T.C. Mersin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İngiliz Dili ve
... situation). Of these features, non-factuality is the common one for both epistemic and
deontic modality and is used as basis to many linguistic researches. These two types are
also named as root and epistemic modality (Bybee et al. 1994; Papafragou, 1998, 2000;
Coates, 1983), since the deontic meani ...
The subjunctive in Spanish
... heard in everyday speech, and is usually reserved for literature, archaic phrases and
expressions, and legal documents. Phrases expressing the subjunctive in a future period
instead employ the present subjunctive. For example: "I hope that it will rain tomorrow"
would simply be "Espero que llueva ma ...
... has been, or ever can be, devised, will be subject to harsh criticism, since practically every
unit of grammar has it proponents who demand for it a position at the first part of the book.
The whole problem consists in putting main things first and in relegating things of lesser
importance to the la ...
Tense and Aspect Systems
... reference in order to choose correctly among the forms traditionally
called 'tenses'. Likewise, it is equally or even more common that
speakers have to choose among different forms called 'aspects' and
'moods', the semantics of which tends to be even more elusive than
that of tenses.
Tenses, moods, ...
the present perfect: an exercise in the study of events
... that the two structures once shared similar meanings in recent history (Boléo 1936,
Suter 1984). Since this study is synchronic in nature and not diachronic, the comparison
between the PPC and PrP seems relevant.
With respect to the general objective, the present dissertation follows Campos’
Introduction to the Subjunctive Mood
... The mood of a verb, sometimes known as its mode, indicates what type of role it plays in a
sentence and/or the speaker's attitude toward it. For the most part, in English as well as Spanish,
the most common verb mood is the indicative mood. In general, it is the "normal" verb form,
indicating both a ...
... While Ancient (especially Archaic/Classical) Greek is commonly considered a ‘synthetic’
language,1 it cannot be denied that in the course of time it developed a set of periphrastic
constructions, most prominently with the verbs εἰµί “I am” and ἔχω “I have” (accompanied by
a (active/middle/passive) p ...
as a PDF
... One of the questions that have challenged scholars of BH for many years is whether the
language should be regarded as a tense, aspectual or modal language. In this thesis, I argue
that the lack and application of a metacategory for describing any language in general, and
BH in particular, has been t ...
Mood in Spanish - Hal-SHS
... immediate clue as to what this contribution is. (2b) is an instance of a double access
configuration, in which the time of the subordinate clause is calculated with Utt-Time as
anchor (Kempchinsky 1990): the requested arrival must follow Utt-Time. On the other hand,
(3b) contrasts with (3c): the arr ...
- White Rose eTheses Online
... This study investigates the existence and use of Tense Aspect and Voice (TAV) in
Modern standard Arabic (MSA) and Libyan Dialects (LD) and the effect of these
language systems, particularly „Libyan dialects (LD)‟on the acquisition and use of
the English (TAV) by Libyan university students. This stud ...
uniwersytet miko łaja kopernika
... expression in the standard literary language. It shall also be acknowledged
that we will not discuss structural and morphosyntactical properties of the
construction such as, for instance, intransitivity and its relation to transitive
forms (for a detailed analysis of the phenomenon of valency, and t ...
Encoding focus in Kanuri verbal morphology
... intriguing interface with polarity (Wolff, in press). In the light of this work on
the Chadic languages spoken in the Chadic-Saharan contact area of NorthEastern Nigeria, the authors set out to explore the hypothesis of potential
typological convergence in Kanuri, which is a Saharan language of Nilo ...
... of J variables can be derived analogously. In general, the number of observed characteristics J need not be the
same across subjects, and the number of replications R need not be the same across observed characteristics.
One can derive examples of mixed membership models from this general set up by ...
Did You Get It? Práctica de gramática
... decide where you want to go and the route (la ruta), you go to the ticket window (la
taquilla) at the train station to buy a ticket. Be sure to ask for a window seat (una
ventanilla) so that you can enjoy the landscape (el paisaje) as you travel. Your ticket
will contain necessary information, such ...
null object constructions in standard spanish revisited* 111
... argument position of the verb is properly governed by being lexically governed by
the verb "comprar"l8. Therefore sentence (7) complies with the analysis postulated
by Campos ( 1986). Yet a construction like (8) stands as a problem for his analysis.
If we maintain Campos' variable analysis for indef ...
Spring Term 2011- Ileana Baciu
... from ‘He is on/at working’ (in time, the prepositions, reduced to a or o, disappeared).
Languages like Romanian, French or Old Greek make use of syncretic means to signal
the opposition (i.e., the grammatical markers of Aspect have fused with those of Tense). For
instance, the Romanian prezent and i ...
Aspect and assertion in Mandarin Chinese
... If it is said that aspects are different ways of ‘viewing’ a situation, then
it is not at all clear what ‘viewing’ means here. It cannot have its literal
meaning: events, states, processes, in short, situations are not like houses
or little dogs which you can ‘view’ – they are abstract entities whic ...
Distinguishing Two “Synonyms” - Cascadilla Proceedings Project
... saying that the use of subjunctive is optional leads us to believe that mood choice is completely
random, or at best correlates with “possibility”. Secondly, although Butt and Benjamin claim that it
would be ungrammatical to say “quizás viene manaña” since the event is still in the future, for many
The English present tense - Cambridge University Press
... characterization. The conception of the arm thus functions as their immediate scope,
which ± being the general locus of attention ± is more prominent in these expressions
than are other parts of the body.
There is considerable linguistic motivation for adopting the notion immediate
scope (Langacker, ...
On past participles and their external arguments
... Voice, a passive past participle is formed. In the latter case, Voice is itself
selected by a functional head, Pass, that satisfies the selectional requirements
of Voice (see Bruening, to appear). The technicalities are elaborated on in
detail in section 4.
If past participles have the possibility o ...
... subjunctive if you need a past tense:
I doubt that he studies. – “he studies” would be
I doubt that he studied. – “he studied” would be
Tense–aspect–mood, commonly abbreviated tam and also called tense–modality–aspect or tma, is the grammatical system of a language that covers the expression of tense (location in time), aspect (fabric of time – a single block of time, continuous flow of time, or repetitive occurrence), and mood or modality (degree of necessity, obligation, probability, ability). In some cases, evidentiality (whether evidence exists for the statement, and if so what kind) may also be included.The term is convenient because it is often difficult to untangle these features of a language. Often any two of tense, aspect, and mood (or all three) may be conveyed by a single grammatical construction, but this system may not be complete in that not all possible combinations may have an available construction. In other cases there may not be clearly delineated categories of tense and mood, or aspect and mood.For instance, many Indo-European languages do not clearly distinguish tense from aspect. In some languages, such as Spanish and Modern Greek, the imperfective aspect is fused with the past tense in a form traditionally called the imperfect. Other languages with distinct past imperfectives include Latin and Persian.In the traditional grammatical description of some languages, including English, many Romance languages, and Greek and Latin, ""tense"" or the equivalent term in that language refers to a set of inflected or periphrastic verb forms that express a combination of tense, aspect, and mood. In Spanish, the simple conditional (Spanish: condicional simple) is classified as one of the simple tenses (Spanish: tiempos simples), but is named for the mood (conditional) that it expresses. In Ancient Greek, the perfect tense (Ancient Greek: χρόνος παρακείμενος khrónos parakeímenos) is a set of forms that express both present tense and perfect aspect (finite forms), or simply perfect aspect (non-finite forms).Not all languages conflate tense, aspect, and mood, however; close to a theoretically ideal distinction, with separate grammatical markers for tense, aspect, and mood, is made in some analytic languages such as creole languages.