha hecho. I say that she has done it.
Ya hemos visto la película.
We've already seen the film.
The present perfect may be used to indicate an action or state as having occurred —and having
been completed— prior to the present time. It is used in almost exactly the same way as we use it
in English, with two exceptions:
1.
The present perfect is NOT used to indicate an action still in progress. To express an ongoing
action which began in the past, the present tense is used:
Hace cuatro años que vivo aquí. I have lived (have been living) here for four years.
2.
To express the idea “to have just (done something)”, Spanish typically employs the present of
acabar de plus the infinitive, for example:
Acabo de oír la noticia.
I just heard the news [item].
Acabamos de poner el televisor. We have just turned on the TV.
Note: acabar literally means to finish or to end.
36 | P á g i n a
37
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
III.
The past perfect tense [el pluscuamperfecto]:
To form the past perfect, use the imperfect of haber plus the masculine singular form of the past
participle:
había hablado
I had spoken
habías hablado
you had spoken
había hablado
he/she had spoken
habíamos hablado we had spoken
habíais hablado
you had spoken
habían hablado
they had spoken
Juan dijo que había viajado a México. John said that he had traveled to Mexico.
A past-time situation is normally indicated by the preterit and imperfect, for example by dijo in
the above example. The past perfect tense (e.g., había viajado) views an action or state as
having occurred —and been completed— at a time prior to another past action, state or time
(e.g., dijo). It is used in almost exactly the same way as we use it in English, with the following
exceptions:
1.
2.
The past perfect is NOT used to indicate an action which began in previous past time and is still
in progress in (simple) past time; the imperfect tense is used for this purpose:
Hacía cuatro años que vivíamos aquí.
We had lived (had been living) here for four
years.
Trabajaban en el proyecto desde hacía seis
horas.
They had been working on the project for six
hours.
¿Cuánto tiempo llevabas mirando la tele?
How long had you been watching TV?
To express the idea “to had just (done something)”, Spanish usually employs the imperfect of
acabar de plus the infinitive, for example:
Acababa de oír la noticia.
I had just heard the news [item].
Acabábamos de poner el televisor. We had just turned on the TV [set].
37 | P á g i n a
38
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
IV.
The future perfect tense [el futuro perfecto]:
To form the future perfect, use the future of haber plus the masculine singular form of the past
participle:
habré hablado
I will have spoken
habrás hablado
you will have spoken
habrá hablado
he/she will have spoken
habremos hablado we will have spoken
habréis hablado
you will have spoken
habrán hablado
they will have spoken
This tense views an action or state as having occurred —and been completed— at some time in
the future. It is used in almost exactly the same way as we use it in English, for example:
Juan habrá salido para las ocho.
Juan will have left by eight o'clock.
Todos habrán terminado la composición para
mañana.
Everyone will have finished their compositions by
tomorrow.
As you already know, the future tense can be used to indicate conjecture in present time (that is,
to replace the present tense and an equivalent of “probably”):
Ahora serán las tres. Right now it is probably 3:00.
Similarly, the future perfect tense can be used to indicate conjecture or probability in past time;
specifically, it may be used to replace the preterit or present perfect tense and an equivalent of
“probably”:
¿Ese ruido? Habrá sido el gato. That noise? It must have been the cat.
Marta ya habrá salido.
38 | P á g i n a
Martha (has) probably already left.
39
EL REPASO DE ESPAÑOL 4
Inevitably, this review is for you…include what you need (with
respect to explanations)…Additionally, if you find an online source
that could assist you…ADD IT. This review book is for YOUR
benefit.
To complete this review, include the following:
Vocabulary Lists
Transitional Expressions
Your Acronym Handout (Weirdo or Wedding) for the Subjunctive
Mood
39 | P á g i n a