Download Number 53: 2011 - New Zealand Marine Sciences Society

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New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Annual Review 53 2012 New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Review 53 June 2012 documenting research in marine science throughout New Zealand in 2011 Cover photo: Sediment ‘volcanoes’ in the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary, Christchurch resulting from liquefaction during the February and June 2011 earthquakes. Photo by Kristin Scheuer. Edited by Stacie Lilley, June 2012 I would like to thank Helen Kettles, Kerry O’Connell, Colin McLay and Mike Hickford for helping out with various aspects of this review. I would also like to thank those of you who have made and collected contributions for this year’s review. Your time and effort is very much appreciated. Prepared by the NZMSS for distribution to members ISSN: 1170‐8352
Table of contents New Zealand Marine Sciences Society .................................................................................. 4 About the Society ......................................................................................................................... 4 The Society Council ...................................................................................................................... 5 Society Rules ................................................................................................................................ 6 NZMSS On‐Line ................................................................................................................... 11 Minutes of the 2011 Annual General Meeting .................................................................... 12 Annual Financial Report ...................................................................................................... 16 Presidents Report – AGM – 2011 ........................................................................................ 18 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund ............................................................................... 20 Tommaso Alestra – FOCTF Report to NZMSS Council ............................................................... 21 Emma Beatson ‐ FOCTF Report to NZMSS Council .................................................................... 22 Sergio Carrasco – FOCTF Report to NZMSS Council .................................................................. 22 Elanor Miller – FOCTF Report to NZMSS Council ....................................................................... 25 Adam Smith – FOCTF Report to NZMSS Council ........................................................................ 26 Mareike Sudek – FOCTF Report to NZMSS Council ................................................................... 28 Andrea Varela – FOCTF Report to NZMSS Council..................................................................... 29 NZMSS Student Research Grant .......................................................................................... 30 Danilo Pecorino 2011 Student Research Grant Report ............................................................. 32 The New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Award ............................................................... 39 NZMSS Award Past Winners ...................................................................................................... 40 New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research .................................................. 41 NZMSS Conference 2011 ..................................................................................................... 42 Welcome from the Host Organisation ................................................................................. 42 Prizes Awarded .......................................................................................................................... 43 Abstracts for Keynote Presentations ........................................................................................ 44 Simon Thrush ............................................................................................................................. 45 Katherine Baer‐Jones ................................................................................................................. 46 Malcolm Francis ......................................................................................................................... 47 Mary Livingston .......................................................................................................................... 48 Alison Ballance ........................................................................................................................... 49 1 Chris Mace.................................................................................................................................. 50 Neville Peat ................................................................................................................................ 51 Mark Orams ............................................................................................................................... 52 Abstracts for oral presentations .......................................................................................... 53 Abstracts for poster presentations ...................................................................................... 98 Research News ................................................................................................................. 120 Auckland Council ...................................................................................................................... 121 Cawthron Institute ................................................................................................................... 123 Department of Conservation ................................................................................................... 135 Environment Canterbury ......................................................................................................... 143 Geomarine Research .............................................................................................................. 1455 Greater Wellington Regional Council ...................................................................................... 147 Hawkes Bay Regional Council .................................................................................................. 150 Massey University (Auckland and Palmerston North) ............................................................. 151 Museum of New Zealand – Te Papa Tongarewa ..................................................................... 161 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ‐ Christchurch ............................... 163 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ‐ Greta Point ................................. 170 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ‐ Hamilton ..................................... 198 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd – Mahanga Bay ............................. 200 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ‐ Nelson......................................... 204 New Zealand Rock Lobster Industry Council ........................................................................... 206 Northland Regional Council ..................................................................................................... 210 Marlborough District Council ................................................................................................... 213 University of Auckland ............................................................................................................. 215 University of Canterbury – School of Biological Sciences ........................................................ 217 University of Canterbury – Department of Geography, Coastal Studies ................................. 224 University of Otago – Department of Marine Science ............................................................ 227 Victoria University of Wellington ............................................................................................. 237 Waikato Regional Council ........................................................................................................ 245 Recent Publications .......................................................................................................... 247 Cawthron Institute ................................................................................................................... 248 Department of Conservation ................................................................................................... 249 2 Geomarine Research ................................................................................................................ 251 Massey University (Auckland and Palmerston North) ............................................................. 251 Museum of New Zealand – Te Papa Tongarewa ..................................................................... 279 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ....................................................... 255 New Zealand Rock Lobster Industry Council ........................................................................... 280 University of Auckland ............................................................................................................. 280 University of Canterbury – School of Biological Sciences ........................................................ 288 University of Canterbury – Department of Geography, Coastal Studies ................................. 289 University of Otago – Department of Marine Science ............................................................ 290 Victoria University of Wellington ............................................................................................. 295 Reports and Popular Articles ............................................................................................. 297 Auckland Council ...................................................................................................................... 298 Cawthron Institute ................................................................................................................... 298 Department of Conservation ................................................................................................... 298 Environment Canterbury ......................................................................................................... 298 Geomarine Research ................................................................................................................ 299 Greater Wellington Regional Council ...................................................................................... 299 Massey University (Auckland and Palmerston North) ............................................................ 300 Museum of New Zealand – Te Papa Tongarewa ..................................................................... 302 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ....................................................... 303 University of Canterbury .......................................................................................................... 312 University of Otago – Department of Marine Science ............................................................ 313 Victoria University of Wellington ............................................................................................. 313 Waikato Regional Council ........................................................................................................ 314 3 About the Society The New Zealand Marine Sciences Society is a non‐profit organization formed in 1960 to foster an understanding and appreciation of our marine environment, to provide a means of communication within our marine science community, to encourage and assist marine science students and young scientists, and to provide advice to government on marine policy issues. The NZMSS membership for 2011/12 consisted of: 170 Full members, 9 Institutional members, 111 Student members, 19 Life members and 3 Retired members. Subscription rates for 2010‐2011 were: Full member $55.00 Student member $20.00 Retired member $20.00 The NZMSS holds an annual conference, usually between July and September, in conjunction with the Annual General Meeting. Student participation is strongly encouraged, and the Society awards student prizes each year. Students who present their research at the conference are also eligible for assistance with their travel costs. Members receive the annual review, which details abstracts from the preceding conference, activities of the society, summaries of research activities, and lists of recent publications. The review is available as a pdf file from the Society website, or as printed hardcopy upon request. Inquiries and correspondence should be addressed to: The Secretary, Helen Kettles ([email protected]) Wellington Hawke's Bay Conservancy Department of Conservation —Te Papa Atawhai PO Box 5086 181 Thorndon Quay Wellington 6145 Membership inquiries should be directed to: Membership Secretary, Kerry South ([email protected]) 4 The Society Council: 2011‐2012 President: Colin McLay (U Canterbury) ` [email protected] Vice President: Mary Livingston (MFish) [email protected] Secretary: Helen Kettles (DOC) [email protected] Treasurer: Chris Cornelisen (Cawthron) [email protected] Council Members: Drew Lohrer (NIWA) [email protected] Kathy Walls (MAFBNZ) [email protected] Ann McCrone (DOC) [email protected] Mark Costello (U Auckland) [email protected] Conrad Pilditch (U Waikato) [email protected] Mike Hickford (U Canterbury) [email protected] Simon Thrush (NIWA) [email protected] Liz Slooten (U Otago) [email protected] Marc Orams (AUT) [email protected] Darren Parsons (NIWA) [email protected] Student Representatives: Phil Ross (U Waikato) [email protected] Lauren Fletcher (Victoria Uni.) [email protected] Zeenatul Basher (U Auckland) [email protected] Patricia Mockett (U Otago) [email protected] Sue Adkins (U Canterbury) [email protected] Tiffany Stephens (U Otago) [email protected] Review Editor: Stacie Lilley (U Canterbury) [email protected] Membership Secretary: Kerry South (South Events) [email protected] Webmaster: Kerry South (South Events) [email protected] 2011 Conference Organiser: Gary Wilson (U Otago) [email protected] 5 Society Rules 1. NAME The name of the Society shall be the New Zealand Marine Sciences Society, hereinafter called the Society. 2. OBJECTS The objects of the Society shall be: (a) To encourage and assist marine research in New Zealand. (b) To provide means of communication among persons interested in research in the marine sciences and to provide opportunity for them to foregather by the holding of an annual conference. (c) To act as spokesman when required, on behalf of the interests of marine research in New Zealand. (d) To co‐operate with other scientific bodies and to seek such affiliations as may be appropriate. 3. MEMBERSHIP (a) Members shall be classified as follows: (i) Full New Zealand Members and New Zealand Institutions (ii) Student Members (of New Zealand educational institutions) (iii) Overseas Members and Institutions (iv) Retired Members (v) Honorary Life Members (vi) Corporate Members (b) The Council may elect any person as an ordinary member of the Society on recommendation of two members (2) of the Society. (c) Any member who has given outstanding service to marine science in New Zealand may, on the recommendation of the Council, be elected as an Honorary Member at any Annual or Special General Meeting. (d) Any member of the Society may resign by giving notice in writing to the Secretary and paying all subscriptions due; provided that any member giving such notice before 30th April shall not be liable to pay the subscription for that year. (e) Any member whose annual subscription is more than two years in arrears shall be removed from membership of the Society and may be re‐admitted by resolution of the Council on payment of all arrear 6 4. SUBSCRIPTION (a) The annual subscription shall be one dollar ($1.00) or such other sum as any Annual or Special General Meeting shall from time to time decide. (b) The first subscription for membership shall be forwarded to the Secretary or Secretary/Treasurer with the completed application form. (c) All subscriptions after the first shall become due and payable on the first day of each financial year. (d) Each person elected as a member shall be given notice thereof in writing by the Secretary. (e) Any member requiring a copy of the rules of the Society may do so by requesting a copy from the Secretary. (f) In exceptional circumstances the Council may by resolution remit the payment of an annual subscription or part thereof. 5. OFFICERS The Officers of the Society shall consist of a President, a Vice‐President, a Secretary and a Treasurer (or a Secretary‐Treasurer), a Membership Secretary and an Auditor, all of whom except the Auditor shall be members of the Society. 6. COUNCIL (a) The Council shall consist of the following: (i)The officers except the Auditor (ii)The Immediate Past President (iii)A minimum of five (5) members elected by the Annual General Meeting. (b) The President, Vice‐President, Secretary and Treasurer (or Secretary‐Treasurer) shall be elected by successive ballots in that order at the Annual General Meeting. (c) The members of the Council shall be elected by ballot at the Annual General Meeting after the officers have been elected. (d) Candidates for positions as officers or members of the Council shall be nominated by members of the Society at the Annual General Meeting, or in writing signed by any two (2) members, received by the Secretary before the time of such meeting. Every candidate shall before election signify personally or in writing his or her acceptance of nomination. (e) All officers and members of Council shall be eligible for immediate re‐election PROVIDED ALWAYS that no person having held the same office either of President or Vice‐
President for two successive years shall be eligible for immediate re‐election to that office. 7 (f) The Council shall have powers to appoint members of the Society to fill any casual vacancies. (g) The officers and Council shall take office immediately after the close of the Annual General Meeting at which they are elected and shall have full control of the management of the Society except where otherwise provided in these rules. (h) At any meeting of the Council four (4) shall form a quorum (i) The Council may delegate any of its powers and duties to sub‐committees consisting of such member or members of the Society as it may resolve, provided that at least one member (1) of each sub‐committee shall be a member of the Council, and may grant to such sub‐committees the power to co‐opt other persons whether members of the Society or not. (j) Meetings of the Council shall be called by the Secretary (or Secretary Treasurer) on the instructions of the President or on the receipt of a requisition signed by not less than four (4) members of the Council. 7. FINANCES (a) The control and investment of the funds of the Society shall be wholly within the power of the Council, which may open and operate accounts at any bank or banks as it deems fit, including the Post Office Savings Bank. The Trustees of any such accounts shall be the Treasurer (or Secretary‐ Treasurer) and any two officers or members of the Council appointed by the Council for that purpose, cheques and withdrawal warrants shall be signed by any two of the Trustees. (b) The Treasurer (or Secretary‐Treasurer) shall keep a correct account of all funds received and expended by the Society, and shall prepare at the end of each financial year a Balance Sheet and Statement of Accounts for that year. (c) The accounts of the Society shall be audited at the end of each financial year by an Auditor, who shall hold professional qualifications in accountancy. The Auditor shall be appointed each year at the Annual General Meeting. (d) The financial year of the Society shall end on the 31st March in each year. (e) The Society shall not have the power to borrow money. 8. MEETINGS (a) The Society shall hold at least one General Meeting in each financial year. At one such meeting there shall be a business session, which shall constitute the Annual General Meeting of the Society. At this meeting the Society shall: 8 (i) Receive from the Council a Report, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Accounts for the preceding financial year. (ii) Elect the Officers and Council and appoint an Auditor for the ensuing year. (iii) Decide on any motion which may be duly submitted to the meeting. (b) A Special General Meeting shall be held at any time by resolution of the Council or within six weeks of receipt by the Secretary of a requisition signed by at least ten (10) members specifying the purpose for which the meeting is to be called. (c) Notice and agenda of each Annual and Special General Meeting shall be posted to each member at least fourteen days before that meeting. At any Special General Meeting no motion not included in the notice calling the meeting may be proposed, discussed, or put to vote except by consent of two thirds of the members present. (d) The Annual Report, Balance Sheet and Statement of Accounts for each financial year shall be posted to all members at least fourteen days before the next Annual General Meeting. (e) At any Annual or Special General Meeting fifteen (15) members shall constitute a quorum. (f) At any Annual or Special General Meeting, or Council Meeting, the chair shall be taken by the President, or if the President is absent the Vice‐President, or failing him a member elected by the meeting. (g) At any meeting voting shall be on the voices or by show of hands or by ballot at the discretion of the chairman PROVIDED THAT if any member so demand, voting shall be by ballot. The chairman shall have a deliberative and casting vote. 9. ALTERATION OF RULES (a) Any alteration, addition, or recession in these rules shall be made only at an Annual or Special General Meeting. (b) Notice of the proposed alteration, addition, or recession shall be posted to every member at least fourteen days prior to the meeting. (c) The meeting may amend any such proposals. (d) No resolution shall effect any alteration of these rules unless assented to by two‐thirds of the members present at the meeting. (e) No addition to or alteration of the rules affecting the Society’s non‐profit aims or winding up clause shall be made without the approval of the Inland Revenue Department, and the provisions and effect of this clause shall not be removed from this document and shall be included and implied into any document replacing this document. 9 10. INTERPRETATION OF THE RULES The decision of the Council as to the interpretation of these rules shall be final and binding on all parties except at any Annual or Special General Meeting when the decision of the chairman of such meeting will be final and binding on all parties. 11. COMMON SEAL The common seal of the Society shall be in the custody of the Secretary (or Secretary‐
Treasurer), who shall in pursuance of a resolution of the Council to that effect, affix the same to all instruments requiring the same. 12. WINDING UP If upon winding up or dissolution of the organization there remains after the satisfaction of all its debts and liabilities any property whatsoever, it shall not be paid to or distributed among the members but shall be given or transferred to an income tax exempt organization with similar objectives or to some other charitable purpose within New Zealand. 13. AWARDS Periodically the Council of the Society may present an award to any person who they feel has made an outstanding contribution to marine science. 10 NZMSS On‐Line Members are encouraged to take advantage of the following online options: The NZMSS Website: • Listings of contact details for Society officers • Guidelines and application forms for annual student grants • The Society Rules • Previous NZMSS Annual Reviews • Copies of submissions made on behalf of the Society to government The Marine Sciences List Server The list server is run through Google Groups. To join please send a blank email to: nzmss‐[email protected] To send information out via the NZMSS list server please send it in an email to: nzmss‐[email protected] *Please note that the list server is moderated and may take ~1‐4 days to go out. Membership and Conference Registration Members are now able to submit their annual dues and current member details via the ‘Membership’ page. Conference registration also now occurs through NZMSS’s ‘Conference; web page with some exceptions when alternative arrangements are made for jointly held conferences. 11 Minutes for 51th AGM of NZMSS Community Centre, Oban, Stewart Island. July 7th 2011, 12‐1pm Present: Mary Livingston (Chair), Helen Kettles (Minutes), Chris Cornelisen, Helen Bostock, Simon Thrush, Kathy Walls, Miao Wong, Danilo Pecorino, Sourav Paul, Tiffany Stephens, Lucy Jack, Andrew Stewart, Mark Lokman, Alvin Setiawan, Erin Zydervelt, Rebecca McLeod, Liz Slooten, Mark Orams, Karen Baird, Judi Hewitt, Drew Lohrer, Ivan F. Rodil, Mike Townsend, Joanne Povey, Sheri Johnson, Andrew Bell, Richard O’Driscoll, Bjorn Leigh, Phil Ross, Darren Parsons, Doray Webber, Rohan Currey, Matt Desmond, Caitlin Chew, Roray Kyle, Patricia Mockett, Sally Carson, Steve Cutler, Zach Powell, Zhalek Adhami, Patila Amosa, Sylvia Sander, Katja Schweikert, Eleanor Bors, Shane Geange, Bob Hickman, Liz Jones, Chris Paulin, Steve Dawson, Dave Lundquist, Pete Wilson, Paul Caiger, Andrew Gorman, Miles Lamare, Marine Pomarede, Greg Lydon, Finlay Thompson, Steve Parker, Zeenatul Basher, Sunkita Howard, Varnon Pickett, Amandine Sabel, Birthe Kortner, Katherine Baer Jones, Toyin Adu, Jennifer Rock, Michael Roleda, Jaz Morris, Chris Hepburn, Chris Cornwall, Derek Richards, Rebecca James, Rocio Suarez‐Jimenenz, Sruthi Thalayappil R.S., Muhammed Nayeem Mullungal, Carolyn Lindquist, Tyler Eddy, Jim Fyfe, Kris Ramm, Edward Abraham, Rochelle Constantine, Gary Wilson, Helen Neil, Julie Brown, Islay Marsden, Sarah Bury, Robyn Dunmore, Deanne Clement, Alan Orpin (89). 1. Apologies Colin McLay, Alison MacDiarmid, Conrad Pilditch, Mike Hickford, Kerry O’Connell, Jenny Stanley, Lynda Guildford, Elanor Hutchinson, Ann McCrone, Mark Costello, Megan Carbines, Kareen Schabnel (12). 2. Minutes of the 2010 AGM Judi Hewitt moved the minutes be accepted, seconded by Liz Slooten. 3. Matters arising from Minutes To be noted in the 2010 minutes that Mark Costello was present at the AGM. No other matters were raised. 4. Reports a. President ‐ Colin McLay. Mary presented the President’s Report in Colin’s absence. She emphasised that it is not too late to input ideas for the 2012 conference. She also encouraged people to join the Council or one of the portfolio groups. There were no matters arising. b. Treasurer ‐ Chris Cornelisen Chris apologised for not having the audit from the previous year for the AGM (the 2010 conference budgets are still to be completed by the organising committee). He gave an update on the savings and cheque accounts. All online banking has now been combined 12 and it is much easier to put GST returns together. Helen Kettles is going to be an additional signatory to the account. Chris presented the budgets but the full breakdown will be in the audit. We spent the $15,000 budgeted for FOCTA and Research award and Chris recommended keeping the budget at the same level. Other societies charge about the same fees but we are slightly different in that the charge for institutes is similar to individual membership. Chris asked for ideas for spending or investing the Society funds. Examples of ideas are awards for young scientist, technician, policy reports, increasing the support for overseas conferences. There were no further comments from those present. Members can pass on ideas to Chris or email Council later. c. Membership Secretary ‐ Kerry O’Connell Mary read through the Membership Secretary Report. There were no questions. 5. Matters arising from reports. There was an endorsement from those attending that the Council input into Oceans Policy via the portfolio group. Phil Ross moved that the reports be accepted. This was seconded by Drew Lohrer. 6. Election of Officers The following officers’ re‐election were confirmed: President (Colin McLay, University of Canterbury) Vice President (Mary Livingston, Ministry of Fisheries) Secretary (Helen Kettles, Department of Conservation) Treasurer (Chris Cornelisen, Cawthron Institute) Kathy Walls moved that we accept these positions. It was seconded by Steve Dawson Council (at least 5) Council members not restanding for the coming year were: Megan Stewart‐Carbines (Auckland Regional Council), Alison MacDiarmid (NIWA), Kareen Schnabel (NIWA), James Bell (University of Victoria), Rebecca McLeod (University of Otago), Hilke Giles (Environment Waikato). Nine of the existing Council members are restanding: Drew Lohrer (NIWA), Kathy Walls (MAFBNZ), Ann McCrone (DOC), Mark Costello (University of Auckland), Mike Hickford (University of Canterbury), Simon Thrush (NIWA), Liz Slooten (University of Otago), Kerry O’Connell (University of Canterbury), Mary Livingston (MFish) There was uncertainty about whether Conrad Pilditch (University of Waikato) was restanding as there has been some discussion about Chris Battershill standing for Council and being a representative for Waikato. 13 Two new Council members were nominated: Mark Orams (AUT) and Darren Parsons (NIWA). With only two nominations we would be four fewer on Council this year if all others were also accepted. There was discussion on the optimal number of Council members to work effectively. It was felt that there were currently too many. However, not all attend every meeting as people have fieldwork and various other commitments. The Council will discuss further and look at amending the constitution in the coming year. It was agreed the number on Council for the coming year would be sufficient. Steve Dawson proposed we accept the nine Council members who are restanding plus the two new nominated members. This was seconded by Chris Paulin. Student Reps (at least 3 required) Two of the existing student representatives were restanding: Phil Ross (University of Waikato), Lauren Fletcher (Victoria University of Wellington). The following reps were standing down: Jenni Stanley (University of Auckland), Lynda Gullford (AUT), Elanor Hutchinson (University of Otago), Jennifer Skilton (University of Canterbury). The following students were nominated to allow for regional representation: Patricia Mockett (University of Otago) Tiffany Stephens (University of Otago) Sue Adkins (University of Canterbury) Zeenatul Basher (University of Auckland) Drew Lohrer proposed we accept the nominations. This was seconded by Neil Barr. 7. General Business a. Council advocacy and guidelines document There was little time for discussion on the guidelines but it was reiterated by the Chair that members can provide comments directly to the Council. The draft Guidelines have been sent out on the listserve. Members were reminded about how to join the listserve. Comments were requested by email before Friday 22 July. b. Call for advocacy portfolios groups and members There are currently two portfolio groups. A third group on Science Communication was proposed from the floor. It would be good to have other members on these groups. It is good to have people with a range of expertise e.g. not just biological/physical systems knowledge but legal and legislative backgrounds. Again there was little time for discussion but the contribution of ideas was welcomed. 14 c. Conferences 2012 – Is scheduled as joint conference with AMSA in Hobart, Tasmania 1‐5 July 2012. Bob and Kathy are currently our representatives on the conference committees. We will need to form a larger group to input into this later. 2013 – Hamilton joint with ASFA and NZ Freshwater Society. 2014 – Will be in the South Island. The following locations were suggested: Kaikoura, Hokitika, Nelson, Westport, Blackball. The meeting closed on time at 1.00 pm. 15 Financial Report Profit and Loss Account for the year ended 31 March 2011 2011
Income Subscriptions Received 13,569
Conference Net Income 6,066
Interest Received 3,249
Total Income 22,884
Audit Fees 595
Bank Fees 470
Council and General Expenses 2,846
First Overseas Conference Travel Awards 8,600
Honorarium – Secretary/Website
GST Arrears and Penalties 0
NZ Marine Sciences Review 1,964
NZMSS Award Sculpture 0
Royal Society of NZ ‐ affiliation fees 631
Student Research Award 5,330
Website Development 0
(Deficit) of Income over Expenditure for year
New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Balance Sheet as at 31 March 2011
Members Funds Balance 1 April 66,050
(Deficit) of Income over Expenditure for Year
Balance 31 March $65,498
Represented by: Westpac Cheque Account 3,588
Westpac Conference Bank Accounts
Sculptures on Hand 4,900
Accounts Receivable 378
Westpac – Term Investments
Less Accounts Payable 8,830
16 2010 6,573 8,178 2,794 17,545 556 371 2,334 19,500 0 784 1,466 700 631 4,000 1,500 31,842 $(14,297) 2010 80,347 (14,297) $66,050 2,060 0 4,900 2,306 58,284 67,550 1,500 $66,050 Notes to the Financial Statements Statement of General Accounting Policies These financial statements have been prepared using the historical cost method. Accrual accounting has been used except as noted below, and reliance has been placed on the Society being a going concern. Statement of Particular Accounting Policies All subscription receipts have been accounted for on a cash basis. These financial statements were prepared on a Goods and Services Tax (GST) exclusive basis. Changes in Accounting Policies There have been no changes in accounting policy. All policies have been applied on bases consistent with the previous year. First Overseas Conference Travel Awards Hazel Needham Hannah Jones Kathryn Lister Sergio Carrasco Andrea Varela Tommaso Alestra Adam Smith 2010/2011 2009/2010 500 600 500 1,000 1,000 2,500 2,500 $8,600 $19,500 There was no income specifically designated for the First Overseas Conference Travel Fund. Student Research Awards ‐ Katherine Jones and Danilo Pecorino NZMSS Award Sculpture – No award (2010 – Dr Simon Thrush) Accounts Receivable GST Refund $378 FOCTA awards – March/April round 7,000 Research Award 1,830 Total $8,830 Accounts Payable 17 NZMSS Presidential Report 2011 The New Zealand Marine Sciences Society (NZMSS) is a professional society of New Zealand’s marine scientists, affiliated to the Royal Society of New Zealand. We believe that the quality of use and protection of the New Zealand marine environment will be enhanced by the application of scientific knowledge and research. We must work together for a better future so that we leave a quality environment, high in biodiversity with adequate resources for posterity: this vital issue is in the public interest and should not be compromised for private gain. Perhaps most importantly we support the idea that balanced and sustainable use of the sea requires areas to be set aside where marine life can regenerate and seed surrounding areas. We support, encourage and assist marine research by students registered for post‐
graduate degrees in New Zealand. Grants for students to assist their research and attend their first overseas conference are awarded as funds allow. In return successful applicants are asked to provide a report on benefits of the award. In addition student attendance to present their work at our annual conference is subsidized. Funding for student assistance comes from conference profits, sponsorships and donations to the Society. The 2010‐2011 year has been very active and I outline below some of the tasks that we have undertaken and completed: •
NZMSS has a new logo that not only includes the old name of the Society, but also the new Maori name, “Te Hunga Matai Moana O Aotearoa”, which was adopted at the 2010 AGM in Wellington. At this meeting NZMSS celebrated its 50th anniversary and published “50 Years of NZMSS: A History of the Society” written by Bob Hickman. Also we presented the NZMSS Award for Excellence in Marine Science to Simon Thrush, Principal Scientist and Leader in Coastal Ecosystems, NIWA, Hamilton. NZMSS has a colourful new web page where many of the documents mentioned in this Report can be downloaded ‐ . We also have a new list server through which subscribed members can circulate news of marine interest. This has effectively replaced the periodic Newsletters that were previously circulated by email. Council has developed a new Advocacy Strategy whereby we have a procedure for developing submissions on marine issues. An integral part is the appointment of “Portfolio Groups” from within Council membership, and by invited contributions from outside experts. Currently we have two Portfolios: Marine Protected Areas (MPA) and Oceans Policy (OP). Submissions prepared by these groups and made on behalf of NZMSS were: Rejection by the Minister of Conservation of the Proposed Marine Reserve in Akaroa Harbour; Proposal to Dredge and Deepen Otago Harbour; Procedure used by the Minister of Fisheries for Setting Quota for Harvesting the brown seaweed Macrocystis; Seabird Bycatch Policy; Marine Mammal Inshore Observer Bycatch 18 •
Program; Coastal Plans for the Kermadec and Sub‐Antarctic Islands; Announcement by Ministers of Conservation & Fisheries that Sub‐Antarctic Islands became the latest Marine Reserve. You can download copies of these submissions from Council is involved with planning for the 2012 Conference which will be a joint meeting in Hobart, July 1‐5, with the Australian Marine Science Association. Conference themes will include “Connectivity across the Tasman Sea” and topics of shared interest. In August 2010 several NZMSS Council Members attended the “Kermadecs Symposium” held at Te Papa, Wellington and organized by the Pew Foundation. This was a valuable meeting that drew together scientists from a wide range of disciplines, all with an interest in the future of the marine reserve and seas around the Kermadecs ( ). This is a momentous year for New Zealand Marine Science because it marks the passing of one of its best‐known and most influential identities. Professor John Morton passed away peacefully at his home on March 6 2011. He is best known for promoting the need for Marine Reserves, and other conservation issues, as well as perhaps his most influential book “The New Zealand Seashore” (1968) and its sequel “Seashore Ecology of New Zealand and the Pacific” (2004). We conveyed the sympathy of NZ Marine Scientists to his family in Auckland. We are indebted to Kerry O’Connell for much of the smooth running of the Society and for helping the Organizing Committee prepare for the 2011 Conference on Stewart Island. We are also indebted to Stacie Lilley for assembling and illustrating the “NZMSS Annual Review” #52. This is a goldmine of information and what happened in Marine Science during 2010‐2011. If you do not already have it, you can download a copy from . I invite you to join the NZMSS Council and contribute to or begin your own Portfolio Group. New Zealand is on the brink of massive changes in marine legislation and how we exploit and manage our seas: YOUR COUNTRY/COUNCIL NEEDS YOU NOW. My apologies for being unable to be with you on Stewart Island, but duty calls! Colin L. McLay President July 5 2011 19 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund (FOCTF) This fund is open to all postgraduate student members of NZMSS. The First Overseas Conference Travel Fund (FOCTF) was established by members of the Society to help young researchers present their work at an overseas conference. The Society recognises that New Zealand's geographic isolation can disadvantage emerging researchers. Outstanding research deserves to be disseminated in global venues and events, and researchers must interact with other professionals to further their knowledge and careers as marine scientists. The FOCTF was established to achieve these goals. Rules for eligibility: 1. Applicants must be enrolled in a postgraduate course of study in some aspect of marine science at a New Zealand university. 2. Applicants must be current (financial) members of NZMSS and must have presented a paper or poster at one or more NZMSS conference(s). 3. Applications will be accepted only from members attending their FIRST overseas conference and proposing to present a paper or poster. General guidelines: 1. The awards will normally be made twice a year. The deadlines for applications to be received are February 1 and August 1 in any year. Late applications will NOT be accepted. Awards may not be made if there are no suitable applicants. 2. Awards for conferences in the Pacific (including Australia) will not exceed NZ$1500. Awards for conferences elsewhere in the world will not exceed NZ$3000. The number of awards allocated following each of the two application deadlines will be at the discretion of the Council, and dependent on available funds. 3. The number and value of awards allocated following each of the two application deadlines will be at the discretion of the Council, and dependent on available funds. 4. Your application should be made on the official application form and must include the following supporting information: ∙ An abstract of the presentation of poster or paper you are giving. ∙ Your current CV, including your academic record, any previous publications, reports or theses you have authored, and any prizes or awards you have received. ∙ A letter of support from your supervisor. To obtain an application form, visit‐student‐support/ or contact the secretary. 20 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund Report Tommaso Alestra (University of Canterbury) 9th International Temperate Reefs Symposium, Plymouth, United Kingdom 26 June ‐ 1 July 2011 and the PERMANOVA statistical workshop I wish to express my gratitude and appreciation to the NZMSS, for giving me the opportunity to attend the 9th International Temperate Reefs Symposium, held in Plymouth, UK, between the 26th of June and the 1st July 2011 and the PERMANOVA statistical workshop which followed the conference the week after. Through the First Overseas Conference Travel Fund (FOCTF), NZMSS provided an invaluable contribution, allowing me to overtake the large geographical distance separating Europe and New Zealand, in order to take part to these important events. I’m currently studying through a PhD in Marine Ecology at the University of Canterbury (Christchurch). My research is centred on the study of biological processes and abiotic factors that shape structure and functioning of intertidal algal and invertebrate assemblages. As part of my Phd, I am carrying out a suite of manipulative experiments along the shores of Southern New Zealand, in order to tease out the fundamental processes underlying the structure of temperate shores communities and to assess the impact of the main human related stressors affecting coastal areas. The International Temperate Reef Symposium represented an ideal context for me to expose my thoughts and my results to other hard bottom marine ecologists working in my same research area. This conference covers all aspects of temperate reef ecology and marked a milestone in my career. After 18 months of research in New Zealand, half way through my PhD, I had the opportunity to talk in front of an international audience, to receive critical feedbacks from leading marine ecologists from around the world and to establish and develop good relationships to assist with the next steps in my career. In addition to the conference, I also had the opportunity to attend a five‐day workshop covering advanced statistical analysis of multivariate data from community ecology. The statistical techniques covered during the workshop are directly applicable to my research and will be of huge value in the analysis of my data. In conclusion, this invaluable experience helped me to grow as a marine scientist and I will always recall it as a key moment in my career. Likewise, I will always remember that this would have not been possible without the support from the NZMSS and I will be always grateful to those who provided me this unique opportunity. 21 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund Report Emma Beatson (AUT University) 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals Society for Marine Mammalogy Tampa, Florida, USA 27 November – 2 December 2011 I would like to extend my appreciation to NZMSS for the generous contribution toward the cost of my travel to the 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, which was held in Tampa, Florida, USA from 26 November ‐ 2 December 2011. The Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals is the world’s largest international marine mammal conference, and so was an important platform for presenting my preliminary PhD research on the life history of New Zealand pilot whales. Attendance at this conference provided valuable networking, collaboration, and mentoring opportunities with many well respected, international, marine mammal scientists. The 19th Biennial Conference brought together close to 2,000 marine mammal scientists and students from around the world. The programme included 351 oral presentations, held in four concurrent sessions over five full days, many of which were directly relevant to my research. 664 posters were on display for the duration of the conference, including my poster presentation, ‘Two recent mass strandings of long‐
finned pilot whales on the New Zealand coast’ (pdf attached). The posters had great exposure at the conference, with 2.5 hours dedicated to poster viewing each day, including a 1.5 hour sundowner poster session on Monday‐Thursday evenings. In addition to the formal programme, there were various other events before and during the conference. Twenty‐nine workshops were held over the weekend prior to the conference, and I was lucky enough to be able to attend two of them, ‘Cetacean Mass Stranding Response’, and ‘Age Estimation in Monodontids’. The mass stranding workshop was hosted by the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) Marine Mammal Rescue and Research staff based at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, where the frequency of mass stranding events is comparable to New Zealand, but response protocols differ considerably. This workshop presented the opportunity to establish relationships with other mass stranding responders around the world, and facilitated data sharing and support. A portion of the morning was dedicated to selected speakers presenting on their agencies and/or groups response protocols, outcomes, and mass stranding‐related research. In the afternoon, a discussion format allowed greater networking and information sharing between attendees. Specific topic areas included health assessment/ disposition decision‐making, specialized equipment, post‐release monitoring, and maximizing the science of stranding response. Several attendees expressed an interest in stranding‐related research sabbaticals based in New Zealand, and New Zealand was invited to co‐host a follow‐up stranding response workshop at the next Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, to be held in New Zealand in 2013. 22 The age estimation workshop was hosted by the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO), and the proceedings are currently in preparation for publication as an age estimation volume in the NAMMCO scientific series. Although this workshop had more of a focus on monodontids (i.e. beluga and narwhals), methodologies for age determination of other toothed whales were also discussed, and I was recommended a particular methodology for my pilot whale tooth ageing. Several participants also offered to cross‐read a few of my tooth sections, for validation purposes. The official conference kicked off with an ice‐breaker reception at the Florida Aquarium on Sunday evening. The rare Weeki Wachee mermaids (endemic to Weeki Wachee Springs, Florida), made a guest appearance and we enjoyed live music performed by the ‘Dead Ichs’(a band of local marine scientists). Video night on Monday was popular, and provided an opportunity to join colleagues for an evening viewing natural history and research footage from marine mammal research efforts around the world. The short video clip that I presented highlighted the frequency of pilot whale mass strandings on the New Zealand coast, and then followed the story of one mass stranding event that occurred on Stewart Island in February 2010. This was the only video presentation from New Zealand, and was well received. The social programme also included a student fundraising event ‘Manatee Mayhem’ on Thursday evening, and a closing banquet on the Friday evening which was followed by dancing late into the night – a memorable end to a memorable conference! Thanks once again to NZMSS for the support the enabled me to attend my first Society for Marine Mammalogy Conference. It was an immensely rewarding experience and I am now looking forward to hosting the 20th biennial here in New Zealand in 2013. 23 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund Report Sergio A. Carrasco (Victoria University of Wellington) VIII Congreso Latinoamericano de Malacología (VIII Latin‐American Malacology Conference), Puerto Madryn, Argentina, 12‐17 June 2011 I am grateful to the NZMSS and the First Overseas Travel Fund for the assistance that allowed me to attend to the VIII Latin‐American Malacology Conference and present a talk entitled: “Size‐specific vulnerability to predation in hatchlings of two congeneric marine snails (Neogastropoda: Buccinidae)” and also a poster entitled: “Early life history of two sympatric New Zealand octopuses: Eggs and paralarvae of Octopus huttoni and Pinnoctopus cordiformis (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae)”. The attendance to the conference was really helpful, since I received very good feedbacks on my PhD project and personal research showed in the oral presentation and the poster sessions, respectively. Nonetheless, on the other hand it was also challenging because it was a very specific conference, and most participants were recognized specialists in mollusks, not only from South‐America, but also worldwide. Despite for me (as for several researchers too) it was not easy to get to the Argentinean Patagonia because of the cancellation of flights due volcanic ashes, the conference was exciting and rewarding, with around 300 works and 250 participants from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Spain, France, Mexico, Uruguay and Venezuela. Although originally from Chile, I was the only person presenting works from Southern Latitudes (41°S) outside South‐America, fact that greatly enhanced links with researchers from Centro Nacional Patagónico (hosting institution) whose research is also focused on reproductive biology and ecology of gastropods and cephalopods from Patagonia (42°S). Given the ecological and geographical similarities between South America and New Zealand, it is likely that further collaborations might include species from the Southern hemisphere (e.g. New Zealand, Chile and Argentina). From a broader point of view, most of the papers presented in the conference (talks or posters) were very interesting to me, expanding my knowledge and opening up new perspectives. Additionally, and maybe more importantly, it was a great opportunity to met in person fellow researchers whose publications have been really useful for my own work, interact with them and discuss some new ideas that could be part of future research opportunities and collaborations. Once again, I would like to thank the New Zealand Marine Science Society for giving me the opportunity to attend and present my research in this overseas conference. Without this generous support this great experience would not have been possible. 24 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund Report Elanor Miller (University of Otago) 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals Society for Marine Mammalogy Tampa, Florida, USA 27 November – 2 December 2011 In November 2011 I attended my first overseas conference, the 19th Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals in Tampa, Florida. Bringing together students and marine mammal experts from around the world, this conference provided an opportunity to discuss the latest research and encouraged international collaboration. I was able to take advantage of this invaluable experience thanks to the NZMSS travel award and I am very grateful to the Society for their support. The theme of the conference was the cumulative effects of threats to marine mammals and the challenges to animals, scientists and managers. A huge amount of research was presented with a total of 351 oral and 664 poster presentations. During the weekend before the conference, several workshops were organised of which I was able to attend two. These workshops included oral presentations from leading experts and allowed for group discussion on some of the latest methods for studying marine mammals. Throughout the week, research was presented from a wide variety of fields, including ecology, conservation, population genetics, anatomy, acoustics and fisheries interactions. It was interesting and inspiring to attend both talks directly related to my own research and those from other fields. Of particular interest to me were presentations on dietary studies, habitat modelling and ecology. I valued the chance to talk with these researchers about their experiences and discuss the similar challenges we have faced. As I am now approaching the final year of my PhD at Otago University I was able to present a poster of my work on Hector’s dolphin habitat selection while it is still in progress, and discuss my future analysis and write‐up with other researchers. Throughout the week I met with others working both in New Zealand and overseas, and appreciated the opportunity to reconnect as well as form new collaborations. Overall this was a very valuable experience during my PhD and I encourage other students to attend overseas conferences. I appreciate the support the NZMSS gives to emerging scientists and would like to thank the Society for making this experience possible. 25 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund Report Adam Smith (Massey University Albany) 2011 International Temperate Reef Symposium (ITRS) Plymouth, United Kingdom 26 June ‐ 1 July 2011 I received a grant from the First Overseas Conference Travel Fund of the New Zealand Marine Sciences Society (NZMSS) this year to attend the 2011 International Temperate Reef Symposium (ITRS), which was held from 26th June to 1st July in Plymouth, U.K. I travelled with my colleague Dr Mat Pawley and supervisor Prof. Marti Anderson, from Massey University. Plymouth proved to be a fantastic location for the conference, with good facilities at the University of Plymouth and much to do around town, including a very pleasant waterfront and historic centre. Appropriately, Plymouth is the home of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. and the National Marine Aquarium, and evening functions were held at each of these venues in the course of the week. I presented work done as part of my PhD on the effects of marine reserves on rocky reef communities in northern New Zealand. My presentation was entitled “The effect of a marine reserve on legally sized snapper in northern New Zealand: An analysis using Bayesian hierarchical mixed models”. The data for this study, provided by the Department of Conservation, were from baited underwater video surveys taken from areas in and around Cape Rodney‐Okakari Point marine reserve over a period of 10 years. I presented some novel and efficient ways of modelling these data, which neatly and efficiently dealt with many of the challenges posed by this dataset and many others, such as the complex hierarchical design, high variance (and thus overdispersion) and large proportion of zeros. This work produced an estimate that there are around 22 times as many legally sized snapper inside the marine reserve than outside. Interestingly, my talk turned out to be quite central to one of the major discussion themes of the conference. This discussion was not about marine reserves, but rather about statistical inference in ecology and, more specifically, the use of Bayesian statistics as opposed to the more established frequentist methods. The delegation of the ITRS has a reputation for being strongly frequentist in nature, favouring traditional statistical techniques such as hypothesis testing, which complements their use of manipulative experiments to test for mechanistic hypotheses. This tendency has been accompanied by some fairly negative attitudes towards Bayesian statistics, but this view is now being challenged due to the increased use of Bayesian statistics in other fields of science. A power failure in a lecture theatre during one of the conference sessions (I said the facilities were good, not perfect) prompted the chair, Sean Connell, to bring up this issue as a topic of discussion while we waited for the power to be fixed. The main speakers in this discussion were Tony Underwood and Bob Clarke. There was a lot of interest in this debate, so these two were asked to discuss this further in an open forum during one of the lunch hours. This discussion was excellent, and was attended by a good proportion of the delegates. Instead of further polarising the speakers and audience into the two camps, which can often happen with these things, the discussion made much clearer the 26 advantages and objections to Bayesian statistics, and in which context they each apply. It seemed that, in spite of the reputation of ITRS to be an unfriendly environment for Bayesian statistics, there was a lot of support for it in the right context. Seeing these two very influential and brilliant scientists discuss everything from Bayesian statistics to hypothesis testing, Popperian logic, the philosophy of science and even why they became scientists in the first place, was certainly one of the highlights of the conference for me. As an added bonus, because my talk was to my knowledge the only presentation of a Bayesian analysis at the conference, it was quite topical and was referred to often during these discussions. I would like to sincerely thank the NZMSS for making my trip to ITRS possible by providing a travel grant. My trip was also supported by departmental funds from Massey’s Institute of Advanced Study and my supervisor Marti Anderson. In addition, I was awarded a £100 Bursary Award from the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom during the conference. 27 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund Report Mareike Sudek (Victoria University of Wellington) 86th Annual Australian Coral Reef Society Conference Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia, 26‐28 August 2011 Attending the ACRS Conference last year was an amazing experience! Meeting various different coral reef scientists and other people working on coral reef conservation was very motivating and seeing the exceptional work of all these researchers was of huge interest to me. The plenary talk of Dr. Terry Hughes was one highlight of the Conference and as my research investigates coral disease in Hawaii, I very much enjoyed the presentations of Yui Sato and Joseph Pollock on coral disease on the GBR. In addition, engaging presentations were given by students, veteran researchers and keynote speakers, covering a wide variety of topics with a focus on coral reef health and conservation. Before the conference started, I attended the postgraduate workshop on how to get into print and receive a postdoc position. It was a very interesting workshop, with insights from Morgan Pratchett and other researchers. We received valuable tips and guidelines that will be of importance in the future. I greatly thank the NZMSS for funding my travel to Australia and so giving me the opportunity to attend the ACRS Conference! I made important connections that may aid my future career and I very much enjoyed the interesting research presented. 28 First Overseas Conference Travel Fund Report Andrea Varela (Victoria University of Wellington) Australian Society for Fish Biology Conference, Townsville, Australia 22 ‐ 24 July 2011 Thanks to the NZMSS First Overseas Travel Fund I was able to attend to the Australian Society for Fish Biology (ASFB) Conference on 2011 and to present a talk about my PhD project on global population genetics of the deep‐sea fish Hoplostethus atlanticus (orange roughy). The conference took place over three days and congregated more than 200 fish scientist mainly from Australia and New Zealand, but there were also delegates from the United Kingdom, Japan, Korea, India, Iran, Turkey, Chile, and the USA. It was the 37th Annual Conference of the ASFB and the Society also celebrated its 40th anniversary. The conference covered a range of topics about marine and freshwater fishes, fisheries conservation and management. Since the Conference was hosted by James Cook University in North Queensland, most of the talks and presentations were related with studies conducted in The Great Barrier Reef, one of the vastest coral systems in the world. It was a great experience to be there, learn more about many different aspects of fish biology and make links that could lead to future collaborations. It was a high standard conference in an excellent venue. The welcome function took place in the Townsville’s Aquarium, which gave us the amazing opportunity to see most of the local fauna during night time. I received several compliments and good feedbacks about my talk from both scientist and fellow students. I was very pleased with my contribution, which was the only one dedicated to the study of fish population connectivity using molecular markers. I am deeply grateful for the financial support of the NZMSS which allowed me to travel to Australia and to participate in this well renowned annual Conference. 29 NZMSS Student Research Grant The student research grant programme was inaugerated by the members of the society at our annual general meeting in 2006 to help graduate researchers take their work further than academic funding often allows and provide exposure for their research. Grants are awarded as funds allow, with at least one award typically made annually. Applications from a broad range of marine disciplines are encouraged and recipients will present the results of their work at a plenary session during our annual conference. GUIDE FOR APPLICANTS Applicants may be existing or candidate postgraduate students of any nationality, but should be based at a New Zealand institution (e.g. university, museum, or company) for the research. During the tenure of the award each applicant must be an enrolled student and a member of NZMSS. Research topic may be in any marine science area. Funds may be used for any purpose that supports the research. Recipients will present their findings at an NZMSS annual conference at their own expense (but registration fee will be waived), and provide a 1‐2 page summary of their findings by email to the NZMSS Secretary in a style suitable as a press release within 1 year of the research being completed. All data from the work will be published in a journal, book, and/or on the world wide web. All publications and presentations will acknowledge that the research was “stimulated by a Scholarship Grant from the New Zealand Marine Science Society”. The applicant and supervisor will provide a signed statement as to the use of the funds within one year of the award. Recipients maintain their eligibility for any future NZMSS grants. Proposals will be independently reviewed by three referees not associated with any proposals. Referees will not confer until they have ranked proposals. Part 1 proposals will be ranked according to their likelihood of stimulating new research involving graduate students at New Zealand institutions. Referees will only review Part II of proposals where they consider Part 1 of high scientific merit. NZMSS reserves the right to attach additional conditions to awards where the referees feel it desirable. Applicants will be informed if they have or have not been successful. Each application should be submitted as two electronic documents (Microsoft Word .doc or Adobe's .pdf) submitted as word‐processed (typed) attachments to emailed to the secretary. PART I: THE SCIENTIFIC PROPOSAL It should be • anonymous and not provide information to identify the applicants or their institution • no more than 2 pages long, single‐spaced, size 12 pt font • named with a distinctive title unique to the proposal (e.g. Polar_Turbellaria_Part_1.doc). 30 The text should identify what gaps in knowledge the research aims to fill, why these are important, and why the research should be done now. PART II CONTAINS • Contact details of the post‐graduate applicant and their host institution • Contact details of the supervisor(s) and their host institutions • Single page CV of student • Single page CV of supervisor(s) • why the applicants are well placed to do the proposed research • what the funds will be used for (Supplementary material may be provided as an Appendix if necessary. 31 NZMSS Student Research Grant Report Danilo Pecorino (University of Otago) 1. Objectives of the Grant The student research grant I was awarded by NZMSS on the 12th of May 2011 had the objective of helping me cover the expenses of a trip to Coffs Harbour (NSW ‐ Australia) and Leigh (Northland ‐ New Zealand) in order to run experiments on the larval stages of Centrostephanus rodgersii (Echinodermata, Echinoidea). The aims of the experiments were to test the thermal tolerance of C. rodgersii, and the ability of two different populations of this species to cope with near future scenarios under Global Climate Change. Also, to compare these responses with those of two other species of sea urchins that are native to New Zealand (Evechinus chloroticus and Pseudechinus huttoni), and on which I had already run the same experiments. An additional objective was to be able to test on other populations the finding by Ling et al. (2008), according to which 12°C is the lowest temperature at which larval development to the pluteus stage occurs in Tasmania in C. rodgersii. The following table shows the expenses I covered using the NZMSS grant money: * the receipts for both flights and dive charter are in my possession and available on request Amount awarded Expenses Total ‐ flights; 1021.79 NZ$ *
1830.28 NZ$ ‐ dive charter to the Mokohinau Islands (Fish HQ 1821.79 NZ$ charter owned by Grant Sneddon); 800 NZ$ * I completed three experiments each in Coffs Harbour and Leigh as follows; a) Experiment 1.Synergistic effect of temperature and pH on embryonic and larval development: this experiment was performed successfully in both Coffs Harbour and Leigh. I collected data on % fertilization, % cleavage, % hatching, % gastrulation and % abnormal embryos at 2 temperature and 4 pH treatments (refer to graphs). Seawater samples were fixed with mercuric chloride and are waiting to be analysed for total alkalinity; pH had been routinely monitored for the whole duration for the experiment. b) Experiment 2. Effect of temperature on fertilization, embryonic and larval development: this experiment was performed successfully in both Coffs Harbour and Leigh. The data collected are % fertilization, % cleavage, % hatching, % gastrulation, and % plutei at 12 32 temperature treatments. Each one of the variables, aside from % cleavage and % hatching, was measured on 2 sampling times. c) Experiment 3: Effect of pH on larval survival and morphometry: this experiment was performed successfully in both Coffs Harbour and Leigh. The larvae were reared at 3 pH treatments and, on day 4 after fertilization, I took pictures of 10 larvae for each one of the replicates. In Leigh I preserved 1 ml of larvae from each replicate through the addition of one drop of 7% borax buffered formalin and these larvae will be photographed as soon as possible. The data about larval morphometry will be used as a proxy to evaluate calcification under reduced pH, which had been monitored routinely for the whole duration of the experiment. The duration of these experiments was shorter, compared to the same experiments I had already run on E. chloroticus and P. huttoni, due to time limitations caused by the need to run the same experiments in two countries during the same reproductive season. 2. Preliminary Results The followings are preliminary charts to show some of the results that were achieved during the research trip. Data are still under collection, thus no discussion will be provided until chemical analyses on water samples and morphometrical data of the larvae are complete. a) Experiment 1. Synergistic effect of temperature and pH to embryonic and larval development: the preliminary results are in Figure 1. Note that the two temperature treatments are different for the two sites; they were chosen to be T=temperature at which spawning occurs in the field and T*=T+3°C. 33 Figure 1. Comparison of the synergistic effect of temperature and pH on fertilization and embryos development of C. rosgersii in Coffs Harbour (above) and the Mokohinau Islands (below). 34 The data will be analysed via 2‐way ANOVA and interaction plots in order to split the effects of temperature and pH on the variables measured and highlight possible interactions between the two. b) Experiment 2. Effect of temperature on fertilization, embryonic and larval development: the preliminary results are in Figure 2. The data already show a clear adaptation of the New Zealand population to the colder environment, characterised by a lower maximum temperature threshold for larval development. These data will be compared with the data in Ling et al (2008) that have already been collected from the Tasmanian population, in order to have a latitudinal comparison in Australia (Coffs Harbour vs. Tasmania) and a comparison between the New Zealand population and the Australian ones. A comparison with the same data on the competing species in New Zealand will also be carried out, in order to assess which species is favoured under future higher temperature scenarios. c) Experiment 3. Effect of pH on larval survival and morphometry: the photos of the larvae reared at the different pH treatments have already been collected for the experiment in Coffs Harbour. The larvae from the experiment in Leigh are now in buffered formalin and pictures will be taken as soon as possible. The images will be processed using the software ImageJ and the length of the larval rods will be measured. These data will be analysed using a multivariate approach in order to highlight expected differences in the global morphology (and calcification) of the larvae at lowered pH. 35 Figure 2. Comparison of thermal tolerance for the different embryos and larval stages between the population at the Mokohinau Islands and the one in Coffs Harbour 36 3. Future Developments The data collected thanks to the NZMSS grant will allow me to make the first assessment of the New Zealand population of C. rodgersii, which has been known to be present around the coast of Northland for at least the last 30‐40 years (Barker pers. comm., Choat & Schiel 1982). More in details, I'll be able to quantify the ability of its embryos and larvae to cope with the two major environmental stressors under Global Climate Change ‐ seawater temperature and acidification ‐ at the edge of its distribution range. Moreover, I'll be able to compare these results with the same results I collected on E. chloroticus and P. huttoni, the two temperate sea urchins most abundant in New Zealand. Especially through the comparison with the first one, which already shares extensive patches of rocky shores with C. rodgersii, I'll be able to identify the species whose embryos and larvae are better at competing in the waters surrounding the northern part of New Zealand. The grant also allowed me to run experiments on the Australian population in Coffs Harbour and that will form the basis of a chapter of my thesis on the comparison between a subtropical population of C. rodgersii and a more temperate one. As it can already be noted from the preliminary results, there is a compelling evidence for early adaptation to the cooler climate of Northland (experiment on thermal tolerance). This data, corroborated by statistical analyses and the other data relative to the other two experiments, could lead to speculations about the chances of C. rodgersii to expand its distribution range in New Zealand in a relatively short time and will be used to compare the behaviour of this species with what is known in Eastern Australia and Tasmania (Andrew 1993, Andrew & Underwood 1989, Andrew & Underwood 1993, King et al. 1994, Byrne et al. 1998, Andrew & Byrne 2001, Blount & Worthington 2002, Huggett et al. 2005, Johnson et al. 2005, Banks et al. 2007a, Banks et al. 2007b, Ling et al. 2008, Soars et al. 2009, Strain & Johnson 2009). To have a more complete overview of the biology of the species in New Zealand, I've collected histological data on the gonads for one year and I built a growth model using tag‐recapture techniques. These data will be compared with what is known of the population in Tasmania (Ling et al. 2009, Ling & Johnson 2009) and will give us information on how the adults of C. rodgersii are performing in the new environment. The results of the analyses I will run on the data will be interpreted at the light of synoptic maps of the average SST around New Zealand that I'm producing processing data from freely available on the Internet the Terra MODIS satellite, (, using the statistical analyses software R. 4. Acknowledgments First of all, I'd like to acknowledge the New Zealand Marine Science Society for the grant and the support. Thanks to them I managed to travel to the two sites of collection of sea urchins and to the laboratories where I was hosted; that gave me the chance to collect 37 data that would have been very hard, if not impossible, to collect otherwise. It also allowed me to broaden the scope of my research to include a comparison with an Australian population Then I'd like to thank my supervisor and co‐supervisor, Dr. Miles Lamare and Prof. Mike Barker, the staff of the Sydney University and the National Marine Science Centre, in particular Prof. Maria Byrne and Dr. Symon Dworjanyn, and the staff of the Leigh Marine Laboratory, namely Mr. Arthur Cozens, Mr. Brian Dobson and Mr. Charles Bedford. 5. References Andrew NL, Underwood AJ (1989) Patterns of Abundance of the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii (Agassiz) on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 131:61‐80 Andrew NL (1993) Spatial heterogeneity, sea urchin grazing, and habitat structure on reefs in temperate Australia. Ecology 74:292‐302 Andrew NL, Underwood AJ (1993) Density‐dependent foraging in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii on shallow subtidal reefs in New South Wales, Australia. Marina Ecology Progress Series 99: 89‐98 Andrew NL, Byrne M (2001) The ecology of Centrostephanus rodgersii. Edible Sea Urchins: Biology and Ecology:149‐160 Banks SC, Piggott MP, Williamson JE, Beheregaray LB (2007) Microsatellite DNA markers for analyses of population structure in the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. Molecular Ecology Notes 7:321‐323 Banks SC, Piggott MP, Williamson JE, Bove U, Holbrook NJ, Beheregaray LB (2007) Oceanic variability and coastal topography shape genetic structure in a long‐ dispersing sea urchin. Ecology 88:3055‐3064 Blount C, Worthington D (2002) Identifying individuals of the sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii with high‐quality roe in New South Wales, Australia. Fisheries Research 58:341‐348 Byrne M, Andrew NL, Worthington DG, Brett PA (1998) Reproduction in the diadematoid sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii in contrasting habitats along the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Marine Biology 132:305‐318 Choat JH, Schiel DR (1982) Patterns of distribution and abundance of large brown algae and invertebrate herbivores in the subtidal of Northern New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 60:129‐162 Huggett MJ, King CK, Williamson JE, Steinberg PD (2005) Larval development and metamorphosis of the Australian diadematid sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 47:197‐204 Johnson C, Ling, S., Ross, J., Shepherd, S., Miller, K. (2005) Establishment of the long‐ spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii) in Tasmania: first assessment of potential threats to fisheries. School of Zoology Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute King CK, Hoegh‐Guldberg O, Byrne M (1994) Reproductive cycle of Centrostephanus rodgersii (Echinoidea), with recommendations for the establishment of a sea urchin fishery in New South Wales. Marine Biology 120:95‐106 Ling SD, Johnson CR, Frusher S, King CK (2008) Reproductive potential of a marine ecosystem engineer at the edge of a newly expanded range. Global Change Biology 14:907‐915 Ling SD, Johnson CR (2009) Population dymanics of an ecological important range‐extender: kelp beds versus sea urchin barrens. Marine Ecology Pogress Series 374: 113‐125 Ling SD, Johnson CR, Ridgway K, Hobday AJ, Haddon M (2009) Climate‐driven range extension of a sea urchin: inferring future trends by analysis of recent population dynamics. Global Change Biology 15:719‐
731 Soars NA, Prowse TAA, Byrne M (2009) Overview of phenotypic plasticity in echinoid larvae, 'Echinopluteus transversus' type vs. typical echinoplutei. Marine Ecology‐ Progress Series 383:113‐125 Strain EMA, Johnson CR (2009) Competition between an invasive urchin and commercially fished abalone: effect on body condition, reproduction and survivorship. Marine Ecology‐Progress Series 377:169‐182 38 The New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Award This highly prestigious award was inaugurated in 1985. Recipients of the award are chosen by the Council from nominations that can be submitted by any member of the Society. Nominations are considered annually but the Council need not present an award each year. The award is a bronze sculpture in the form of the internal spire of a gastropod shell. It was designed and manufactured by Wellington artist Nick Dryden, and comes with an engraved plaque. The award carries with it lifetime membership of the Society. The award recognises “a person’s continued outstanding contribution to marine science in New Zealand”. The three awards bestowed in the inaugural year, to scientists considered to be “founders of marine science in New Zealand”, honoured work on ocean physics, marine geology and marine ecology, and the subsequent 13 recipients to date have made their contributions across an equally broad spectrum of our marine science. Nomination Procedure Any Society member can make a nomination (in writing) to the Secretary. The nomination need only be a short statement but it should concisely specify the major achievements of the nominee that would make them a worthy recipient of the award. The Council may seek further information about the nominee. The Council will choose the recipient from the nominations, and all nominations remain confidential to the Council. The award is presented at the NZMSS annual conference. The award need not be given every year. 39 NZMSS Award Past Winners Year Recipient Conference Venue 1985 Jim Brodie Canterbury University George Knox Canterbury University Norm Barber Canterbury University 1986 Howard Choat Victoria University 1987 no award Otago University 1988 John Morton Auckland University 1989 no award Wellington (National Museum) 1990 Pat Bergquist Waikato University 1991 Ron Heath Wellington (National Museum) 1992 no nomination Otago University 1993 no nomination Nelson (Quality Hotel) 1994 Janet Grieve Waikato University 1995 Vivienne Cassie‐Cooper Victoria University 1996 Chris Francis Canterbury University 1997 John Jillett Auckland (joint with AMSA*) 1998 no award Otago University 1999 Lionel Carter Victoria University 2000 Bob Creese Waikato University 2001 Bruce Hayward Townsville (joint with AMSA*) 2002 Bill Ballantine Nelson (Rutherford Hotel) 2003 David Schiel Auckland and AUT 2004 no award Otago University 2005 Dennis Gordon Victoria University 2006 no award Nelson (Rutherford Hotel) 2007 Wendy Nelson Waikato University 2008 Malcolm Francis Canterbury (joint with AMSA*) 2009 Pamela Mace Auckland (joint with MetSoc#) 2010 Simon Thrush Victoria University 2011 no award Oban, Stewart Island (* AMSA = Australian Marine Sciences Association) (# NewZealand Meterological Society) 40 New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research PAPERS SUBMITTED IN 2011 Details of papers published can be found on the informaworld site: Of the papers submitted in 2011, 51% were rejected as they were either out of scope, or not of a suitable standard. Editorial and publishing structure for journal The editorial team consists of a Senior Editor and nine Associate Editors who handle the submitted papers through the review and editorial process. A publication partnership with the international publishing house, Taylor and Francis, allows the journal to use the online manuscript submission and review software, ScholarOne™. An early, online first publication platform, iFirst allows the rapid dissemination of papers meaning that papers can be found and cited without the need to wait until each issue of the journal is in print. The New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research depends on the support it receives from authors, referees, readers, and subscribers, and would like to thank everyone who supported the Journal in 2011. 41 NZMSS Conference 2011 Stewart Island NZMSS Conference 5-8 July 2011
"Understanding, Managing, and Conserving our Marine Environment"
Welcome to Stewart Island/Rakiura For the first time, the NZMSS conference is being held in the township of Oban on Stewart Island. For many, this will also be your first visit to these shores and we encourage you to get your walking shoes on and explore the incredible environment on offer. Winter is a sleepy time on the island, so the arrival of 150 scientists might prove a bit of a shock to the system! We are very grateful to the island community (all 360 of them) for making us welcome. The focus of the conference is to investigate the unique opportunities to advance our understanding of New Zealand’s marine environment and the application of new knowledge to its management and conservation. The marine environment surrounding Stewart Island is very special indeed with native forest to the water’s edge, pristine waters, marine reserves and customary management areas and a productive marine environment that supports fascinating marine life. Thus Stewart Island offers a fantastic location to explore the opportunities and challenges faced by conducting marine science in New Zealand – the latitudinal gradient of New Zealand’s marine realm, the range of oceanographic conditions and marine habitats, and how to manage and conserve those unique habitats and environments. The conference is open to researchers, educators, and students as well as participants from government, local community and industry. The meeting provides a great opportunity for students to present their research and research ideas to a supportive scientific community. Perhaps most importantly is the chance to meet friends, both old and new, and we hope that the many opportunities for mingling will result in the fruitful exchanges of ideas. Again, welcome to Oban! We hope you enjoy the conference. Best wishes, The 2011 Conference Organising Committee 42 Conference Prizes Awarded 2011 First Place Oral Presenter Phil Ross, University of Waikato Population genetic structure of the New Zealand estuarine clam Austrovenus stutchburyi (Bivalvia: Veneridae) reveals population subdivision and partial congruence with biogeographic boundaries Runner Up Oral Presenter Paul Caiger, University of Auckland Ontogenetic change and the effects of aquaculture noise on hearing ability of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) Runner Up Oral Presenter Pete Wilson, Auckland University of Technology Monitoring organic enrichment of coastal sediment with sediment profile imagery First Place Poster Presenter Patricia Mockett, University of Otago Population connectivity of New Zealand Sole (Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiae) from two, neighbouring South Island regions. Runner Up Poster Presenter Zack Powell, University of Otago Organic Complexation of Metals in Deep‐Sea Hydrothermal Vent Systems Runner Up Poster Presenter Zeenatul Basher, University of Auckland Modelling Distribution of Natant Decapod Shrimps in the Ross Sea, Antarctica *All prizes sponsored by the Royal Society of New Zealand 43 Abstracts from keynotes speakers 44 Simon Thrush NIWA, Hamilton [email protected] Simon Thrush obtained a BSc (Hons) from the University of Otago, New Zealand and a PhD from the University of East Anglia, England. He is the Principal Scientist in Coastal Ecosystems at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. Simon has over 25 years of experience in the development and implementation of strategic ecological research to influence resource management and improve societal valuation of marine ecosystems. His research interests include coastal and estuarine marine ecology; the influence of disturbance events on populations and communities and their implications for recovery and resilience; ecological impact assessment, particularly of diffuse source and/or broad‐scale effects; the design and implementation of ecological monitoring programmes; the environmental effects of fishing; organism‐ sediment interactions; organism‐hydrodynamic interactions; functional biodiversity and biocomplexity. He has contributed to over 180 publications in the peer reviewed scientific literature and 100 consultancy reports and enjoys extensive international collaboration with colleagues in USA, Canada, Britain, Norway, Finland, Spain, Netherlands and Italy. Simon was awarded the 2010 New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Award. Plenary Talk Title: Changes in nature and the nature of change in our coastal ecosystems My talk will discuss how environmental science, and ecology in particular, can inform environmental management and policy making for coastal marine ecosystems. Research has progressed in the last couple of decades from a focus on individual events and local impacts to much broader scales. Shifts to more ecosystem‐based approaches to management seek to reframe resource use conflicts by increasing the scope of ecosystem assessments and the depth of knowledge used to assess the consequences of change. The potential for ecology to contribute to these management processes are significant, through raising the profile of important ecosystem goods and services, the recognition of cumulative and multiple stressor effects and habitat fragmentation. Equally important, is the appreciation that ecosystem responses surprise us because feedback processes can result in threshold responses or regime shifts in coastal ecosystems. I will use some examples from our field research to illustrate how these ideas are ground in our understanding of ecosystem function. They have important implications for the resilience of coastal ecosystems and raise some important challenges for future research that will only be fully resolved through integrated research programmes. Progress in these challenges is essential if ecology is to effectively contribute to management and maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem function in our multi‐ use coastal ecosystems. 45 Katherine Baer‐Jones University of Otago [email protected] Katherine first travelled to New Zealand in 2004 as part of a semester‐long university exchange programme at the University of Otago. She graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 2005 with a BSc (Hons) in Environmental Sciences and minors in Chemistry and Marine Sciences. Katherine worked and travelled around the world in the years following graduation, which included time spent as a Research Diver in Key Largo and as an Environmental Engineer for a hydrological and environmental consulting firm in Singapore. In 2008, she decided to return to the University of Otago and commence her PhD under the supervision of Professor Keith Hunter. Katherine is in her final year of study and is researching the biological inorganic fixation of carbon dioxide across the Coastal Subtropical Frontal Zone and its role within the marine carbonate system. Katherine was awarded the 2010 New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Research Grant. Plenary Talk Title: Verification of satellite and space‐based remote sensing observations in the coastally oriented Subtropical Frontal Zone (STFZ), Eastern New Zealand Co‐Authors: Nicholas Tfuilaro, Kim Currie, Christina McGraw, Keith Hunter Data acquired from satellite remote sensing instruments allow scientists to monitor and evaluate oceanic processes encompassing a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales beyond the bounds of shipboard measurements. Optical data recorded from these space‐
borne sensors can be related to common oceanographic parameters such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll‐a pigments and photosynthetic active radiation. In May 2011, I embarked on a trip to the United States to collaborate with researchers from Oregon State University, Clark University, and the Naval Research Lab (NRL) as part of the 2010 New Zealand Marine Society Student Research Award. At Oregon State University, new algal and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) detection algorithms for the MODIS and MERIS satellite sensors were compared to shipboard data collected from the Munida Time Series transect. At NRL, the shipboard measurements were compared to data derived from the newly released Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), a space‐borne spectrometer launched on the International Space Station. These validations with shipboard measurements in the optically complex coastal Subtropical Frontal Zone off the Eastern Coast of New Zealand provide a comprehensive historical dataset and monitoring system for regional scale processes. 46 Malcolm Francis NIWA, Wellington [email protected] Malcolm Francis is a Principal Scientist for Inshore and Pelagic Fisheries at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand. His research over the last 30 years has focussed on the population biology of coastal and pelagic fishes, and he has particular interests in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates and chimaeras), estuarine fishes, age and growth, reproduction, distribution, biodiversity, migrations, and human impacts. Since 2005, Malcolm has been collaborating with Clinton Duffy (Department of Conservation) on a satellite‐tagging programme to track the migratory patterns of great white sharks, and determine their habitat use in the south‐west Pacific Ocean. Plenary Talk Title: Great white sharks: wide ranging ocean travellers, but is Stewart Island their home base? Co‐Authors: Clinton Duffy, Warrick Lyon, Kina Scollay Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are protected in New Zealand waters, but they are still caught in set nets and other fishing gear. The effect of this incidental mortality on their population size is unknown. The Titi (Muttonbird) Islands off north‐ eastern Stewart Island are an important hotspot for white sharks. A tagging programme has been underway there since 2007 in order to determine their residency patterns, seasonality, migratory behaviour, and ultimately their temporal and spatial overlap with New Zealand coastal fisheries. Most white sharks migrate to tropical regions north of New Zealand from late winter to early summer, and then return to Stewart Island in late summer to early winter. Although long‐distance migrations are now reasonably well documented, we know little about their small‐ scale movements. Our focus has now shifted to the use of acoustic tags, which will be detected by data loggers deployed around north‐eastern Stewart Island and Foveaux Strait. This should provide detailed information on spatial and temporal habitat use patterns, and improve our understanding of the extent to which white sharks return to the same place every year. 47 Mary Livingston Ministry of Fisheries [email protected] Dr. Mary Livingston is currently a Principal Scientist in the Aquatic Environment Fisheries Management Team at the Ministry of Fisheries in Wellington, and is the Chair of the MFish Biodiversity Research Programme. Mary came to New Zealand from the UK in 1976 with a Commonwealth Scholarship to carry out a PhD in Zoology at Victoria University. After completing her doctorate, she remained in New Zealand and gained about 23 years of experience as a research scientist working primarily on hoki and other middle depth fish species with Fisheries Research Division and NIWA. Mary became involved with Antarctic science as the Ministry of Fisheries representative on an 8 week voyage of R.V. Tangaroa to the Ross Sea in 2006. Subsequently she became extensively involved in the government programme Ocean Survey 20/20 and was selected to oversee New Zealand’s International Polar Year Census of Antarctic Marine Life project in 2008. Mary is passionate about marine biodiversity and fisheries research and brings much energy to the interface of science and policy. She is active in the Government’s marine network “Oceans Forum” and is currently Vice President of NZMSS. Mary also has represented or still represents the Ministry in a number of science working groups and ad hoc committees including Ocean Survey 20/20, climate change, ocean fertilisation, Antarctic science, marine environmental monitoring, Tier 1 environmental statistics review, Marine Stewardship Council certification. Plenary Talk Title: New Zealand's International Polar Year ‐ “Census of Antarctic Marine Life" project in the Ross Sea region 2008‐2011: An overview Co‐Author: Stu Hatchett In February 2008, New Zealand scientists embarked on a highly ambitious, epic voyage to the Southern Ocean, to survey marine biodiversity in the Ross Sea region as a major contribution to New Zealand's collective International Polar Year research effort. In spite of some of the worst summer ice conditions for 30 years, the IPY‐ CAML voyage successfully sampled 39 sites with 282 gear deployments from the sea surface down to 3500 m, and from the continental shelf and slope of the Ross Sea to unexplored seamounts and abyssal plains immediately to the north. Three years of post‐voyage analysis has now been completed. Extensive sample processing and the characterisation of assemblages in these areas identified many new species and new records and a comprehensive assessment of the link between environment and biodiversity distribution in the region. The results from this project have already been used as inputs to CCAMLR and the management of the toothfish fishery. They have also contributed to bioregionalisation of the area and the development of a science based approach towards MPA proposals that are now under discussion in the political arena. With a strong outreach component, the project also generated a popular science documentary film, over 20 scientific papers and reports and over 50 presentations to scientists, managers, and the general public. Our presentation provides an overview of the project and the voyage, and is a prelude to other papers presented about IPY‐CAML results in this session. 48 Alison Ballance Alison Ballance is a broadcaster and natural history writer with a Masters Degree in ecology. She worked for many years as a producer and director of wildlife films for production company NHNZ, on subjects as varied as kakapo, tigers and the Galapagos Islands. She now co‐produces and co‐presents Radio New Zealand's weekly science and environment show, Our Changing World. Plenary Talk Title: From kakapo to the Kermadecs – telling stories about science Broadcaster and author Alison Ballance will talk about her book ‘Kakapo – rescued from the brink of extinction’, which tells the story of how science and a dedicated team of conservationists have turned around the fortunes of New Zealand’s flightless night parrot. The book recently won the Royal Society of New Zealand’s 2011 Science Book Prize, and Stewart Island and nearby Codfish Island have a starring role. Alison will also talk about her involvement in the recent Kermadecs Biodiscovery expedition, which combined science communication with exciting marine research and discoveries. 49 Chris Mace Chris Mace is an Auckland based businessman. Following the restructuring of the Crown research sector in the early 1990s he chaired the Crown Research Institute ESR and later the New Zealand Antarctic Institute – Antarctica New Zealand. Chris takes a strong interest in education and scientific research. He was a founding Trustee of the Sir Peter Blake Trust and continues as a trustee of the Antarctic Heritage Trust. He also works closely with the tertiary sector with a particular focus on marine science and research. Chris was awarded a CNZM for services to Antarctica and the community and was appointed Chairman of NIWA in July 2009. Plenary Talk Title: Management and use of marine resources New Zealand’s marine environment is nationally important because of its immense economic, social and environmental value. Our oceans and coasts are rich with resources, and they make a significant contribution to our economy through fishing and aquaculture, oil and gas exploration and extraction, tourism and recreation, transport and telecommunications links. Our marine environment is globally important both in terms of its biodiversity and because of the unique role our oceans play in understanding how climate change might impact globally. Managing our marine environment is not an easy task because of its size and diversity. The ocean is a large, interconnected ecosystem, yet we have no explicit over‐arching strategy for how we manage it. Getting greater value from our marine resources has never been more important for New Zealand’s long‐term prosperity but increasing the use of our marine resources means we face increasing difficulty in how we manage them. We have already seen examples of how conflicting interests between building our economic prosperity and protecting our unique marine environment might play out in the future. These conflicts highlight, more than ever, the need for a strong, well‐defined, and integrated National Oceans Strategy to inform policy development and guide how our marine environment is researched, managed, and used. And it is essential that organisations involved in marine sciences work closely with each other, and with those managing and using our marine resources, to build our knowledge and understanding of our marine environment and its various interactions. 50 Neville Peat Neville Peat is a Dunedin‐born New Zealand author and photographer, based at Broad Bay on the Otago Peninsula. He specialises in topics about natural history, notably that of southern New Zealand and New Zealand's sub‐antarctic islands. He has written over 30 titles since the late 1970s. In 1994, Peat was named Dunedin Citizen of the Year for his series of photographic books on the city and his establishment of the Dunedin Environmental Business Network, and in 1996 won the Montana New Zealand Book Awards for his book Wild Dunedin. He has been a Councillor on the Otago Regional Council since 1998, and was its Deputy Chairperson from 2004 to 2007. In 2004, Peat was behind moves to create an official flag for Otago. This culminated in a competition run through the auspices of the Otago Daily Times newspaper and Otago Polytechnic School of Art towards the end of that year. In 2007, Peat was awarded the Creative New Zealand Michael King Writers' Fellowship, New Zealand's largest literary award. It allowed him to complete two major works, a comprehensive book on the Tasman Sea, and the third story in the "Lark" trilogy exploring the nature of southern New Zealand. Plenary Talk Title: Maui's anchor Stewart Island/Rakiura has a place in New Zealand maritime history out of all proportion to its size and population, beginning with its status as the southernmost permanently settled corner of Polynesia. No part of the island's human history avoids contact with the sea, from centuries of muttonbirding to pioneer Pakeha shipbuilding, fishing, tourism, even farming. The island was the anchor of Maui's fabled fishing canoe and with Cook's Endeavour expedition of 1770, it blew away two thousand years of European mythology about the existence of a Great Southern Land. In the vicinity of Stewart Island, the ocean circulation has some interesting twists and turns to it. Neville Peat has written several books about the island, most recently Rakiura Heritage (Department of Conservation 2010). 51 Mark Orams (after dinner speaker) Professor Mark Orams is a champion around the world yachtsman, a member of Team New Zealand's successful defence of the America's Cup in 2000, a three times world masters sailing champion, a marine conservation advocate and is the author of the book 'Blake:Leader. Leadership Lessons From a Great New Zealander'. Mark grew up “messing around” in boats, in native New Zealand, at Torbay on Auckland’s North Shore before becoming a professional yachtsman and eventually a marine scientist and conservation advocate. He holds a bachelor's degree in environmental sciences, a master of science and a PhD and has published numerous books and papers on the management of human impacts on marine resources. He is currently Professor and Associate Director of the New Zealand Tourism Research Institute at AUT University. Title: Home is the sailor, home from the sea: Reflections on the role of marine science from a clapped out old yachtie 52 Abstracts for oral presentations 53 Seabird bycatch in New Zealand fisheries Edward Abraham, Finlay Thompson, Yvan Richard Dragonfly Limited, [email protected] In recent years there has been an increased focus by government and by the fishing industry on reducing seabird bycatch in New Zealand fisheries. This has included the use of a range of mitigation devices; an increase in observer coverage in poorly observed fisheries; and work aimed at understanding the impact of fisheries bycatch on seabird populations. In this talk, we will give an overview of the current status of knowledge of seabird bycatch in New Zealand fisheries. We will assess the efficacy of measures aimed at reducing bycatch, and will discuss directions for future research. These include improving our understanding of cryptic fatalities (seabird fatalities that are not seen by fisheries observers); improving information on seabird distributions and demography; understanding the extent of capture of seabirds in recreational fisheries; improving observer coverage in poorly observed fisheries; and ongoing research on how to manage fisheries operations to reduce the associated seabird fatalities. Pragmatic investigation of seasonal variation in cadmium to phosphate ratio in the subantarctic section of the Munida Transect Toyin Adu, Russell D. Frew, Keith Hunter University of Otago, [email protected] Proper understanding of Cd oceanic cycling and the actual relationship between Cd and PO4 in the surface seawater is vital in the recalibration of the Cd paleo nutrient proxy. Recent investigations of the study area have shown seasonal variation in dissolved cadmium concentration as well as Cd/PO4 ratio and also low primary productivity as a result of low levels of the essential micro nutrient Fe, as there has been evidence of Fe‐
stressed algal populations. Thus this region forms a natural laboratory for studying Cd and PO4 dynamics in the ocean. This talk considers the field measurement of dissolved and particulate Cd and phosphate as well as other bioactive trace metals (Fe, Zn, Co) and nutrients (NO3, Si(OH)4) in the Subantarctic section of the Munida Transect, South East, New Zealand. The result shows a seasonal trend in Cd/PO4 ratio and a relatively low dissolved Zinc concentration. The shelf input of dissolved iron into this iron‐depleted water stimulated phytoplankton growth in summer where microplankton (especially diatoms) dominated the phytoplankton distribution as shown by the drawdown in dissolved silicate concentration. Microplankton may have adapted to the use of Cd for their biochemical functions in this Zinc depleted water. It was evident that the seasonal variation in the Cd/PO4 ratio is productivity driven as revealed in the characteristic trends in Cd/PO4 ratio, particulate cadmium and chlorophyll‐a measurement. 54 Verification of satellite and space‐based remote sensing observations in the coastally oriented Subtropical Frontal Zone (STFZ), Eastern New Zealand Katherine Baer Jones1, Nicholas Tufillaro2, Kim Currie1, Christina McGraw3, Keith Hunter1 University of Otago1, Oregon State University2, USA, Clark University, USA3, [email protected] Data acquired from satellite remote sensing instruments allow scientists to monitor and evaluate oceanic processes encompassing a wide variety of spatial and temporal scales beyond the bounds of shipboard measurements. Optical data recorded from these space‐
borne sensors can be related to common oceanographic parameters such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll‐a pigments and photosynthetic active radiation. In May 2011, I embarked on a trip to the United States to collaborate with researchers from Oregon State University, Clark University, and the Naval Research Lab (NRL) as part of the 2010 New Zealand Marine Society Student Research Award. At Oregon State University, new algal and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) detection algorithms for the MODIS and MERIS satellite sensors were compared to shipboard data collected from the Munida Time Series transect. At NRL, the shipboard measurements were compared to data derived from the newly released Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), a space‐borne spectrometer launched on the International Space Station. These validations with shipboard measurements in the optically complex coastal Subtropical Frontal Zone off the Eastern Coast of New Zealand provide a comprehensive historical dataset and monitoring system for regional scale processes. On wastewater discharges, blooming seaweeds and earthquakes: Changes in Ulva and Gracilaria biochemistry reflect changes in nutrient inputs to the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary Neill Barr1, John Zeldis1, David Schiel2 NIWA1, University of Canterbury2, [email protected] Historically, massive blooms of Ulva and Gracilaria in the eutrophic Avon‐Heathcote Estuary of Christchurch, have significantly affected both the estuary’s aesthetic value and its ecosystem function. With the diversion of Christchurch city’s wastewater discharge away from the estuary in March 2010 it was expected there would be close to a 10‐fold reduction in nitrogen(N)‐loading, which in turn promised a reduction in algal biomass. A three‐year Ministry of Science and Innovation funded partnership study between NIWA and University of Canterbury is examining, amongst other ecosystem components, macroalgal biochemical indicators of N‐loading. Over the 8 months that followed the initial diversion of the sewage from the estuary there was a 30% reduction in Ulva tissue‐ N and a 60% reduction in Ulva tissue‐chlorophyll. However, the recent Christchurch earthquakes have caused substantial leakage of untreated effluent back into the estuary via broken sewerage pipes. As a result there has been a return to high levels of N‐loading and corresponding qualitative shifts in Ulva tissue N‐isotopes (δ15N) which reflect 55 changes in the nitrogen sources that affect the estuary. In conclusion these results endorse the use of Ulva as a powerful indicator of both the amount and the source of nitrogen that can affect estuaries such as the Avon‐Heathcote. International effort to minimise ships biofouling ‐ working toward greater global biosecurity Andrew Bell, Naomi Parker Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, [email protected] Biofouling on ships’ hulls has been identified as the most probable vector for the majority of identified translocations of non‐indigenous marine species globally. To address this risk a global approach is required. Shipping has become an essential component of the global economy with the increasing volumes of cargo being transferred at greater speed allowing unprecedented global trade. However, such connectedness poses biosecurity risks that need to be carefully balanced against the benefits of trade. Global efforts have been made to address the risks associated with specific commodities through agencies such as the World Organisation for Animal Health and International Plant Protection Convention. Efforts to address the risks associated with trade pathways but not specific commodities, for example sea containers, have only been made more recently. In the marine environment, the International Maritime Organisation as the responsible United Nations body is addressing the biosecurity risks posed by ships. To date the IMO has addressed the risks associated with ballast water through the ballast water management convention and more recently has begun to address the risks associated with biofouling by drafting guidelines on how ships can reduce their biofouling load. These guidelines are proposed for adoption by resolution in July 2011. This talk will discuss these guidelines and trans‐Tasman efforts to support their implementation by international shipping. Patterns of genetic connectivity among benthic fauna on the Chatham Rise and the Challenger Plateau Eleanor Bors1, Ashley Rowden1, Timothy Shank2, Malcolm Clark1, Els Maas1 NIWA1, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA2, [email protected] Genetic connectivity is a critical scientific component of sound Marine Protected Area (MPA) design. Patterns of genetic connectivity among faunal populations can be used to approximate dispersal distances and migratory pathways, understand the import and export of propagules from marine reserves, and determine the geographic extent of a MPA. Deep‐sea communities are vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance from valuable industries in the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (NZ EEZ), including fishing and mining operations. Currently, levels of genetic connectivity among deep‐sea populations throughout the NZ EEZ are not well understood. In order to assess potential management 56 actions and ecosystem resilience, it is important to elucidate the connectivity among populations across a range of taxa and deep‐sea benthic habitats. Using multiple mitochondrial markers, this study aims to reveal patterns of genetic connectivity among populations of the galatheid Munida isos, the gastropod Fusitriton magellanicus laudandus, the polychaete Hyalinoecia longibranchiata, and the pagurid Sympagurs dimorphus inhabiting the Chatham Rise and the Challenger Plateau. Preliminary results of these connectivity analyses will be presented and discussed with regard to ocean currents in the study area. The results will also be considered in the wider context of seafloor management within the NZ EEZ. Estimating carbonate saturation and pH from hydrographic data Helen Bostock, Mike Williams, Sara Mikaloff‐Fletcher, Kim Currie, Scott Nodder NIWA, [email protected] We have used a multi‐linear regression (MLR) technique with hydrographic parameters (temperature, salinity, oxygen) from the world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) transect line P15S2001, to estimate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the waters east of New Zealand. Carbonate saturation and pH can then be calculated from the alkalinity and DIC. The data and algorithms show that there are two different regimes in the water column; a shallow regime (<1400 m) and a deep regime (>1400 m). In the shallow regime the alkalinity has a strong correlation with salinity and temperature, while in the deep regime alkalinity is affected by carbonate dissolution and departs from its relationship with salinity and temperature. These MLR algorithms developed on the P15S2001 data have been validated with independent alkalinity and DIC data from two mooring sites either side of the Chatham Rise. We currently have few deep water stations with alkalinity and DIC measurements to determine the pH and saturation horizons within the New Zealand EEZ. Thus if we can approximate the alkalinity and DIC from traditional hydrographic parameters it will be possible to use archived CTD and oxygen data from the last 20 years to provide a better estimate of the spatial and temporal (seasonal and interannual) variations in pH and carbonate saturation states in the New Zealand region. Understanding the natural variability of carbonate saturation in the oceans around New Zealand is critical to provide a context for laboratory manipulations and can also be used in predictive habitat models to understand and estimate the distribution of carbonate organisms. It will also allow us to monitor and predict future changes in the pH and carbonate saturation caused by ocean acidification. 57 Ice, time, and lost worlds: the distribution of benthic fauna in the Ross Sea David Bowden1, Malcolm Clark1, Stefano Schiaparelli2, Judi Hewitt1 NIWA1, University of Genoa, Italy2, [email protected] The benthic fauna of the Ross Sea have been studied since the earliest expeditions, and since at least the 1950's, scientists have attempted to map the distribution of faunal assemblages. In 2008, as part of New Zealand's International Polar Year voyage, we sampled sites on the Ross Sea continental shelf and northern slope, together with previously unsurveyed seamounts further to the north. By integrating our data with earlier studies, we develop a general map of benthic faunal distributions across the Ross Sea shelf, which we then relate to present and past environmental gradients. Beyond shelf depths, we then describe how the fauna change across the transition from high Antarctic to Southern Ocean environments, and discuss how these present distributions have been influenced by historical events and might respond to future change. A storm surge prediction system for the New York Metropolitan area Hamish Bowman1, Malcolm Bowman2, Charles Flagg2, Brian Colle2 University of Otago1, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, State University of New York at Stony Brook2, [email protected] Many, if not most, of the world's great cities are built at the heads of historically productive estuaries or alongside river mouths, areas particularly at risk to coastal flooding due to topographically amplified storm surges. In continental mid‐latitudes post‐
glacial isostatic rebound can exacerbate the problem of recent and future sea level rise by lowering shorelines (in the case of NYC ~30 cm/century). Infrastructure built long ago, trillions of dollars of real estate, and many lives are at risk from the damaging flood waters of major storms. Over the last ten years the Stony Brook Storm Surge Research Group has coupled tidal, atmospheric, and oceanographic models to create an integrated storm surge prediction model and warning system for the waters around the New York Bight. Here we present what goes into designing and deploying such a system, as well as observations and analysis of ensemble performance during several historical events. The activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme in marine diatoms Afroza Bulbul, Russell Frew, Robert Strzepek, Keith Hunter University of Otago, [email protected] Carbonic anhydrase is a zinc‐containing enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide hydration and bicarbonate dehydration and is used for inorganic 58 carbon acquisition by phytoplankton. In the oceans, where zinc (Zn) is nearly depleted, diatoms can use cadmium (Cd) as a catalytic metal atom in cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CdCA). Measurements from the Munida transect have shown that during summer Cd is depleted in subantarctic water because of enhanced biological uptake. Zn concentrations in this water are also extremely low. Cd levels decline significantly during summer probably as a result of iron‐induced biological growth. The most likely mechanism for uptake of Cd under Zn‐limiting conditions is the formation of cadmium containing carbonic anhydrase (CdCA) enzyme. We collected water samples along the Otago transect bimonthly over one year. Carbonic anhydrase enzymes in the field samples were assayed using spectrophotometric method and the total CA (μg/L) of all samples was calculated. The measured enzyme content ranged from (1‐6 μg/L). Laboratory experiments with manipulated concentrations of Zn and Cd were undertaken to understand the factors influencing the production of CdCA. Results from Zn depleted cultured samples showed a positive correlation between CA enzyme production and Cd repletion. Ross Sea Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) trophic studies: the lipid extraction dilemma and how to get the best out of stable isotope analysis Sarah Bury1, Pinkerton, M1. Thompson, D.1, Pakhomov2, E., Johnson3, J., Nelson1, M., Brown, J1. NIWA1, University of British Columbia, Canada2, University of Auckland3, [email protected] Ross Sea fish are dominated by a single family, the notothenioids, which comprise half of Antarctic marine fish species and 95% of all fish biomass in the region. Notothenioids characteristically lack swim bladders and the majority of species are benthic or demersal. However, a depth‐related diversification has given rise to some species attaining increased buoyancy by concentrating lipid deposits in tissues and reducing skeletal mineralisation: examples being Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni), Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarticum), and icefish (Chionobathyscus dewitti). Antarctic toothfish are particularly lipid‐rich with about 10% of their body mass derived from lipids. These lipid‐rich species can pose problems to trophic studies when trying to obtain reliable δ15N and δ13C values through stable isotope analysis. In order to establish complete lipid removal from samples analysed during a trophic study of the Ross Sea ecosystem without producing artefacts in the δ15N and δ13C values we carried out extensive experimental analyses on a series of internal laboratory fish standards. We used a combination of fish that we knew to be lipid‐rich (Antarctic toothfish) and two Ross Sea fish that had lower lipid content: Whitson’s Grenadier (Macrourus whitsoni) and icefish (Chionobathyscus dewitti). We present δ15N and δ13C data from these standards which underwent three types of sample preparation: no lipid extraction, single lipid‐extraction and double lipid‐extraction and discuss the implications of these results for other studies analysing high lipid‐content materials. 59 Ontogenetic change and the effects of aquaculture noise on hearing ability of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) Paul Caiger University of Auckland, [email protected] The majority of reef fishes have a biphasic life cycle, including a pelagic or dispersal phase where they undergo feeding, ontogenetic development and growth in the open ocean. There is a growing body of evidence that larvae are active in their subsequent orientation and progression back to the reef, with acoustic cues from reefs being potentially important in locating suitable settlement habitats. Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) were used to measure hearing in aquaculture reared snapper (Pagrus auratus), with complete audiograms measured for fish ranging in size from 33 to 81mm. Thresholds increased (hearing sensitivity decreased) with size of fish between the frequencies 100‐800 Hz. In consideration of acoustic cues playing a role in habitat selection, hearing at these lower frequencies may be of less importance as juvenile fish development continues post‐
settlement. Wild caught juvenile snapper were also exposed to air 'bubblers' in an aquarium for 2 weeks, and their hearing thresholds were compared to juveniles without this exposure. Bubbler exposed fish were significantly less sensitive to 100 Hz than those without exposure. The audiograms for the bubbler exposed snapper closely resemble those for the aquaculture reared fish of comparable size; therefore hearing thresholds of aquacultured fish or fish held in aquariums may underestimate the true hearing thresholds in fish. Ocean Threats ‐ Public Perceptions and Actions Sally Carson, Tessa Mills, Victoria Rosin University of Otago, [email protected] The NZ Marine Studies Centre (University of Otago) has been fostering understanding and appreciation of New Zealand's unique marine environment and responsibility towards its conservation. Through community engagement and education, we are raising awareness but are we changing attitudes and behaviours? When interpreting the health of the ocean, research suggests it is better to show people how they can be part of a solution, rather than discussing how they might have been part of the problem. To help in the development of exhibits and programmes on environmental issues we surveyed past visitors to find out what threats to the marine environment they think they have some influence over. Data will be presented on what New Zealanders think they could do as individuals to make a difference. Discussion will focus on how current research findings can be presented to initiate, guide and support public initiatives to improve the health of our ocean. 60 Imaging the Subtropical Front using seismic oceanography Joanna K Cooper, Andrew R Gorman, M Hamish Bowman University of Otago, [email protected] Seismic oceanography involves the use of conventional marine seismic reflection methods to identify density and sound speed contrasts within the ocean. These contrasts are caused by temperature and salinity variations; as a result, seismic images can provide insight into the nature of the features associated with those variations, such as thermohaline intrusions, fronts, and eddies. Recent major exploration seismic surveys conducted over the Great South Basin and Canterbury Basin off the east coast of the South Island provide an excellent opportunity to use seismic oceanography to study the Subtropical Front (STF). The STF is the boundary separating warm, saline subtropical waters of the Pacific Ocean from the cool, fresh subantarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. We present images of water column reflectivity in the vicinity of the STF off the coast of Otago, produced by reprocessing seismic data collected over the last 30 years, representing cross‐sectional views of temperature structure. These images demonstrate the ability for seismic techniques to complement conventional oceanographic methods such as conductivity‐temperature‐depth profiling and satellite‐derived sea surface temperature data by providing detailed (high vertical and horizontal resolution) images of the position of water column features as well as information about the property contrasts associated with them. Evidence from the field and laboratory show calcifying macroalgae may be more tolerant to the effects of ocean acidification than previous research suggests Christopher Cornwall1, Christopher Hepburn1, Christina McGraw2, Catriona Hurd1 University of Otago1, Clark University2, [email protected] Macroalgae are a crucial component of near‐shore rocky reef communities, providing food and habitat for a variety of organisms, but are at risk from anthropogenic stressors such as ocean acidification (OA). Oceanic pH is predicted to decrease by 0.3 units due to OA by the end of the centaury. However, data collected within macroalgal beds indicates that pH fluctuates by 0.5‐1.2 units over 24 hours in coastal communities. We grew coralline macroalgae for 40 days under conditions simulating pH conditions at the end of the centaury due to OA (pH 7.65) and today (pH 8). Each mean pH had two levels of variation: simulating fluctuations within a kelp bed environment (± 0.8 units over a day) and no variation (± 0.0 over a day). Coralline growth decreased in conditions simulating OA. Growth also decreased in fluctuating pH treatments at both mean pH levels. There was no effect of OA on coralline algal health, survival, or recruitment, contrary to previous studies, nor was there any effect of fluctuating pH. This suggests that by the end of the century, the growth of coralline algae could decrease, though their ability to survive and reproduce is unlikely to be affected. 61 You are adrift on the ocean in a boat with a‐‐‐...Student participation in bioethics Steve Cutler University of Otago, [email protected] At the New Zealand Marine Studies Centre, Portobello we continue to meet increasing demand for educational services involving dissections and manipulation of live animals. In doing this we act as the go‐between for students and schools to meet Bioethics requirements. The University of Otago Animal Ethics Committee requires all teaching sessions involving the use of animals or animal tissues to be assessed using three questions detailed in the instructions for applications to use animals and to report the assessment results. Recent changes resulting from a National Animal Ethics Advisory Committee directive means that the actual impact on animals used is judged according to a grade system. As educators involved in the life sciences we have a responsibility to engage students in the thinking, practicalities and reflection that help guide personal and communal bioethics. Such engagement maps a moral landscape that has consequences for protecting New Zealand's marine environment. In the process of our programme assessment we have found that the form the student evaluations take affects the information received. One particular feedback method provided greater detail and depth relevant to the Animal Ethics committee questions and provided clearer waypoints in a developing moral landscape. Spatial and temporal variation in Fiordland intertidal communities Robyn Dunmore, Chris Cornelisen Cawthron Institute, [email protected] Unlike their subtidal counterparts, Fiordland intertidal communities have been the topic of very limited research. The intertidal zone experiences the largest variation in physical environment; communities are exposed to a range of salinities, temperatures, light and wave exposures, which vary both vertically within the tidal range and horizontally along the fiords. A low salinity layer is present throughout much of the sounds due to high rainfall and run‐off, but Doubtful Sound has been subjected to an additional input of freshwater since 1969 when the Manapouri Power Station became operational, and this has changed the intertidal and shallow subtidal communities significantly. Many species described as relatively widespread pre‐tailrace now occur further seaward, and others are restricted to the subtidal. We examined changes in intertidal communities across a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and found that while there were significant changes in horizontal and vertical distributions and abundances of intertidal organisms during the initial operation of the tailrace, the composition and horizontal distribution of intertidal communities in Doubtful Sound have been consistent among separate surveys conducted over the past 26 years. They have remained similar over that time period despite large fluctuations in both rainfall (e.g. wet and dry years) and annual tailrace discharge, and with the addition of a second tailrace tunnel in 2002. 62 What do New Zealanders Think About Marine Reserves in New Zealand and Where Should They Go? Tyler Eddy, Bob Zuur, Rebecca Bird WWF‐New Zealand, [email protected] Recent research commissioned by WWF‐New Zealand and undertaken by Colmar Brunton has found that 96% of New Zealanders think that more of New Zealand’s oceans should be protected in marine reserves. The average New Zealander thinks that 31% of New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is protected by marine reserves and 36% should be protected. Currently just 0.3% of New Zealand’s EEZ is protected in marine reserves, while 20% of the terrestrial environment has equivalent protection. As public desire becomes reality, there is a need to quantify New Zealand’s marine biodiversity to ensure decisions to protect marine biodiversity are at the forefront of marine spatial planning decision making. WWF‐NZ’s past research projects: “Shining a Spotlight on the Biodiversity of New Zealand’s Marine Ecoregion”, “Treasures of the Sea” and “Future Seas” attempted to quantify what is known about our marine biodiversity, using expert knowledge to produce semi‐quantitative resources to inform marine planning. Our next proposed project involves facilitating communication between stakeholders including government, research agencies, industry and nongovernment organisations to identify information sources and knowledge gaps. We hope that facilitating and contributing to this process will result in the best possible resource to inform marine spatial planning that also meets the needs and objectives of stakeholders. Great white sharks: wide ranging ocean travellers, but is Stewart Island their home base? Malcolm Francis1, Clinton Duffy2, Warrick Lyon1, Kina Scollay NIWA1, Department of Conservation2, [email protected] Great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are protected in New Zealand waters, but they are still caught in set nets and other fishing gear. The effect of this incidental mortality on their population size is unknown. The Titi (Muttonbird) Islands off north‐
eastern Stewart Island are an important hotspot for white sharks. A tagging programme has been underway there since 2007 in order to determine their residency patterns, seasonality, migratory behaviour, and ultimately their temporal and spatial overlap with New Zealand coastal fisheries. Most white sharks migrate to tropical regions north of New Zealand from late winter to early summer, and then return to Stewart Island in late summer to early winter. Although long‐distance migrations are now reasonably well documented, we know little about their small‐scale movements. Our focus has now shifted to the use of acoustic tags, which will be detected by data loggers deployed around north‐eastern Stewart Island and Foveaux Strait. This should provide detailed information on spatial and temporal habitat use patterns, and improve our understanding of the extent to which white sharks return to the same place every year. 63 A Survey of yellow‐eyed penguins on Stewart Island / Rakiura 1999 – 2009 Lala Frazer1, Sandy King1, Brent Beaven2, Sue Murray1 Yellow‐eyed Penguin Trust1, Department of Conservation2, [email protected] The Yellow‐eyed Penguin Trust and the Department of Conservation carried out a comprehensive census of yellow‐eyed penguin numbers on Stewart Island / Rakiura and some of its outliers in 1999‐ 2001. The results showed a much lower than expected number of breeding pairs (79) on Stewart Island / Rakiura compared to a relatively high number (99) on the outliers. Prior to 1999 the estimate for Stewart Island / Rakiura was 470‐600 breeding pairs, based on extrapolation from partial surveys carried out in the 1980s and early 1990s but was viewed with some skepticism. These results of the census led to the suggestion that predation of chicks by feral cats on mainland Stewart Island might be affecting breeding success there. A joint project (2003‐2008) was conducted to study the factors affecting yellow‐eyed penguin breeding success by monitoring breeding success at north‐east coast where cats are present, compared to outlying islands where cats are absent. In 2008‐2009 an islandwide survey was repeated to determine whether there had been a serious decline in the number of breeding pairs over the whole of Stewart Island / Rakiura or whether it was confined to the north‐east coast. The spoils of dredging ‐ engagement with Port Otago consent applications Jim Fyfe Department of Conservation, [email protected] In 2008 Port Otago began consultation with the community over plans to deepen Otago Harbour channels to accommodate larger ships. Seven million cubic metres of spoil were to be dredged from Otago Harbour and dumped on the adjacent coast. The Department of Conservation’s interest was in the biodiversity and natural values of both the Harbour and dumping site. Public conservation reserves were also adjacent to the proposed dredging channels. A raft of technical and environmental studies and documents were commissioned by Port Otago. Assessing these, and determining whether sufficient assessments and evidence had been provided on the broad range of potential effects, was a major undertaking. Cumulative and specific effects of sediment removal and movement (especially the long term fate of fine silt and clay particles) was a significant concern. Lack of information made assessing effects on birds and some threatened species difficult. DOC chose to negotiate a role in a technical group that will review monitoring and recommend appropriate management responses to Port Otago within an adaptive management framework. How this will operate remains to be seen. However, adaptive management or technical committees that guide future decisions, and are supported by the company, may provide a model for managing complex consents by major agencies in future. This course of action will need ongoing engagement, but avoids leaving the outcome completely to a consent hearing and appeals through the environmental court that hold uncertainty and high costs. 64 Seismic evidence of the gas hydrate system in the Pegasus Basin, Southern Hikurangi Margin Andrew Gorman1, Douglas1, R. A. Fraser1, Ingo A. Pecher2, Stuart A. Henrys2 University of Otago1, GNS Science2, [email protected] The Hikurangi Margin, east of the North Island of New Zealand, contains a significant gas hydrate province. However, the distribution, concentration and dynamics of hydrate accumulations in the southern portion of the margin (the Pegasus Sub‐Basin) off the northeastern coast of the South Island are poorly constrained. In late 2009 and early 2010, a seismic dataset consisting of approximately 3000 km of 2D seismic data was collected in the Pegasus Sub‐Basin. The Pegasus Sub‐basin is located in the zone of transition between the tectonic regimes of North Island subduction and South Island transpression. The seismic data were acquired using a 12‐km‐long streamer, providing a grid of data over an area of ~35,000 km2, and providing acquisition geometries that facilitate studies based on amplitude variations with offset. Bottom‐Simulating Reflections (BSRs) are abundant in the data, and they are supplemented by other features that may indicate the presence of free gas and gas hydrates in zones of high concentration. We present initial results from the study, including highresolution velocity analysis, providing insight into the nature of interesting seismic features such as bright spots (high‐amplitude anomalies) and flat spots (indicating potential fluid contacts). The intensity, frequency and timing of predation structures reef fish communities Adrian Stier2, Shane Geange1, Kate Hanson3 Victoria University of Wellington1, University of Florida2, USA, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA3, [email protected] Studies examining the role of predation in structuring communities often focus on presence or absence of predators, thus emphasizing fixed rather than variable predator densities. In marine systems, spatiotemporal variation in recruitment strength results in considerable variation in abundance of both prey and predators. Yet, few studies have compared variable vs. non‐variable predator densities in marine systems. We conducted a 4‐month field experiment to assess how the mean and variance of predator density, and the timing of predator arrival affect prey fish abundance and community composition. Experimental treatments included: 1) predator absent, 2) early – two predators for the first two months and no predators for the second two months, 3) late ‐ no predators for the first two months and two predators for the second two months, 4) low density ‐ one predator for the entire four months, and 5) high density ‐ two predators for the entire four months. Relative to the control treatments, the presence of predators reduced average prey density; however, predators increased species richness. For both abundance and diversity, reefs with mean predator densities of 1, and a variance of 2 (early and late treatments) were not statistically different from the low‐density treatment (mean predator density of 1 and a variance of 0) suggesting differences in abundance and 65 diversity among reefs were driven by order of predator arrival rather than variation itself. Our results demonstrate that the magnitude of predator effects in structuring reef fish communities is dependent upon both density and timing of predator arrival. Demersal fish distribution in the Ross Sea Stuart Hanchet1, Malcolm Clark1, Matt Dunn1, Peter McMillan1, Matt Pinkerton1, Andrew Stewart2 NIWA1, Te Papa2, [email protected] Demersal fishes were sampled using a large fish trawl during the BioRoss and IPY surveys carried out in February and March 2004 and 2008 respectively in the Ross Sea region. The distribution and abundance of 65 species collected in these surveys were examined to determine if demersal fish communities varied throughout the area, and if so what environmental factors might influence this. Species accumulation with sample frequency did not reach an asymptote, but the rate of new species caught was low suggesting data were adequate for describing the main components of the communities. Three broad assemblages were identified along a latitudinal gradient from the southern Ross Sea (south of 74ºS), central–northern Ross Sea (between latitudes 71º–74ºS), and the seamounts further north (65º–68ºS). Although this study showed clearly that fish species composition varies latitudinally within the Ross Sea, the environmental drivers of community composition were not straightforward to interpret. Multivariate analyses indicated that environmental factors of seafloor rugosity (roughness), temperature, depth, and current speed were important variables determining the patterns in demersal fish communities. The life cycle of Antarctic toothfish in the Ross Sea Stuart Hanchet, Alistair Dunn, Graham Rickard NIWA, [email protected] There have been a number of articles in newspapers, magazines, and science journals over the last 12 months lamenting the lack of knowledge about Antarctic toothfish. Indeed a recent opinion article in Nature stated that virtually nothing is known about this fish: no eggs or larvae have ever been collected. So what is known about Antarctic toothfish? In this talk we summarise our knowledge of reproduction, size distribution, and movements of Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni in the Ross Sea region and develop a plausible life history. Based on the presumed location and timing of spawning, we investigated models that mimic the drift of eggs and larvae over a 6–24 month period using an oceanic circulation model linked to the high resolution global environmental model (HiGEM). The location of toothfish larvae after an 18–24 month period from the models were consistent with the distribution of the smallest toothfish taken in the 66 toothfish fishery. As the juveniles grow in size they move west towards the Ross Sea shelf and then deeper out on to the continental slope as they mature, before undergoing a northwards spawning migration to the Pacific‐Antarctic ridge to start the cycle again. Pathways to fisheries restoration through customary fisheries tools Christopher Hepburn Otago University, [email protected] Customary fisheries areas (e.g. mataitai and taiapure) can help achieve better management of fisheries by empowering local communities to manage fisheries at finer scales. This approach may be particularly useful in the management of species that exhibit high spatial variability in growth and limited larval dispersal distances such as the black‐
foot abalone or paua (Haliotis iris). An alarming collapse of readily available paua in the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones has been observed in customary fisheries throughout New Zealand. Management of paua fisheries at reef‐by‐reef scales more appropriate to paua life history and stock size is possible through customary tools and may help restore these depleted fisheries. Paua reseeding programmes will be required in some areas where local stocks have become depleted to levels were recovery will be slow. Perhaps the final hurdle preventing effective management of mätaitai and taiäpure is provided through the fact that the legislation allows management of the fish stock but not the habitat that the fishery relies on. Effective local management alongside reseeding plans as well as a means for the protection and restoration of important habitats has the potential to play a major role in restoring fisheries in New Zealand for all stakeholders. Recruitment failure of Western Baltic Spring Spawning Herring ‐ is it caused by food availability for the larvae? Jan Hesse1, PD Cornelius Hammer1, Prof. Gesche Winkler2, Dr. Christopher Zimmermann1, Dr.Daniel Stepputtis1 and Dr. Christian von Dorrien1 vTI‐OSF, Germany1, Institut de Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski2, [email protected] The recruitment of the spawning stock biomass of the Western Baltic Spring Spawning Herring (WBSS) declined between 2004 and 2008 annually by 15‐35% and reached a historical low in 2008. In 2009 however, the number of 20mm larvae (n20) reached again the average of the time series. Approximately 80% of the WBSS migrates into the GreifswalderBodden (GWB), an estuary at the German coast for spawning in a typical retention area from early March into June. It was hypothesized that the zooplankton density and compositions in the years 2008 and 2009 were different causing the recruitment failure in 2008. The density and composition of the zooplankton and the stomach contents of the herring larvae were analysed and it was found that in 2008 the density of nominal prey items was 70,000‐80,000 ind.*m‐3 and about half of what was available in 2009. An extensive literature comparison shows that there are great 67 differences in the field prey concentrations for herring larvae of different stocks and regions. Apparently herring larvae of different stocks survive at far lower prey densities as found in the GWB in 2008. For the WBSS a density of about 200,000 ind.*m‐3 seems to be optimal. The nominal zooplankton consisted predominantly of Acartia developmental stages and adults, and in addition to a small extent of Eurytemora and cyclopoid copepod developmental stages and adults. It was found that cyclopoid copepods were positively selected. It is concluded that the high Acartia‐nauplii density during two weeks in 2009 might have caused the recruitment success in 2009 but that the lower densities in 2008 are not necessarily the cause of the failure in 2008. When rare species are not Judi Hewitt, Simon Thrush NIWA, [email protected] Rare species are theoretically important in maintaining the stability of ecosystem functioning, especially in changing environments. However, restricted occurrence or low local abundance is likely to make rare species vulnerable to disturbance and habitat degradation. Moreover, rare species are often habitat‐specific and, while this relationship can drive the positive relationship between habitat diversity and species richness, it implies rare species tend to have narrow niches. Temporal dynamics in community composition are also likely to influence the ability of rare species to represent functional insurance against changes. Here we analyse benthic macrofauna data to determine whether species that are spatially rare at the site scale generally (a) demonstrate increases in abundance and occurrence along 2 environmental gradients and (b) are transients (i.e. temporally rare). We find that number of rare species decreases with stormwater contaminants and mud, but few of the rare species exhibit increases along the gradients. We also find that rare species are generally not transients; rather they are consistently present, with many even becoming common at times. These two findings suggest that rare species are an expression of their communities and, thus, are unlikely to generally represent insurance against change. The feasibility of an electric bycatch reduction device for spiny dogfish Sunkita Howard University of Auckland, [email protected] Spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, are a major bycatch species in New Zealand fisheries and the temperate oceans of the world. Bycatch of this low‐value shark is a cost to the commercial fishing industry and may not be sustainable, due to life history characteristics that make spiny dogfish populations slow to recover from stock extraction. This study investigated the use of weak electric stimuli to deter electrosensitive dogfish from taking 68 bait, and manipulation of the electric field parameters of frequency and dipole distance to increase deterrent efficacy. Spotted dogfish, Mustelus lenticulatus, were used as a model for spiny dogfish in behavioural experiments. All electric treatments significantly reduced a range of dogfish feeding indicators, including bait removal, feeding latency and foraging effort. There was a significant effect of frequency but not dipole distance. These results indicate that development of an elasmobranch‐specific electric bycatch reduction device may be possible. Regional Marine Biosecurity Partnerships ‐ working together to stop the spread of pests Lou Hunt Ministry of Fisheries, [email protected] MAF has set up several partnerships with the aim of preventing or reducing the spread of marine pests and supporting active participation in marine biosecurity. Together with iwi, regional councils, industry, science providers and central government agencies, some significant achievements have been made through these regional partnerships. Work is now underway to support councils in their newly mandated regional leadership role, to roll the regional partnerships out nationally, and to establish a national strategy as an umbrella framework for the regional partnerships to operate within. Kelp bed habitat drives individual variability in trophic position and resource use of a marine omnivore Lucy Jack, Stephen Wing University of Otago, [email protected] Omnivores play an important role in the routing and distribution of organic matter across food webs. We demonstrate a novel approach to quantify the effects of nutritional landscape on niche breadth in terms of basal organic matter sources and provide an example of the influences of habitat on individual variability in trophic position and resource use in a broad‐spectrum omnivore, the red rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii). Information on the co‐occurrence of J. edwardsii with kelp bed habitats (Ecklonia radiata) and with their preferred prey Mytilus edulis galloprovinciallis were collected at 60 sites across the Fiordland region. Akiake's Information Criterion (AICc) applied to a series of distance‐based linear models (DISTLM) indicated that the presence of mussels was the best predictor of lobster occurrence in the model set. At a subset of sites, we collected lobster muscle samples for stable isotopic analysis and measured demographic parameters: relative abundance, sex and carapace lengths. We characterised habitats with surveys of abundance of the common kelp E. radiata, and mussels. Using δ13C and δ15N we calculated individual‐based estimates of trophic level and the mixture of organic matter sources: phytoplankton and macroalgae. Using DISTLM, density of rock lobsters 69 and mussel density best explained the variability in lobster diet, while distinct patterns were apparent inside and outside of kelp bed habitat. In kelp bed habitat lobsters fed at a higher average trophic level, with low variability among individuals in trophic level and use of organic matter sources. Outside kelp bed habitat, individual specialisation resulted in broad trophic diversification. The observed patterns indicate a strong bottom‐up influence of the nutritional landscape at the scale of the metapopulation which has important implications for understanding nutritional influences on population structure. Strategies Employed by Communities to Manage Taiäpure Anne‐Marie Jackson, Catriona Hurd, Christopher Hepburn University of Otago, anne‐[email protected] Taiāpure is a customary fisheries area management tool that aims to make better provision for the recognition of rangatiratanga and the rights secured in relation to Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi. The legislative provisions for taiāpure are provided in Part IX of the Fisheries Act 1996. This paper will examine how the taiāpure concept is utilised by the East Otago Taiäpure Management Committee (EOTMC). The East Otago Taiāpure was formally gazetted in 1999 and is managed 50% by the hapū of Ngāi Tahu, Kāti Huirapa ki Puketeraki and 50% by community members. Through the taiāpure concept, the EOTMC is able to draw on multiple identities as strategies to successfully manage the East Otago Taiāpure. Four of these identities will be discussed: the community management identity; the Māori identity; the scientific identity and; the environment identity. Each of these identities is utilised to operationalise rangatiratanga for Kāti Huirapa ki Puketeraki as a means to sustainably manage their fishery now and for future generations. Carbon limitation in macroalgal communities and their response to ocean acidification Rebecca James, Catriona Hurd, Christopher Hepburn University of Otago, [email protected] Ocean acidification will influence the speciation of inorganic carbon. More CO2 will be available; this is an energetically cheap carbon source for photosynthesis compared with HCO3. Increased CO2 availability could influence macroalgal growth and lead to changes in macroalgal community structure. However, before we can predict how macroalgae will respond to this change in their carbon supply, we require a better understanding of the extent of carbon limitation in macroalgal communities. Community surveys and stable isotope measurements showed more CO2‐only using species were present at wave exposed sites, where CO2 availability is predicted to be higher due to thinner diffusion boundary layers compared with wave sheltered sites. The carbon uptake kinetics were examined for two common species under two water motion (high and low) and pH (8.1 and 7.6) treatments, showing saturation of photosynthesis at a lower total inorganic 70 carbon concentration at pH 7.6. A 6‐week growth experiment with young macroalgal communities at two pH treatments (8.1 and 7.6) revealed that although all communities grew, there was reduced growth for all algae at pH 7.6. This project has shown that greater CO2 concentrations could positively influence photosynthesis in some species of macroalgae by reducing carbon limitation, however water motion strongly influences this effect. Update on border management of the biofouling pathway for marine invasive species Liz Jones MAF Biosecuirty, [email protected] Biofouling on arriving ships, yachts and other vessels has been the subject of considerable research and analysis with the objective of developing preventative measures to reduce the number of new marine pests arriving and becoming established through this pathway. This presentation gives an update on the resulting import health standard that is about to be released by MAF under the Biosecurity Act and how it will be used to direct border management for all arriving vessels in respect of hull biofouling management. This standard and the preventative measures it establishes represent an example of the way marine science is fundamental in providing a basis for legal instruments used to protect against risks to our marine resources. The presentation will include a picture of how various commissioned research contributed to the final biofouling border system. A bioeconomic model for Hooker's sea lion bycatch in New Zealand Viktoria Kahui University of Otago, [email protected] The New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries constrains the incidental capture of Hooker's sea lions in trawl nets of the southern squid fishery by closing the season once an upper limit on sea lion deaths is reached. The regulatory measure is in fact a limit on effort since the number of sea lion deaths is calculated from an estimated mortality rate per standard unit of effort measured in tows. During recent years vessels have been observed to increase the median time per tow suggesting the industry is expanding the capacity of an unregulated input in response. This paper formalises the current situation analytically by constructing a bioeconomic model that captures the idiosyncrasies of the squid fishery and the imposed regulation. Reducing the regulatory constraint to an isoperimetric problem can show how the current management regime may skew incentives leading to the observed increase in tow time. An extension to the current regulatory framework by introducing a spatial dimension to the estimated sea lion mortality rate may lead to more efficient behaviour. Despite retaining an upper limit on sea lion deaths, the profit 71 maximising squid industry is given the incentive to increase effort in areas of high squid density relative to sea lion density. Near‐future CO2‐driven hypercapnia depresses echinoderm larval metabolism by approximately one‐third Miles Lamare1, Maria Byrne2, Sven Uthicke3, Mike Barker1 University of Otago1, University of Sydney2, Australian Institute of Marine Science3, [email protected] Metabolic depression, a reduction in metabolic activities, is an adaptive strategy to minimise the adverse effects of abiotic stressors and hypercapnia. We examined the metabolic response of larvae from eight echinoderm species ranging from Antarctic to tropical habitats in projected near future (year 2100) ocean conditions (0.4 pH lower than present day, pCO2 (aq) = 1091 to 1450.8 μatm) at their ambient sea temperatures. Metabolic activity was quantified from larval respiration rates, measured in ambient and reduced pH seawater using a microrespirometer. All species exhibited a reduction in metabolic rate (12.3 to 50.9%) when exposed to hypercapnic conditions and this was significant in six species. Across all species metabolism was reduced by ca. 30% when exposed to seawater pCO2 levels predicted for the year 2100. The data indicated that the level of metabolic depression was not closely linked with basal metabolic rate, despite the broad latitudinal range of the species and between a lecithotrophic larvae and planktotrophic developmental modes. Modelling of data suggest that sea temperature increases (due to global warming) may not be sufficient to compensate for hypercapnia‐
induced metabolic depression. This is the first study to show that metabolic depression, and its potential for reducing the fitness and viability of small invertebrate larvae, is an important consideration in understanding the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms. New Zealand's International Polar Year ‐ “Census of Antarctic Marine Life" project in the Ross Sea region 2008‐2011: An overview Mary Livingston, Stu Hanchet Ministry of Fisheries, [email protected] In February 2008, New Zealand scientists embarked on a highly ambitious, epic voyage to the Southern Ocean, to survey marine biodiversity in the Ross Sea region as a major contribution to New Zealand's collective International Polar Year research effort. In spite of some of the worst summer ice conditions for 30 years, the IPY‐CAML voyage successfully sampled 39 sites with 282 gear deployments from the sea surface down to 3500 m, and from the continental shelf and slope of the Ross Sea to unexplored seamounts and abyssal plains immediately to the north. Three years of postvoyage 72 analysis has now been completed. Extensive sample processing and the characterisation of assemblages in these areas identified many new species and new records and a comprehensive assessment of the link between environment and biodiversity distribution in the region. The results from this project have already been used as inputs to CCAMLR and the management of the toothfish fishery. They have also contributed to bioregionalisation of the area and the development of a science based approach towards MPA proposals that are now under discussion in the political arena. With a strong outreach component, the project also generated a popular science documentary film, over 20 scientific papers and reports and over 50 presentations to scientists, managers, and the general public. Our presentation provides an overview of the project and the voyage, and is a prelude to other papers presented about IPY‐CAML results in this session. Contributions of shallow sedimentary habitats to overall estuarine primary production and nutrient dynamics Andrew Lohrer, Niall Broekhuizen, Iain MacDonald, Rod Budd NIWA, [email protected] Intertidal flats and estuarine waters <5 m deep are the most productive parts of our coastal ecosystems due to the relatively warm, nutrient‐laden, well‐lit waters. Annual production by benthic microalgae (microphytobenthos) far outweighs that of phytoplankton in these shallow areas and forms the base of the marine benthic food web. The high productivity in these shallow estuarine habitats is critical to the delivery of goods and services in adjacent coastal systems, even though the contribution of the shallow estuarine habitats may not be immediately recognised by the public. Here, we report on the contributions of benthic microphytes and benthic nutrient dynamics relative to phytoplankton and water column processes in Mahurangi Habour, north of Auckland. Benthic chamber incubations were performed at three depths during night and day, with dark and light bottle incubations conducted simultaneously at the same three depths. These results were accompanied by data on sediment and water column chlorophyll a concentrations. Finally, we collected water samples at three depths every 1.5 hr for an entire day in order to calculate the export of Chla, TOC and nutrients from the estuary to the adjacent coast. Come to the talk to find out what we found out. Plastic brains and phenotypic sex ‐ possible mechanisms of sex reversal in the kyusen wrasse, Halichoeres poecilopterus Mark Lokman1, Kiyoshi Soyano2 University of Otago1, Nagasaki University, Japan2, [email protected] Functional sex reversal is a strategy that is geared towards maximizing reproductive fitness. It is commonly employed by wrasses, groupers and marine gobies, whose 73 members are often protogynous ‐ starting life as female and changing to the male phenotype later in life. The hormonal signals and sequential architectural changes that lead to reconstruction of the gonad from an ovary into a testis have been well‐
documented; however, little is known about the changes that occur in the brain, i.e., the control centre that initiates sex change. We therefore aimed to compare gene expression profiles between brains and pituitary glands of females, transitional males and terminalphase males of a common Japanese wrasse, Halichoeres poecilopterus. We focused our attention on genes that are known to be, or likely to be, expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern and/or genes that are implicated in regulating reproduction. We also evaluate the effects of prolonged treatment with the neuropeptide kisspeptin on gonadal sex and the expression of these genes in the brain. Dusky Dolphin Behaviour and Movement Patterns: Effects of Tourism off Kaikoura, New Zealand Dave Lundquist1, Neil Gemmell1, Bernd Würsig2 University of Otago1, Texas A&M University, USA2, [email protected] Public perception is often that cetacean‐watching is low‐impact and sustainable. However, questions remain regarding widespread and high‐intensity tourism, and effects on health and well‐being of wild cetacean populations. Studies >10 years ago of dusky dolphin tourism off Kaikoura led to a voluntary midday rest period and 10‐year moratorium (1999‐2009) on expansion. The present study used a theodolite connected to a laptop running Pythagoras software to collect group behavioural state and calculate position information for dolphins and vessels in order to assess current effects of tourism. Dolphins swam slower, milled more, rested and socialised less, and changed behavioural state more often when vessels were present than at other times. The greatest effects on dolphin behaviour and movement patterns occurred when >3 vessels were present. Reorientation rate did not significantly change with either the number or type of vessels present. Individual dusky dolphins may be resilient to these changes because they exist in a large and open population that feeds at night in this area. But because resting and socialising are critical daytime activities that are reduced in the presence of vessels, management steps must be taken to protect dolphins and to ensure that negative effects due to tourism activity are minimised. 74 Modelling the impacts of disturbance on functional diversity of marine benthic communities Carolyn Lundquist1, Simon Thrush1, Giovanni Coco2, Mark Pritchard1, Judi Hewitt1, Ngaire Phillips1, David Bowden1 NIWA Hamilton1, Universidad de Cantabria2, [email protected] Marine soft sediment habitats are modified by disturbances from fishing, mining and other human and natural disturbances. However, the difficulty and expense of sampling in these habitats make it challenging to evaluate the success of different strategies to manage disturbance impacts. Here, we present a seascape model of disturbance/recovery dynamics in benthic communities dominated by both infaunal and epifaunal taxa. We define eight functional species groups, each with different parameters for dispersal, age of maturity, age of mortality and interactions with other species, resulting in varying timelines of recovery from disturbance for each functional group. We use data from field surveys of benthic communities to validate the model using a fuzzy logic approach to translate functional traits of organisms into the eight model functional groups, using inshore surveys from Tasman and Golden Bays, and offshore surveys from the Chatham Rise and Challenger Plateau. We further calibrate the functional interaction matrix and other model parameters based on field data and expert knowledge. Our long term goals are to use the model to correlate spatial and temporal rates of disturbance with the persistence of functional groups in soft sediment ecosystems, thus informing management scenarios to minimise disturbance impacts on seafloor communities. Rig nursery areas: what makes a good one and what's wrong with the South Island? Malcolm Francis, Warrick Lyon, Emma Jones, Peter Notman, Christy Getzlaff NIWA, [email protected] In spring, female rig (Mustelus lenticulatus) move into coastal waters around New Zealand, where they give birth to live young. The new‐born sharks, about 25‐30 cm total length, remain in estuaries and shallow harbours during summer and then depart in autumn‐winter. Estuaries and bays appear to function as nursery areas by providing abundant food (mainly crabs) and perhaps protection from predation by large fishes and sharks. A nationwide set‐net survey was carried out in February‐March 2011 to identify important rig nursery areas. Juvenile rig abundance varied enormously among estuaries. Greatest abundance occurred in Kaipara and Raglan Harbours, moderate numbers in 17 Waitemata Harbour, Tamaki Estuary, and Porirua Harbour, and only small numbers in Manukau Harbour, Pelorus Sound, and Otago Harbour. No juvenile rig were caught in Tauranga Harbour, Farewell Spit, Whanganui Inlet or Nelson. Thus moderate to large catches were restricted to some North Island harbours. In harbours that produced large catches, catch rates varied greatly among sites. The zero to low catches in South Island harbours were surprising given that major commercial rig fisheries occur in the region. 75 Future work will assess potential human threats to the important North Island rig nurseries. Management and use of marine resources Chris Mace NIWA, [email protected] New Zealand’s marine environment is nationally important because of its immense economic, social and environmental value. Our oceans and coasts are rich with resources, and they make a significant contribution to our economy through fishing and aquaculture, oil and gas exploration and extraction, tourism and recreation, transport and telecommunications links. Our marine environment is globally important both in terms of its biodiversity and because of the unique role our oceans play in understanding how climate change might impact globally. Managing our marine environment is not an easy task because of its size and diversity. The ocean is a large, interconnected ecosystem, yet we have no explicit over‐arching strategy for how we manage it. Getting greater value from our marine resources has never been more important for New Zealand’s long‐term prosperity but increasing the use of our marine resources means we face increasing difficulty in how we manage them. We have already seen examples of how conflicting interests between building our economic prosperity and protecting our unique marine environment might play out in the future. These conflicts highlight, more than ever, the need for a strong, well‐defined, and integrated National Oceans Strategy to inform policy development and guide how our marine environment is researched, managed, and used. And it is essential that organisations involved in marine sciences work closely with each other, and with those managing and using our marine resources, to build our knowledge and understanding of our marine environment and its various interactions. Management and restoration of cockle beds in New Zealand? Islay Marsden, John Pirker, Sue Adkins, Henry Couch University of Canterbury, [email protected] The intertidal cockle Austrovenus stutchburyi, locally known as tuangi, is endemic to New Zealand where it commonly occurs in sheltered sandflats and estuaries. While it is still abundant in some places, recreational collecting, changed seabed use and habitat change have resulted in losses of shellfish beds. This talk reviews the current status of cockle resources in New Zealand and describes some of the methods (including closures and experimental transplants) that have been used to try to re‐establish them. Cockle populations differ both within and between locations and recent research suggest that this is often site specific and correlated with habitat disturbance, sediment properties and contaminant levels. We discuss the role of Customary Fishing Regulations and the 76 management of Maori Marine Reserves in promoting cockles as a sustainable shellfishery. We also present results from recent small and large scale transplant studies from the South Island of New Zealand. Genetic Approaches to Reseeding in New Zealand’s Blackfoot pāua (Haliotis iris) Tom McCowan1, Chris Hepburn2 Gerard Prendeville3 and Neil Gemmell1 Centre for Reproduction and Genomics, Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand1, Department of Marine Science, University of Otago New Zealand2, Paua Mac 7, 30 Boons Valley Road, Waikawa Bay, Picton, New Zealand3 New Zealand’s Blackfoot Abalone or pāua (Haliotis iris) is a fishery of significant commercial, recreational and customary value. Reseeding has been trialed with promising outcomes in pāua. We are currently investigating how genetic approaches can be used to improve pāua reseeding management practices. We have undertaken a reseeding trial in Tory Channel, Marlborough Sounds, where genetic surveys of hatchery broodstock, wild populations and recaptured individuals has allowed for the determination of survival rates, an assessment of genetic changes during the hatchery process and for wild population structure and recruitment analyses. This study has allowed us to apply this methodology to reseeding in a customary fishery, the East Otago Taiāpure. We have undertaken initial genetic surveys of pāua populations suitable for reseeding within the Taiāpure. This has been complimented with broodstock collection from these areas, the offspring of which will be used to reseed targeted populations. Genetic monitoring of wild, broodstock and reseeded populations can ultimately be used to ensure the viability of reseeding programs and to monitor downstream genetic effects on wild populations. In a customary setting, this methodology can also provide a novel means of maintaining certain elements of tikanga inherent in customary fisheries management. Ocean acidification and algal reproduction: Separate and compensatory effect of DIC over Ph on the ontogeny of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera Dr. Michael Roleda1, Jaz Morris1, Christina McGraw2, Catriona Hurd1 University of Otago, Clark University, USA2, [email protected] The worldwide effects of ocean acidification (OA) on oceanic species are an emerging concern. However, studies on OA and macroalgae have focused primarily on calcareous species. No studies to date have investigated OA's impact on the early life‐history stages of kelp. In this study, spores from Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales) were exposed to a range of pH treatments from pH 7.6‐8.5 in the presence and absence of added dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Germination rate under each scenario was quantified after 5 days. Gametophyte development was observed over six weeks at pH 8.14, pH 7.86 and 7.61. In 77 both experiments, acid stress caused a significant reduction in germination, while added DIC had the opposite effect. The rates of pH increase in culture vessels suggest that uptake of CO2 over HCO3 ‐ is higher in low‐pH/high‐DIC conditions, indicating a compensatory effect of increased photosynthetic efficiency due to OA. No significant changes in sex ratio of gametophytes were detected between treatments. Our data suggests that OA will have multiple effects on the ontogeny of Macrocystis, highlighting the need for further research into the development of other kelp species. Age and growth of habitat‐forming Solenosmilia variabilis ‐ an assessment of recovery Potential Helen Neil, Di Tracey, Malcolm Clark, Peter Marriot NIWA, [email protected] Some species of coldwater corals can form large reef‐like structures that provide habitat for numerous other species. These corals can be removed or their integrity affected by physical disturbance from the likes of bottom trawling and seabed mining. Our ability to assess the recovery rate of these habitats and their associated communities is at present compromised by our lack of knowledge on the age and growth of the main matrix‐forming coral species. Whilst some research on the age and growth of some corals has been conducted by NIWA, estimates for the key matrix‐forming species remain elusive (globally). Such matrices are constructed by only a few coral species in deep waters throughout the South Pacific. A scoping study to determine the feasibility of ageing NZ's deep sea habitat forming corals has been conducted on specimens of Solenosmilia variabilis. This proof‐of concept study confirmed the viability of using radiocarbon difference analyses across a single coral colony. Linear growth rates calculated range from 0.3 to 1.3 mm/yr, in keeping with growth rates reported for matrix/reef forming Lophelia (e.g. Mortensen & Rapp, 1998; Mortensen, 2000). Using a conservative estimate of matrix height of ~20cm, it could take hundreds of years for a colony to attain this height. Distribution, abundance and acoustic properties of Antarctic silverfish in the Ross Sea Richard O'Driscoll1, Gavin Macaulay2, Stephane Gauthier1, Matt Pinkerton1, Stuart Hanchet1 NIWA1, IMR, Norway2, [email protected] The IPY‐CAML voyage provided the first acoustic estimates of the abundance and distribution of Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) in the Ross Sea. Using multiple acoustic frequencies allowed discrimination of silverfish from krill and other associated species. Mark identification was confirmed using targeted and random trawling. Silverfish were widely distributed over the Ross Sea shelf. Adult silverfish formed layers at 150 ... 78 X‐radiographs reveal stratigraphic variability over monthly timescales on the muddy and energetic Poverty shelf Alan Orpin1, JP Walsh2, Reide Corbett2, Andrea Ogston3, Richard Hale3 NIWA1, East Carolina University, USA2, University of Washington, USA3, [email protected] The Poverty Bay continental margin contains a remarkable sedimentary archive of environmental change. Sediment yields in the muddy Waipaoa River catchment today are among the highest on earth; the product of tectonics, easily erodible lithologies, a vigorous maritime climate, and deforestation. Accordingly, terrigenous inputs dominate the marine sediment record on the adjacent continental margin. Significant advances in the understanding of sedimentation throughout the Waipaoa Sedimentary System have been afforded through the MARGINS Waipaoa Source‐to‐Sink initiative, but the balance of processes that drive sediment dispersal, deposition, and erosion on the energetic continental shelf remains largely unknown. A current project has the goal of determining how the shelf sedimentary record is produced by diverse processes. Around 230 precision multicores were slabbed for X‐ray analysis using a portable digital imaging system and subsampled for radiochemical tracers (Pb‐210, Be‐7). X‐radiography was an excellent diagnostic tool for identifying strata and the architecture of sedimentary structures preserved in cores. Provisional comparison of Xradiographs at reoccupied core sites over thirteen months suggests that changes occur over monthly timescales. This approach raises significant philosophical questions about the fidelity and completeness of the geological record, and emphasises the transient nature of many deposits affected by strong oceanographic drivers. Feasibility of using longline fishery bycatch data to map the distribution of sessile benthic invertebrates on the slope and shelf of the Ross Sea Steven Parker, Russell Cole, Stuart Hanchet NIWA, [email protected] Protecting long‐lived, low productivity, and fragile benthic invertebrates such as corals and sponges, first requires some knowledge of their distribution. Most of the area fished in the Ross Sea has never been scientifically surveyed, and the only access to the area is via commercial fishing vessels. High resolution bycatch data (per 1200‐m of longline) have now been collected for two fishing seasons, with 4 728 observations. Several regions with consistent presence of sessile invertebrate taxa bycatch are identifiable, as are several areas of dense fishing effort with no evidence of these taxa. Spatial analysis indicates that the probability of detection for several of these taxa is high enough to assess presence or absence in an adequately sampled area. Video transects on the Ross Sea slope from New Zealand's 2008 IPY voyage were used to characterise the fine scale distributions (i.e. < 600 m) for several taxa. Together, the data show that these invertebrate taxa occur in complex mosaic patterns of small patches dispersed within larger habitats. These results 79 are beginning to show fishery‐scale patterns in distribution, which can then inform predictive models of distribution for use by fishery managers. The nursery effect for juvenile snapper Darren Parsons NIWA, [email protected] The role that structured habitats play as nurseries for juvenile fishes is often stated but rarely tested. For any habitat to function as a nursery it must provide a greater than average per unit area contribution to the adult population than other habitats. Increased abundance, however, does not necessarily infer that a habitat is a nursery. The most practical method of gathering additional evidence of a nursery effect is by establishing increased productivity of that habitat through increased survival and or growth. Therefore, we set out to compare growth and survival rates of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) using Artificial Seagrass Units (ASU’s) with varying blade density. We tagged juvenile fish (including snapper) that recruited to these ASU’s with individually numbered coded microwire tags. This presentation provides some insight from this experiment into the dynamics of snapper recruitment and the importance of structured habitats such as seagrass beds to adult populations. Possible chronic impacts of potential climate change on the distribution of estuarine mysids (Tenagomysis spp.) of South Island, New Zealand Sourav Paul, Dr. Gerry Closs, Dr. Keith Probert, Matthew Downes University of Otago, [email protected] In estuaries mysid shrimps are a critical link between benthic and pelagic food webs, and form a large proportion of faunal biomass. Tenagomysis spp. are abundant in estuaries of New Zealand, but surprisingly, are poorly studied. The study investigated combined effects of change in salinity (0‐33) and temperature (5‐20°C) on the survival and osmoregulatory capacities of Tenagomysis chiltoni and Tenagomysis novaezealandiae. Salinities of 15‐25 and temperature of 20°C were most favourable for survival except in extremes of fresh and seawater. Both species maintain body fluid concentrations at species‐specific levels over a range (0‐33) of environmental salinities, and the iso‐osmotic points are within 15‐20, which corresponds with their lowest mortality. Statistical analysis showed their survival and osmoregulation are closely related to the changes in temperature rather than salinity. Experimental results were compared with field observations that suggest an interaction between salinity and temperature may drive the spatial distribution of Tenagomysis in estuaries. The results highlight the potential sensitivity of estuarine systems to climate‐mediated changes in temperature and sea level. 80 A Pre‐history of fishing in New Zealand Chris Paulin Museum of New Zealand Te Papa, [email protected] The relatively low densities of Mäori populations in New Zealand prior to European contact had little or no impact on the vast stocks of fish around the coasts except in very small, localised areas. Although the archaeological record of fish bones in middens, the historical record of Mäori fishing activities and Mäori fish names in early New Zealand literature, or the oral histories submitted to the Waitangi Tribunal cannot provide full and exact details of Mäori fishing activities, we can conclude that Mäori had a good knowledge of, and used extensively, all of those fish species that were available in coastal and inshore waters that could be captured with the available technology. Distance from shore, rather than depth was the main limiting factor however, an estimated depth limit of Mäori fishing of between 50 and 100 metres can be inferred. Increasing population, and the introduction of new preservation techniques by Europeans soon led to commercial harvesting exceeding the productivity of many fisheries. Commercial mullet fishing in the northern harbours collapsed before the end of the nineteenth century, and although some people began expressing concerns it was considered that overfishing was restricted to localised areas close to fishing ports. Expansion of European interests into commercial fishing in the late 1800s led to increasing government regulation and conflict with Mäori rights which had been guaranteed under the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. Maui's anchor Neville Peat [email protected] Stewart Island/Rakiura has a place in New Zealand maritime history out of all proportion to its size and population, beginning with its status as the southernmost permanently settled corner of Polynesia. No part of the island's human history avoids contact with the sea, from centuries of muttonbirding to pioneer Pakeha shipbuilding, fishing, tourism, even farming. The island was the anchor of Maui's fabled fishing canoe and with Cook's Endeavour expedition of 1770, it blew away two thousand years of European mythology about the existence of a Great Southern Land. In the vicinity of Stewart Island, the ocean circulation has some interesting twists and turns to it. Neville Peat has written several books about the island, most recently Rakiura Heritage (Department of Conservation 2010). 81 Growth of a newly arrived range‐extender in New Zealand: a comparison with the case of Tasmania Danilo Pecorino, Miles Lamare University of Otago, [email protected] The sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii (Agassiz 1863) has recently undergone an expansion of its range southward, towards Tasmania, and eastward, to northern New Zealand and its offshore islands. This expansion is likely to be due to the change in strength of the East Australian Current and, consequently, to the increase in the annual average seawater temperature and potential to transport larval stages further from their place of origin. We are presently undertaking a study on the growth, reproduction and larval biology of the species in Northern New Zealand, as little is known of the biology and ecology at this site. By means of tag‐recapture techniques and subsequent non‐linear regressions on growth after 1‐year, we built growth models for the species in north New Zealand to compare with the Tasmanian population. Age estimates were performed and validated and morphological data were compared, as well. The maximum size of the two populations proved to be similar, while growth rate appears to be higher in New Zealand, despite a much larger Lantern Index (usually interpreted as a clue for poorer nutritional status). Science requirements for identification and protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems Andrew Penney1, John Guinotte2 Ministry of Fisheries1, Marine Conservation Institute, USA2, [email protected] The adoption in 2007 of UNGA Resolution 61/105 on Responsible Fisheries, and the 2009 FAO Guidelines for Management of Deep Sea Fisheries, established obligations for participants in bottom fisheries in the high seas to prevent significant adverse impacts on vulnerable marine ecosystems. What does this mean? What are VMEs? What are significant adverse impacts? How should the risk of significant impacts be assessed? What would qualify as adequate protection measures to prevent significant impacts? Given the scarcity of data on high seas benthic biodiversity patterns, what other information might be useful in predicting occurrence of VMEs? With current research funding constraints, how might such information be collected, generated or improved? These questions have created substantial challenges for the recently negotiated South Pacific Fishery Management Organization (SPRFMO). As the main bottom fishing nation in the SPRFMO Area, an overview of the initiatives taken by New Zealand to answer these questions will be presented, management actions implemented in response to the bottom fishery impact assessment for this fishery will be evaluated, and options for collecting information needed to improve management will be suggested. Lessons learned and approaches developed on the high‐seas are useful to management of vulnerable ecosystems within New Zealand waters. 82 Ecosystem modelling of the Ross Sea: validation and insight from the International Polar Year Census of Antarctic Marine Life (IPY‐CAML) voyage Matt Pinkerton, Janet Bradford‐Grieve NIWA, [email protected] We present an end‐to‐end food web model of the Ross Sea and validation data derived from the recent New Zealand International Polar Year Census of Antarctic Marine Life (IPY‐CAML) voyage to the Ross Sea region. Information required to develop trophic models is typically incomplete and a novel method is presented to adjust the initial parameter set to give a balanced model taking into account the estimates of parameter uncertainty and the large range of magnitude (>6 orders of magnitude) in trophic flows between groups. Data for the validation of the trophic model of the Ross Sea were collected during the New Zealand IPY‐CAML survey of the Ross Sea region in February/March 2008. Diet and trophic linkages of species were measured by two approaches: (1) gut contents analysis, especially of the fish community; (2) stable isotope analysis. Habitat complexity and biodiversity: bryozoan patch‐reef size, and polychaete biodiversity on the New Zealand continental shelf Anna Wood1, Keith Probert1, Ashley Rowden2 University Of Otago1, NIWA2, [email protected] Large, heavily‐calcified bryozoans dominate an area of continental shelf of south‐eastern New Zealand (Otago shelf, 46°S), about 500 km2, in water depths of 80–150 m. The cyclostomes Cinctipora elegans dominates small patch reefs which grow to about 15 cm tall and <1 m2 in area. Reefs are interspersed with heterogeneous muddy gravels in which biogenic material (molluscan and bryozoan) is an important constituent. Diverse in‐ and epifauna are associated with these biogenic habitats. We examine the relationship between habitat complexity generated by bryozoans as live colonies and as constituents of sediment, and the biodiversity of associated polychaetes, using the naturally varying quantities of bryozoan material in each sample. Thirty large grab samples were collected from 80 m water depth, and each was divided into a small sediment sample, epifauna including bryozoans, and infauna. Faunal samples were washed on 5 mm, 1 mm and 0.5 mm sieves and sediment samples analysed using standard procedures. Polychaetes were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic unit, and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between polychaete species and trophic diversity, and the habitat generated by bryozoans as epifauna and as sediment. Here we present data on habitat and associated fauna from the 5 mm sample fractions. Our findings may have important implications for management of these fragile shelf habitats, which are threatened by commercial fishing. 83 The Conservation Services Programme ‐ Research into fishing interactions with protected species Kris Ramm Department of Conservation, [email protected] The Conservation Service Programme (CSP), administered by the Department of Conservation, is a legislated programme which was set in place with two explicit aims. To firstly understand the nature and extent of adverse effects from commercial fishing on protected species in NZ fisheries waters and secondly to develop effective solutions to mitigate against, these adverse effects. The work of the Conservation Services Programme is funded largely through levies charged to the commercial fishing industry and has operated for the past 16 years. Over this time CSP has funded a large number of research projects ranging from ongoing observer coverage onboard commercial fishing vessels, trialling of methods for mitigating against captures of protected species and population studies on certain species such as New Zealand sea lions and black petrels. This talk takes some case studies from the work which has been conducted by CSP over it’s history, discussing some of it’s successes as well as areas of further development and outlooks into the future. Photo‐ID estimates of southern right whale abundance in the Auckland Islands calving Grounds Will Rayment1, Simon Childerhouse2 University of Otago1, Australian Antarctic Division2, [email protected] Southern right whales were hunted to the brink of extinction in New Zealand by commercial whaling, but populations are presumed to be increasing since protection in 1935. We aimed to quantify this recovery and investigate population parameters in the sub‐Antarctic Auckland Islands, the primary known calving area. Photo‐ID surveys were conducted in Port Ross during annual 3‐week long expeditions from 2006‐2010. All whales except calves were recognisable owing to the unique pattern of callosities on the head, resulting in a catalogue of 378 individuals. Mark‐recapture models allowing temporary emigration from the study area were implemented using the robust design in program MARK, with competing models ranked by AIC. The best model had capture probabilities varying by primary sampling period, with Markovian temporary emigration by mature females and random temporary emigration by other whales. Estimates of abundance on the calving ground varied from 183 (95% CI: 41‐807) in 2007 to 328 (259‐414) in 2010. The model averaged estimate of non‐calf survival rate was 0.964 (95% CI: 0.725‐0.996). Using the estimates from the best model incorporating random temporary emigration, the size of the super‐population (i.e. whales associated with the survey area during the course of the study) was estimated to be 1184 (1032‐1358) in 2010. This study provides up to date population parameters for southern right whales in New Zealand and establishes a baseline with which to assess population recovery. 84 Risk of commercial fisheries to seabird populations within the NZ EEZ Yvan Richard1, Edward R. Abraham1, Dominique Fillippi2 Dragonfly Limited1, Sextant Technology Ltd2, [email protected] New Zealand is a global centre of seabird diversity, and some studies estimate a high number of seabird captures in commercial fisheries within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The impact of these captures on species viability depends on demographic parameters such as population size, survival, and productivity. For 64 New Zealand seabird species, we examined the risk from bycatch in commercial trawl and longline fisheries. For each species, the risk was assessed by comparing the number of birds killed annually in fisheries, to the Potential Biological Removal (PBR) index, which represents the number of human‐induced fatalities a species can sustain. Among the studied species, the black petrel (Procellaria parkinsoni) clearly stood out as the species the most at risk from commercial fishing activities within the EEZ, with fatalities in fisheries estimated to be around 10 times higher than the PBR. The risk was high for 19 other species, although the risk was sometimes driven by our cautionary approach for dealing with the lack of observations in inshore fisheries. The benefits of the approach in guiding fisheries management and seabird research, as well as its limitations, will be discussed. Photosynthetic response of monospecific macroalgal stands to density Derek Richards, Catriona L Hurd, Daniel W. Pritchard, Stephen R. Wing, Christopher D. Hepburn University of Otago, [email protected] Photosynthesis by benthic marine macroalgae makes an important contribution to the productivity of coastal seas. Current estimates of macroalgal productivity are often based on photosynthetic characteristics of thallus pieces or whole thalli, not from groups of individual as is typical in situ. These methods have the potential to overestimate rates of productivity, as they do not account for neighbourhood shading effects that may reduce photosynthetic rates in dense macroalgal stands. In order to determine if productivity estimates based on individuals differ from those based on communities, a controlled laboratory experiment was conducted with three dominant sub‐canopy macroalgal species (Cystophora scalaris, Xiphophora gladiata and Undaria pinnatifida) from Southern New Zealand. Photosynthetic parameters (initial slope of the P‐E curve, saturation irradiance Ek, maximum rate of photosynthesis Pmax and dark‐respiration Rd) were obtained via photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P‐E) experiments using a custom‐built respirometry chamber for a range of densities that corresponded to the minimum, average and maximum densities of these species in the field. A five to seven‐times decrease in Pmax was observed when the density of the algal stand was above 1 individual m‐2 and Rd were also lower in communities than for individuals. Our results illustrate that single‐specimen estimates of productivity based on O2 evolution could substantially overestimate community productivity. 85 Ocean Warming: an experimental articulation Jennifer Rock University of Otago, [email protected] A shortcoming of science communication about climate change is the lack of public engagement. Effective engagement requires an emotive component and yet it is difficult from our mammalian perspective to conceptualise the effects of a 2‐4 °C change in environmental temperature. Consequently we are incapable of empathy with change confronting the vast majority of organisms on this planet that are not homeotherms. Visual narratives formed by the organisms themselves, and sensory representation through a creative sci‐art approach may be a key to better conceptualisation and engagement. Here I present preliminary results from a project seeking to creatively communicate the far‐reaching effects of ocean warming by representation of ectotherms' responses to increased temperature. 2 °C Different: ARTiculation of warming, was initiated as a pilot study in 2011, with creative contributions from masters students in the Centre for Science Communication, University of Otago. Interactive effects of two key species on soft‐sediment ecosystem state and variability Ivan Rodil, Drew Lohrer, Mike Townsend, Luca Chiaroni, Simon Thrush NIWA, [email protected] The objective of this study was to understand the combined effects of two key species that occur in subtidal soft‐sediment systems throughout New Zealand. This aim was achieved using a preliminary survey of three sites in the Mahurangi Harbour where the densities of the two species naturally varied, followed by a long‐term manipulation of their densities in controlled experimental treatments across sites. Horse mussels Atrina zelandica, and heart urchins Echinocardium cordatum are individually known to have a strong influence on sediment traits including microphyte productivity and macrofaunal community. The experimental treatments established at each site reflected the natural densities of the species across sites (Atrina alone, Atrina and Echinocardium together, Echinocardium alone), and there was a treatment lacking both species. After a six month period, macrofaunal abundance and richness was highest in the Atrina only treatments. However, the facilitation of macrofauna by Atrina was entirely negated in the presence of high densities of Echinocardium, as Echinocardium had a strong negative effect on macrofaunal abundance and richness. Ten to fifteen Echinocardium per m2 was identified as a threshold density beyond which macrofaunal abundance and richness was limited. 86 Population genetic structure of the New Zealand estuarine clam Austrovenus stutchburyi (Bivalvia: Veneridae) reveals population subdivision and partial congruence with biogeographic boundaries Phil Ross1, Ian Hogg1, Conrad Pilditch1, Carolyn Lundquist2, Dick Wilkins1 University of Waikato1, NIWA2, [email protected] We examined the population genetic structure of the New Zealand endemic clam, Austrovenus stutchburyi, to determine: 1) whether populations of this estuarine taxon are genetically subdivided; and 2) if the locations of genetic boundaries were congruent with known biogeographic break points. 372 A. stutchburyi were collected from 29 New Zealand estuaries and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I sequences and microsatellite markers analysed to identify genetic structure. We detected a pattern of genetic isolation‐
by‐distance and identified six A. stutchburyi subpopulations, a greater number of subpopulations than reported for much of New Zealand’s open coast benthos. Although these data indicate that long distance dispersal may be less frequent in estuarine than in open coast taxa, partial congruence between genetic and biogeographic boundaries suggests that historical events and natural selection may also contribute to the observed population genetic structure. Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Iron Speciation in Surface Waters of the Otago Continental Shelf Sylvia Sander1, Feng Tian2, Enitan Ibisanmi, Kim Currie3, Russell Frew1 and Keith A. Hunter1 University of Otago1, Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore2, NIWA3, [email protected] A time series of a surface transect across the Otago Continental Shelf was undertaken between 2000 and 2008 to measure the dissolved iron concentration (DFe) and organic complexation of iron, as well as macronutrients and general hydrographic data. The study area contains three distinct water masses: 1) neritic water; 2) the Southland Current (SC), derived from the Subtropical Front (STF); 3) Subantarctic Water (SAW). Variations in nutrient concentrations in the study area indicated that SAW is the predominant source of nitrate and phosphate to the shelf. Dissolved iron concentrations dropped seawards from several nanomolar to sub‐nanomolar levels. The dissolved iron was fully complexed with strong organic ligands in all three water masses, and the ligand concentrations also showed a slightly seaward decreasing trend. Trends in dissolved iron and the iron‐binding ligand concentrations related to season were obvious in neritic waters. Concentration maxima occurred during late spring and summer months, and concentration minima occurred in the middle of each year (winter months). Dissolved iron concentration was low (~0.1 nM) in SAW year round. Data from the present study are in support of SAW being classified as a high nitrate low chlorophyll (HNLC) water body. 87 Estuarine trophic subsidies to coastal mollusc dominated communities: positive and negative effects on functional diversity Candida Savage1, Simon Thrush2, Drew Lohrer2, Judi Hewitt2, Luca Chiaroni2 University of Otago1, NIWA2, [email protected] Carbonate sediments enhance habitat heterogeneity and diversity and play an important role in carbon storage and ecosystem function. The functional diversity of these open coast ecosystems can be influenced through positive (food subsidies) and negative (land‐
derived sediment) inputs from estuaries. We present data on shifts in community structure and diversity in mollusc dominated habitats along estuary‐coast gradients in two locations on the Coromandel peninsula. The influence of estuary‐derived food sources across these gradients for the key bivalve, Dosinia subrosea, was characterised using chemical markers in multiple tissues that reflect relatively recent and integrated diets. We also discuss the influence of food supply and sediment impacts on growth of Dosinia subrosea across estuary‐coast interfaces. The research highlights the importance of estuarine conservation as a means of maintaining healthy ecosystem structure and function in coastal mollusc dominated communities. From New Zealand to Antarctica and back: a round‐trip ticket for symbiotic polychaetes Kareen Schnabel1, Maria Chiara Alvaro2, Marco Oliverio3, Andrea Barco3, Geoff Read1, Stefano Schiaparelli4 NIWA1, Italian National Antarctic Museum, Italy2, University of Rome, Italy 3, University of Genoa, Italy4, [email protected] Several recent studies show that, in the Southern Ocean, ‘symbiotic’ associations are widespread and more common than previously believed. Here we illustrate the ecological, morphological and molecular characterization of one of the best known Antarctic association, the one occurring between the polyxenous polynoid polychaete Polyeunoa laevis McIntosh, 1885 and its several cnidarian hosts. Samples were collected in the Ross Sea, from 70 to 1990 m, mainly during the 2008 NZ 'IPY‐CAML' Tangaroa cruise and are their DNA sequences are integrated with other samples from different Antarctic expeditions. A group of Polyeunoa‐like polychaetes from New Zealand has also been added to the Antarctic molecular dataset for comparison. On the whole, 118 sequences have been obtained and allowed to reconstruct the phylogeography of this peculiar association. Molecular evidences suggest the existence of at least five different cryptic species of Polyeunoa and indicate that the group originated outside Antarctica, in deep water basins off New Zealand. After colonization of Antarctica through ‘polar emergence’, the group radiated further and colonized seamounts off Antarctica and, secondarily, the deep water basins off New Zealand. 88 The fate of algal remains in Doubtful Sound, Fiordland Susanne Schüller, Candida Savage University of Otago, [email protected] Doubtful Sound represents a model estuarine system to study how fluctuating physicochemical gradients alter sediment records of algal productivity. The head of the fjord (Deep Cove) experiences a highly stratified water column with a 3‐5m low salinity layer while the outer fjord has a well‐mixed water column. These physical gradients strongly influence phytoplankton production, as well as the fate of algal remains in Doubtful Sound. In this study, we investigate how phytoplankton remains are altered, preserved and degraded as they settle out of the water column and get incorporated into the long‐term sedimentary record. Degradation and preservation processes in the water column and sediment are evaluated using phytoplankton pigments as biomarkers in sediment traps, surface sediment samples and sediment cores to create a temporal and spatial picture of algal remains across Doubtful Sound. Using a multi‐proxy approach by complimenting phytoplankton pigments with diatom analyses (surface sediment, sediment cores) and stable isotopes analyses (surface sediment) we are able to better understand processes that affect sedimentary records of productivity in estuarine and fjord environments. Ocean colour, sea ice and in situ biogeochemical data during the IPY R.V. Tangaroa voyage to the western Ross Sea, Feb‐Mar 2008 Jill Schwarz, Mike Williams, Marieke van Kooten, Mark Gall, Matthew Pinkerton NIWA, [email protected] At high latitudes, frequent cloud and ice cover affecting ocean colour data lead most remote sensing researchers to rely on monthly chlorophyll composites. Because of the complex biophysical interactions, use of monthly composites risks missing or over‐
smoothing the strongest chlorophyll signals. We analysed satellite and ship‐borne (underway and discrete) data from the IPY voyage (TAN0802) of the R.V. Tangaroa to assess the value of satellite products in the Ross Sea. Monthly ice concentrations were found to be exceptionally high during the voyage season, and persistence of the 80:100% ice class was longer than the 9‐year (2003 to 2011) norm. Ocean colour data were strongly affected by cloud and ice. Of 898 MODIS 5‐minute granules which included some portion of the Ross Sea, 583 granules contained some useful ocean surface coverage. Significant chlorophyll concentrations were observed in the satellite data in the eastern, western and northwestern Ross Sea. Of these, only the southeastern bloom was sampled by the ship. Nitrate was depleted at the bloom, but NO3:DRP remained relatively constant at ~11.5 mol:mol). Here, we show the distributions of remotely‐sensed parameters, sub‐
pixel variability in chlorophyll and POC and the appraisal of monthly ocean colour composites. 89 The impact of Coumaphos on the antioxidant metabolism in Ulva sp. Katja Schweikert, David J. Burritt University of Otago, [email protected] Coumaphos is one of several organophosphates used in the process of wool scouring. Effluents from this process reach coastal waters without any treatment, carrying organic substances with half‐lives of up to 5 years in soils and sediments, and several months in water. Consultation with a Mäori elder from Bluff identified an obvious loss of coastal life, from shellfish to seaweeds, along several parts of the coast of the South Island of New Zealand. These observations were made over the past 40 years, along a coastal area fed by the Oreti River catchment. Water eco‐toxicity tests are commonly conducted on invertebrates and fish, but not on plants and algae, neglecting the less obvious impacts toxin contamination can have on primary producers. For the people of Ngäi Tahu the seaweeds Durvillaea antarctica (Rimurapa), Porphyra sp. (Ngäi Tahu Claims Settlement Act) and Ulva sp. are of traditional importance, so we are investigating the ability of these seaweeds to cope with organic pollutants. This is the first report of the impact of Coumaphos, on Ulva sp. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels were measured along a time course experiment over a period of seven days. For the assessment of free radical development and oxidative damage hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. The Ngai Tahu Customary Fisheries Protection Areas Project: Restoring Rangatiratanga Nigel Scott Te Rananga o Ngai Tahu, [email protected] This presentation will outline the project that is being conducted by Toitu Te Whenua to facilitate the establishment of a co‐ordinated network of customary fisheries protection areas (CPA) spread throughout the Ngai Tahu Whanui Takiwa. This project will ensure Ngai Tahu maximise the effectiveness of CPA both individually and collectively, whilst minimising the impact on the commercial fishing sector. Ngai Tahu Whanui are well aware that it is not possible to protect all traditional fishing grounds of significance using CPA and that each established area management tool will impact on the establishment of any other within a given quota management area. It was therefore essential that Ngai Tahu Whanui acknowledged this cumulative effect and co‐ordinated and planned the establishment of CPA in order to protect the most significant mahinga kai areas and to ensure a good spread of customary protection is achieved around the entire takiwa. Toita Te Whenua has conducted extensive background research through a range of reference material as well as interviews with Ngai Tahu Tangata Tiaki/Kaitiaki and key Ngai Tahu individuals in order to identify the customary fisheries of significance that warrant CPA establishment. The outcome of the project so far has been the identification of a number of fishing grounds around the Takiwa that require CPA. Mataitai Reserves are a common 90 tool identified for enacting CPA, alongside special customary fisheries regulations and new taiapure. The effects of 11‐ketotestosterone on migratory behaviour and sea water pre‐
adaptation in the shortfinned eels, Alvin Setiawan, Matthew J. Wylie, Erin L. Forbes, P. Mark Lokman University of Otago, [email protected] Freshwater eels (Anguilla spp.) are famous for their long‐distance oceanic spawning migration. Before undertaking this migration, immature non‐migrant adults in freshwater must undergo a dramatic transformation (silvering) into their migrant form involving systemic physiological, morphological and behavioural changes. Associated with these changes is a dramatic increase in the serum levels of 11‐ ketotestosterone (11KT More importantly, exogenous 11KT induces the physiological changes that are closely associated with silvering in both sexes. In this study, we investigate the possible role of 11KT in modulating downstream migratory behaviour and salinity preference in the New Zealand shortfinned eel (A. australis) and its effects on physiological preadaptation to sea water. Migrant, but not non‐migrant, eels readily showed preference for downstream locations in a raceway and evidence indicating physiological preadaptation to sea water, but no corresponding effects due to 11KT were found. However, our observations did indicate that 11KT treatment may heighten general activity (restlessness) levels, the first report of a behavioural effect of 11KT on anguillids. These results suggest that while 11KT clearly has an important role in modulating silvering, it alone cannot induce all the necessary changes. The commercialisation of marine science ‐ what is the price of independence? Elisabeth Slooten The University of Otago, [email protected] Marine science is becoming increasingly commercialised. As government funding and research budgets shrink, universities and other research agencies increasingly fill the gap with commercial funding. How will this affect research priorities and our ability to provide independent advice on marine management and conservation? Evidence of conflicts of interest include research on the impact of noise on marine mammals, with different results reported depending on whether the work was funded by oil and gas companies or other government and non‐government agencies. Journals such as Nature and Science now require authors to explicitly acknowledge ties with industry, and some research providers state that commercial sponsors will not be able to modify the text of the final report. New Zealand's Chief Science Advisor expressed concern about the low rate of collaboration and ideas flowing from universities and research institutions to business. 91 However, the British Association for Advancement of Science warns that closely linking science with economic growth undermines science and public trust in scientists. Providing truly independent science advice will require major changes to science funding. This talk outlines some of the key arguments in this debate, in order to encourage discussion about the commercialisation of science among the membership of NZMSS. Argonauta at risk: dissolution and carbonate mineralogy of egg cases Abigail Smith1, Kennedy Wolfe2, Maria Byrne2 University of Otago1, University of Sydney, Australia2, [email protected] Cephalopods are champion mineralisers. Nautilids produce robust external shells and internal mineralised tissues; Spirula makes an internal chambered spiral; sepiids produce flat “cuttlebone;” squids and octopi produce beaks and statoliths. Most cephalopod carbonate is aragonite, but one squid is an exception: the female Argonauta secretes a fragile calcitic spiral egg‐case. Three Argonaut cases were collected at Batemans Bay, NSW, Australia. Four replicate pieces from each were immersed in seawater of varying pH: 8.2 (ambient), 7.8, 7.6, 7.4, 7.0 and 6.5. Weight loss was measured after 7 and 14 days. Dissolution rate increased with decreasing pH, with less than 1% loss in 14 days at pH 7.8, 5% loss at pH 7.4, and 20% loss at pH 6.5. Carbonate from all treatments was analysed using x‐ray diffractometry, showing no significant changes in mineralogy as shells dissolved. The pelagic life‐habit of cephalopods makes them particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Unlike an internal skeleton, which can be protected from seawater while still needed, the Argonauta egg case is exposed to sea water from inception. These egg cases, unprotected by mucous or epithelium, with high surface‐area and low volume are vulnerable to dissolution as ocean pH decreases.lisers. Nautilids produce robust external shells and internal mineralised tissues; Spirula makes an internal chambered spiral; sepiids produce flat cuttlebone; squids and octopi produce beaks and statoliths. Most cephalopod carbonate is aragonite, but one squid is an exception: the female Argonauta secretes a fragile calcitic spiral egg‐case. Hagfishes – S’not what you’d expect Clive Roberts1 ,Andrew Stuart1, Vincent Zintzen1, Carl Struthers1, Peter Smith2 Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongerewa1, NIWA2, [email protected] Hagfishes (family Myxinidae), are the subject of numerous evolutionary, physiological and ecological studies, but have not been well researched taxonomically. As recently as 1989 the New Zealand region was believed to contain just three species. Deep‐sea sampling by the Te Papa Fishes Team using baited traps and video has caught large numbers of specimens, and, with the use of molecular and morphological techniques has increased the species count to eight. 92 Common dolphin bycatch in New Zealand mackerel trawl fisheries Finlay Thompson1, Edward Abraham1, Katrin Berkenbusch2 Dragonfly Limited1, Otago University2, [email protected] Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2009 allowed evaluation of common dolphin bycatch (Delphinus delphis) on the North Island west coast. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures, and to explore covariates related to captures. A two‐stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a tow, and a zero‐truncated Poisson distribution estimating the number of dolphins captured. Over the 14‐year study period, there were 108 common dolphin captures reported by observers, with capture events frequently involving more than one individual. The model explored several factors that might contribute to dolphin captures. Dolphins were more likely to be caught when the headline depth was less than 30m, than when it was deeper. In the 2008‐09 season, an estimated 25 common dolphins (95% c.i.: 13 to 52) were captured in the mackerel trawl fishery. Changes in nature and the nature of change in our coastal ecosystems Simon Thrush NIWA, [email protected] My talk will discuss how environmental science, and ecology in particular, can inform environmental management and policy making for coastal marine ecosystems. Research has progressed in the last couple of decades from a focus on individual events and local impacts to much broader scales. Shifts to more ecosystem‐based approaches to management seek to reframe resource use conflicts by increasing the scope of ecosystem assessments and the depth of knowledge used to assess the consequences of change. The potential for ecology to contribute to these management processes are significant, through raising the profile of important ecosystem goods and services, the recognition of cumulative and multiple stressor effects and habitat fragmentation. Equally important, is the appreciation that ecosystem responses surprise us because feedback processes can result in threshold responses or regime shifts in coastal ecosystems. I will use some examples from our field research to illustrate how these ideas are ground in our understanding of ecosystem function. They have important implications for the resilience of coastal ecosystems and raise some important challenges for future research that will only be fully resolved through integrated research programmes. Progress in these challenges is essential if ecology is to effectively contribute to management and maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem function in our multi‐use coastalecosystems. 93 Potential predatory impact of the invasive paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, in Waitemata Harbour: implications for functional change Michael Townsend1, Drew Lohrer1, Ivan Rodil2 NIWA1, University of Vigo, Spain2, [email protected] The Japanese paddle crab Charybdis japonica was first observed in Auckland in 2000 and is now found throughout the Waitemata Harbour and Hauraki Gulf. Despite the predation potential of Charybdis, almost nothing is known of its impacts in New Zealand. Accurate ecological information is critically important in non‐indigenous species risk management, therefore we need to understand the impacts of Charybdis on benthic communities. We present results from a subtidal caging experiment designed to document the predatory impacts of Charybdis whilst feeding in the presence and absence of functionally important pinnid bivalves, Atrina zelandica. The effects of Charybdis on overall macrofaunal abundance or diversity were more subtle, as Charybdis appeared to specifically target larger macrofauna (i.e., large macrofauna had reduced abundances in cages with crabs relative to controls). Gut content analysis from 53 Charybdis specimens found a range of species consumed, with a significant presence of Echinocardium cordatum across both habitats (77% of full guts contained E. cordatum). Results will be discussed in relation to the functional roles of both A. zelandica and E. cordatum for ecosystem process regulation and invasion resistance, and will be used to refine a MAFBNZ conceptual model for species interactions in the Waitemata Harbour (2008). Identification of iron‐siderophore chelates in the offshore waters, East of New Zealand Imelda Velasquez1, Enitan Ibisanmi1, Brook Nunn2, Keith Hunter1, Sylvia Sander1 University of Otago1, University of Washington, USA2, [email protected] It is known that iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the marine environment. Due the poor solubility of Fe, and low input into large areas of the global ocean, like the Southern Ocean, Fe becomes a limiting factor for primary productivity in these areas. Dissolved Fe generally occurs complexed to organic ligands. The similarities in the stability constants of these ligands with the stability constants of known siderophores, led to the assumption that these ligands may be or include siderophores. In this study, naturally occurring siderophores were detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (HPLC‐MS) in off shore waters surrounding New Zealand. Hydroxamate‐type siderophores (mainly ferrioxamine types) dominated the study areas in neritic, Sub‐Antarctic and mesotrophic surface waters off the eastern coast of New Zealand. The results were strongly supported by chemical assays and electrochemical measurements. This is the first time that siderophore‐type chelates have been detected in iron limited waters of the Southern Ocean. The information on the presence and distribution on these siderophores coupled with physical properties of the water and Fe speciation could help in understanding Fe biochemical cycling in the area. 94 Scaling Up Power Output from Tidal Turbine Farms Ross Vennell University of Otago, [email protected] To make a significant contribution tidal turbines must to be grouped in large farms generating hundreds of Mega Watts from the high flows along tidal channels. A critical question is how much power can be obtained from a given number of turbines? Ideally installing 100 one MW turbines would produce a 100MWs of power. However extracting power from tidal currents also slows flows along a channel, which limits power production. This makes answering the question complex, particularly when gaps within rows of turbines are required to allow navigation of vessels and marine life along the channel. The power extracted by tidal turbine farms is ultimately a compromise between maximising power production and the maximum fraction of the cross‐section turbines can be permitted to occupy and the maximum environmentally acceptable flow reduction. The upper limit for the average power obtainable is around 240MW for Kaipara Harbour and around 15,000MW Cook Strait. However if only 10% of the channels' cross‐sections can be filled with turbines, then the largest average output from 10 rows of turbines falls to 46MW and 800MW respectively. Investigations into the feasibility of managing a non‐indigenous marine species at sites with high community values Kathy Walls1, Emily Jones2 Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry1, Golder Associates (NZ) Ltd2, [email protected] The Australian tunicate Pyura praeputialis (Pyura) was first recorded from the Far North in 2007. This species dominates the mid‐low rocky intertidal shore of the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile, where it is thought Pyura arrived via shipping over 100 years ago. In New Zealand, Pyura could displace native species and impact on economic, environmental and socio‐cultural values. A delimiting survey showed that Pyura is widespread in the Far North and that eradication is not possible. However, local elimination of relatively small, isolated populations from sites which are important to local communities may be feasible. The feasibility of local elimination of this tunicate was investigated. Two clearance sites and a control site were established in the Far North. Six months after the first clearance, there was very low recruitment evident at both the clearance sites and in monitoring plots that had been cleared at the control site. However, densities at the control site appeared to have increased outside the cleared plots. The results thus far suggest it may be feasible to maintain populations at low densities in semi‐isolated localities. Interesting questions are beginning to emerge about the ability of this species to rapidly colonise and occupy space on intertidal hard substrates. 95 Identifying Nutritional Content of Potential Prey of Spiny Lobster Larvae Miao Wang, Andrew Jeffs University of Auckland, [email protected] Unsuitable diets and feeding regimes are blamed for the consistent occurrence of high mortalities in larval culture of spiny lobsters, one of the world's most valuable seafoods. To identify the natural diet and nutritional requirements of spiny lobster phyllosoma for predicting the composition of an effective artificial feed, nutritional analyses has been conducted on potential phyllosoma prey species captured off the coast of New Zealand, including two species amphipod, three species of chaetognath, two species of salp, and three species of shrimp. In samples of each of these, we analysed the content of water, ash, protein, carbohydrate and lipid. All of these species have high water content, from 81.5% to 96.7%. Salp and chaetognath have higher ash content (around 70% and 50%), while amphipod and shrimp are less than 20%. Proteins are the dominant proportion of proximate matter in all taxonomic groups, followed by lipids, with carbohydrates making up generally less than 5%. The results of this study show that phyllosoma larvae are probably relying heavily on dietary sources of protein to supply both metabolic energy and biochemical resources for anabolism. This conclusion tends to be confirmed by other related studies on the metabolism of spiny lobster phyllosoma. Monitoring organic enrichment of coastal sediment with sediment profile imagery Peter Wilson, Kay Vopel Auckland University of Technology, [email protected] The majority of organic carbon supplied to the coastal seafloor is mineralised by sulfate reduction, a bacterially mediated reaction that releases hydrogen sulfide (H2S) into the sediment porewater. H2S readily reacts with sediment iron compounds to form iron sulfides that are responsible for the distinct black colouration of organic‐rich sediment. Most of these sulfides convert back to H2S when treated with acid and are known as the acid volatile sulfides (AVS). AVS analysis has long been used to assess the metal toxicity of sediment but it may also provide a proxy for the organic carbon flux, that is, the rate of organic carbon deposition. This rate is of interest for environmental managers worldwide dealing with the effects of organic enrichment on coastal ecosystem functioning. The measurement of AVS, however, has not been adopted in routine environmental monitoring. One reason for this is its laborious nature. We will show how we can overcome this problem by measuring AVS in situ and at high resolution using sediment profile imagery. To do so, we will explore the relationship between sediment colour and the concentration of AVS, and then demonstrate how this correlation can be used to rapidly map the spatial distribution of AVS. 96 Lowstand glacial landforms and fluvial systems east of Campbell Island, New Zealand Gary Wilson, Andrew Gorman, Hamish Fraser, Scott Preskett University of Otago, [email protected] In March 2009, a detailed high‐frequency seismic survey was undertaken in Perseverance and Northeast harbours and across the shallow platform on the eastern side of the Campbell Island in order to examine the floors of the fiords and adjacent shelf for evidence of glacial processes and associated sedimentation. Data were collected using the University of Otago Research Vessel Polaris II and included single‐channel Chirp and electro‐acoustic (boomer) sub‐bottom imaging, and interferometricside scanning sonar (C3D). A network of ~42 lines was collected over 4 days of surveying. Sediment grab samples were collected from the shelf and short (3m) piston cores were collected from inside the harbours. The combined dataset shows that terminal moraines coincide with the mouths of Perseverance and Northeast harbours and that the harbours give way to a now infilled v‐shaped valley network that dissects the shelf. Despite subaerial exposure of the shelf at the last glacial maximum, glaciers apparently did not extend out on to the shelf. Instead the shelf was eroded by river systems presumably sourced from the glaciers which occupied the valleys on‐shore. The submarine channels are now infilled with gravelly and shelly drift, which also forms low‐angle dune structures on the sea floor. 97 Abstracts for poster presentations 98 The New Zealand Marine Pest Porthole Hernando Acosta1, Brendan Gould1, Simon McDonald1, Graeme Inglis2, Brent Wood2 Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry1, NIWA2 The ultimate goal of the biosecurity system is to protect the economy, environment and people of New Zealand from the risks associated with, and consequences of, the introduction and presence of nonindigenous species. Marine surveillance activities are an essential component of this system and allow MAF to collect, collate, analyse and interpret information on the presence, distribution or prevalence of risk organisms and the plants or animals that they affect. A key component of this system is to ensure that people involved in marine biosecurity have immediate access to surveillance information when required. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand, NIWA and other agencies that contribute to early detection, eradication and management of marine pests and diseases maintain datasets on current distribution and biosecurity status of non‐indigenous species within New Zealand. However, the availability of these data is currently limited. A key goal of the Biosecurity Surveillance Strategy (Goal 12) is increased awareness of, and appropriate access to, surveillance data and other information that supports biosecurity activities. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand and NIWA, in association with SilverStripe Ltd, are developing the New Zealand Marine Pest Porthole: a web‐based information portal that provides data on key marine biosecurity surveillance activities. The main features of this portal include (i) a web‐mapping application showing sites surveyed for nonindigenous marine organisms and distribution records for individual species, (ii) the ability to interrogate data from a range of marine biosecurity datasets (e.g., Port Biological Baseline Surveys, Marine High Risk Site Surveillance, the Marine Invasives Taxonomic Service), and (iii) a searchable catalogue allowing downloading of information and reports. By providing marine non‐indigenous species information to stakeholders and the public, the New Zealand Marine Pest Porthole will build capacity across the biosecurity system. A greater capacity of groups and people external to MAF Biosecurity New Zealand will increase the overall participation across the biosecurity system, thus, enhancing biosecurity management in New Zealand. Steroidogenic activity in ovary and pyloric caeca during the annual reproductive cycle of common New Zealand starfish Patiriella regularis Khalid Alqaisi1, Dave Grattan1, Miles Lamare1, Katherine Wynne‐Edwards2, Mark Lokman1 University of Otago1, University of Calgary2, [email protected] Steroid hormones play important roles in regulation of growth, development and homeostasis in vertebrates. However, vertebrate sex steroid hormones, such as progesterone, testosterone and estradiol‐17β, have also been identified in starfish. But until now, the specific role of steroid hormones in reproduction and their synthesis in echinoderms is not yet clear and still debated. Patiriella regularis is New Zealand's most 99 commonly rocky shore starfish. It has been used in many studies because it is abundant and its development is typical of asteroids. There is, nonetheless, little information available about oogenesis and steroidogenesis in this starfish. The present study therefore focused on the reproductive cycle of female P. regularis, dividing it into stages on the basis of histological analysis and gonad and pyloric caeca indices. Accordingly, the reproductive cycle of this starfish can be divided into five stages; oocyte growth primarily occurs in winter and spring and spawning in summer. This study also investigates steroid biosynthesis and steroidogenic enzyme activity in pyloric caeca and ovary during a reproductive cycle of P. regularis using HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐
MS/MS). pH‐stat technique to investigate of the kinetics of calcium carbonate dissolution Zhaleh Adhami, Patila Amosa, Keith Hunter, Kim Currie University of Otago, [email protected] Ocean acidification is a process which leads to an ongoing reduction in the pH of the world's oceans due to increased uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. Increased acidity can impact negatively on marine ecosystems. One of the most severe effects is the slowing down or inhibition of calcification as well as enhancing calcium carbonate dissolution rates in calcifying organisms. The proposed study will apply the pH‐
stat technique to investigate the effects of the nature of CaCO3 used and of the seawater composition on the kinetics of calcium carbonate dissolution at steady‐state disequilibrium. In every experimental run, a sample of CaCO3 (calcite or aragonite) in synthetic seawater will be titrated in an open cell system by 0.02 M HCl at 25 degrees Celsius. Based on the volume of HCl consumption as a solid carbonate dissolves changes in the mass of the sample over a period of time and thereby rate of dissolution can be calculated. Experiments will be conducted at different values of CaCO3 saturation state. The empirical equation R = k(1‐Ω)n (where k and n are constants) will then be used to describe the kinetics of dissolution. Physiological comparisons between the temperate brachiopod Liothyrella neozelanica and the Antarctic brachiopod Liothyrella uva Matthew Baird, Miles Lamare, Daphne Lee University of Otago, [email protected] Brachiopods occur throughout modern day oceans ranging from polar to tropical environments. This extensive range provides an exciting opportunity to gain insight into how marine invertebrates have adapted to differing climates and habitats. Liothyrella neozelanica is a temperate brachiopod found within Doubtful Sound, New Zealand, whilst its sister species Liothyrella uva, is a polar brachiopod found within the Southern Ocean. 100 By studying and comparing the biological attributes of both species, we can begin to understand how they have become specifically adapted to their environments. Furthermore, through these differences it may be possible to see how brachiopods and other marine invertebrates may be affected in the future in response to threats including climate change and changes in patterns of primary productivity. Research comparing seasonal changes in biochemical composition (i.e. protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels), metabolic rates (respiration & excretion) and reproduction of L. neozelanica and L. uva has been undertaken. Metabolic and biochemical differences between the two species are emerging and may reflect the stark contrast in temperature and productivity found between the two environments of the two species. As research continues these differences will gain greater clarity and provide further insight into how brachiopods and other marine invertebrates may respond in the future to environmental change. Modelling Distribution of Natant Decapod Shrimps in the Ross Sea, Antarctica Md. Zeenatul Basher1, Mark J. Costello1, David A. Bowden2 University of Auckland1, NIWA2, [email protected] This study modelled the distribution of natant decapod crustaceans to identify what environmental variables most influenced their distribution and predict their distribution in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Nine species were recorded, namely Nematocarcinus lanceopes, Chorismus antarcticus, Notocrangon antarcticus, Pasiphaea scotiae, Pasiphaea cf. ledoyeri, Dendrobranchiata, Petaldum sp., Pasiphaea sp. and Lebbeus sp. The geographic distribution of N. lanceopes and N. antarcticus was predicted from samples of 59 individuals and over 390 video observations from 19 locations between 72 and 2300m depth during the New Zealand IPY‐CAML research voyage (TAN0802) in 2008. The Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) species distribution modelling technique was used with environmental data layers from three datasets comprised of distance from shore, depth, slope, rugosity, ice coverage, bottom temperature, bottom salinity, current speed, chlorophyll‐a, dissolved O2, silicate, nitrate and phosphate concentration. The predicted distributions of the species were validated using independent species distributions records. Models having different spatial resolutions ranked the variables differently. The most important environmental variables influencing the species distributions were bathymetry and ice concentration for N. lanceopes, while bottom temperature and chlorophyll‐a concentration contributed most to the distribution of N. antarcticus. 101 Recent mass strandings of long‐finned pilot whales on Stewart Island Emma Beatson1, Steve O'Shea1, Karen Stockin2, Severine Dewas1 Auckland University of Technology1, Massey University2, [email protected] Preliminary biological data are reported from two recent long‐finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) mass strandings on Stewart Island. Post‐mortem sampling was conducted on 19 (out of 28) animals that stranded at West Ruggedy Beach on 14 February 2010, and 105 (out of 107) animals that stranded at the south end of Mason Bay on 20 February 2011. Sex, total body length (TBL), teeth, stomach contents and reproductive samples were collected from both events. The sex ratio in both stranding events was biased towards females, 54.5% and 65.7% respectively, although mature males were present in both groups. Males ranged in total body length (TBL) from 213 to 570cm (mean=413, SD=108, n=45), and females from 196 to 485cm (mean=391, SD=67, n=79). Females matured sexually at body lengths of 300 to 400cm. Of 8 sexually mature females identified from the West Ruggedy stranding, 37.5% (n=3) were resting, 62.5% (n=5) were pregnant and none were lactating; of 41 sexually mature females identified from the Mason Bay stranding, 58.5% (n=24) were resting, 29.3% (n=12) were pregnant, 9.8% (n=4) were lactating, and one whale was simultaneously pregnant and lactating. Evidence of ingested prey was found in the stomachs of the majority (94.1%) of the pilot whales examined from both strandings. Analysis of stomach contents, ageing of teeth and further processing of reproductive samples is currently underway to provide the first comprehensive data set on age, growth, male and female reproductive parameters, and diet of pilot whales in this region. These data contribute to a long‐term study on the biology and conservation status of pilot whales (Globicephala spp.) in New Zealand waters. Stable isotope analysis in ecological studies: the NIWA analytical facility Julie Brown, Sarah J Bury NIWA, [email protected] NIWA’s Thermo Scientific DeltaPlus IRMS stable isotope analytical facility is part of a larger mass spectrometry facility housed at Greta Point, Wellington. The DeltaPlus IRMS supports ecological research for both internal and commercial clients, including applications such as marine biogeochemistry, pollution management, lake restoration, terrestrial and marine conservation, food web studies, aquaculture and fisheries management. The DeltaPlus, a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer, is linked to an elemental analyser (EA) and determines concentrations and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in solid organic samples. Our system is highly sensitive with excellent linearity and is optimised to handle very low level nitrogen samples (e.g. sediments and open ocean phytoplankton samples). Data on linearity, sensitivity and accuracy will be presented. 102 High resolution seismic imaging of the active Akatore‐Green Island Fault System on the Shallow Otago Continental Shelf Callum Bruce, Andrew R. Gorman, Richard J. Norris University of Otago, [email protected] The offshore extent of the active Akatore Fault, a NE‐ SW trending reverse fault that runs along the coast SW of Dunedin is poorly constrained. The Akatore Fault is associated with several possible offshore coast‐parallel faults based on shallow controlled‐source seismic data. Historical earthquakes, including those of 1974 and 1989, are attributed these faults. Single‐channel electro‐acoustic Boomer seismic reflection data and side scan sonar profiles have been collected on the shallow Otago shelf south of Dunedin, over the last 3 years. The majority of lines were collected along NW‐SE azimuths, running from just outside the surf zone (<10 m water depth) to a maximum of 28 km offshore (~75 m water depth). Survey lines were approximately 250 m apart near shore and up to 5 km apart offshore. Boomer subsurface penetration is limited, primarily by the presence of multiple reflections. Primary reflections were recorded from sub‐seafloor depths of up to 100 m. Several significant structures were imaged within the survey area, principally the Akatore and Green Island Faults. The Akatore Fault was imaged very near shore in the southern portion of the survey, and a minimum displacement of 55 m was calculated. Offset on the Green Island Fault, a high‐angle reverse fault was relatively well constrained to ~200 m (east side up). Mesozooplankton communities in the Ross Sea and the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean Catherine Stevens1, Evgeny A. Pakhomov2, Karen V. Robinson1, Sarah J. Bury1 NIWA1, University of British Columbia, Canada2, [email protected]; [email protected] Zooplankton communities in the Ross Sea and many parts of the Southern Ocean remain largely uncharacterised. In particular, empirical measurements of mesozooplankton biomass that are vertically resolved are few; such estimates are important components of ecosystem models. Mesozooplankton abundance, biomass and taxonomic composition were determined in net samples collected during the NZ IPY‐CAML voyage. Sampling was conducted at 11 stations in the Ross Sea and Antarctic Circumpolar Current region. Numerically, copepods dominated zooplankton samples and were represented primarily by calanoids and cyclopoids. However, locally pteropods and salps made important contributions to mesozooplankton abundance. Maximum zooplankton abundance was located in the uppermost sampled layer, except where salps were plentiful. Overall, small copepods dominated the catches. Ctenocalanus sp. was the principal surface‐layer copepod species on the Ross Sea Shelf, while Oithona spp. were highly abundant on and around Admiralty Seamount. On the Ross Sea slope, both Oithona spp. and Oncaea spp. were dominant, and at the Scott Seamounts, mixtures of Oithona spp. and Ctenocalanus 103 sp. occurred. Peak mesozooplankton biomass was usually located in the upper 200 metres of the water column and cumulative values ranged from 0.64 to 9.13 mg C m‐2 overall. These levels are low compared to other Antarctic regions. Changes in the physiological biomarker responses of New Zealand green mussels, Perna canaliculus in response to acute cadmium exposure Rathishri Chandurvelan, Dr Sally Gaw, Dr Chris Glover, Assoc Prof Islay Marsden University of Canterbury, [email protected] Cadmium is a toxic trace metal that causes deleterious effects in marine organisms. Biological mechanisms that are indicative of further impacts are a useful tool to assess the potential threat of pollutants to marine biota. Bivalves may be a useful indicator group owing to their widespread distribution in near‐coastal regions, the major ecosystems affected by toxicants. Preliminary research established NZ green mussel (Perna canaliculus) as the most sensitive of several bivalve species tested. Subsequently physiological markers were assessed in this species to determine cadmium toxicity mechanism and identify potential markers of cadmium exposure. Cadmium was shown to significantly impact feeding and digestive capacity, with a 89.5% decrease in clearance rate, a 39% decrease in absorption efficiency and a 63.5% increase in excretion rate shown at 4 mg L‐1. Combined these data indicated that cadmium had a significant negative impact on mussel scope for growth. The results obtained are clear evidence that cadmium causes severe physiological stress by affecting the health and growth potential in green mussels. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of employing Perna canaliculus as a bioindicator for NZ coastal regions and application of physiological biomarkers as a sensitive and cost‐efficient tool in biomonitoring of coastal pollution. The effects of sedimentation on the growth and mortality of juvenile Haliotis iris and their living habitat (crustose coralline algae) Caitlin Chew, Dr. Chris Hepburn, Dr. Wayne Stephenson University of Otago, [email protected] Coastal sedimentation is one of the most significant land‐based sources of degradation of rocky coasts. There are a range of direct and indirect ecological effects that result from both increased turbidity and sediment deposition. Currently, gaps in knowledge make it difficult to predict the effects of sedimentation on individual species and ecological assemblages on rocky coasts. There is a need for further research into the effects of sedimentation on coastal ecological systems and their constituents. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effects of sedimentation on the growth and mortality of juvenile Haliotis iris and their living habitat (crustose coralline algae). The growth and health of H. iris will be measured via changes in length, weight and righting time of 104 individuals, and a PAM fluorometer will be used to monitor photosynthetic activity for coralline algae as a response to two levels of sedimentation. It is hypothesised that sedimentation will inhibit growth, decrease health and increase mortality of H. iris and decrease the health of crustose coralline algae. Deployment of a telemetered water quality monitoring system in Tasman Bay Paul Barter1, Kent Headley2, Paul Coenen2, Paul Gillespie1, Chris Cornelisen1 Cawthron Institute1, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, USA2, [email protected] The establishment of observation platforms that provide robust, long‐term datasets for state of the environment (SOE) monitoring of New Zealand’s coastal waters is imperative in the face of changing and intensifying land uses and climate change. In April 2011, Cawthron, in collaboration with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) deployed a long‐term, real‐time monitoring system in Tasman Bay. The state‐of‐the‐art telemetered system, named TASCAM (TASman Bay, CAwthron, and MBARI Mooring) utilises inductive communication technology. In simple terms, the system uses the steel mooring cable as its transmission medium to talk to the mid‐water instruments, and eliminates the need for electrical cables. The OASIS (Ocean Acquisition System for Interdisciplinary Science) controller developed by MBARI is used for the collection, storage, and telemetry of data from a wide range of instrumentation, including conductivity‐temperature‐depth sensors, fluorometric sensors, an Acoustic Doppler current profiler, and a met system. TASCAM is intended to provide time‐series data to a range of end users, including Councils for SOE monitoring, researchers, the aquaculture industry, commercial and recreational fishers, and ports/harbours. TASCAM provides a model for future standardised systems for monitoring the state of New Zealand’s coastal waters and will make an important contribution to international ocean observation networks. Sharks, Drugs, and chalarosomum! Matthew Crane, Christy Benton, Adelle O'Neill, Haseeb Randhawa University of Otago, [email protected] The New Zealand Marine Studies Centre has had trouble keeping draughtsboard sharks (Cephaloscyllium isabellum) alive for more than a year in captivity. Recent necropsies have shown a large number of tapeworms (Calyptrobothrium chalarosomum) in the intestines of these sharks. Dissection of wild caught draughtsboard sharks showed no significant difference in parasite biomass between captive and wild caught draughtsboard sharks. This raised a question: are cumulative effects of multiple stressors causing the parasite load, normal in the wild, to become too much for a captive animal? This study 105 tested the efficacy of different dosages of a known mammalian anthelmintic. This was done with wild caught draughtsboard sharks in laboratory conditions. Once the most effective dose rate was established a number of sharks were released into the normal display environment. Half of these were treated at the determined dose rate and half were untreated. All were tagged and monitored to determine whether treated animals survived longer than untreated animals. The stress of a captive environment can have adverse effects on the shark’s immune system. Ratios of different blood cells and blood pH levels were used as indicators of stress and measures of recovery from stress, respectively, between treated and untreated sharks. The effects of sewage outfall on the marine environment Matthew Desmond University of Otago, [email protected] The disposal of wastewater and sewage is an ever threatening problem as population growth increases. This problem comes as land based treatment methods either struggle to effectively dispose of rising amounts of waste or are not economically feasible in certain areas where they are needed. The alternative to this problem is often the discharge of sewage, which may or may not be treated, into the ocean. This has the potential to cause adverse unknown effects to the physical and biological characteristics of the immediate oceanic environment. This study looks at the effects of land sewage disposal on the neighbouring marine ecosystem within the East Otago Taiapure area. It specifically focuses on the influence to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis galoprovencialis, with a community‐based stance of providing knowledge for such a valuable resource. Reproductive potential of Päua, Haliotis iris and models for sustainable customary harvesting using mätauranga Gaya Gnanalingam University of Otago, [email protected] Blackfoot Paua (Haliotis iris) a species unique to New Zealand is of considerable importance, as a significant customary fishery for Mäori, a much‐valued recreational fishery for all New Zealanders and as one of the few remaining commercially viable abalone fisheries in the world. Paua are unfortunately in decline and stock management needs to take into account knowledge of paua biology and ecology in order to restore populations. The aims of this research are to assess the reproductive potential of different size classes and use this information to predict the impacts of different harvest strategies. In particular, comparing a strategy based on mätauranga Mäori (traditional ecological knowledge) of harvesting intermediate sized paua, and the current regulatory regime of maximum legal size. Reproductive potential will consider both the number of eggs 106 produced by individual paua and the quality of these eggs, using a measure of their lipid content. Egg quality will also take into account the food available in the paua habitat. Fertilisation rates of these eggs will provide the final measure of reproductive output, which will be tied to size frequency and density data to model the different harvest strategies. Relationship between particulate matter and optical side‐scattering in the Hahei Marine Reserve Carole Guggenheim, Ben Trinik, Kay Vopel Auckland University of Technology, [email protected] Suspended particulate matter concentration (PM) is an important parameter in coastal ecosystem studies. For example, PM is used to determine when sediments and associated contaminants are resuspended and transported. Because it is often impractical to measure PM at high temporal and spatial resolution with laboratory techniques, surrogates and approaches have been developed to provide such resolution. In one approach, a defined volume of water is illuminated in situ with nearinfrared (NIR) light to measure how much of this light is scattered by suspended particles at 90° relative to its path. The conversion between this side‐scattering and PM is constrained, however, because light scattering is affected by particle properties. If properties of particles in coastal regions differ then establishing region‐specific conversion factors becomes imperative. We ask to what degree the relationship between PM and NIR side‐scattering varies in New Zealand's coastal waters. To begin to answer this question, we established a conversion factor for particles suspended in the Hahei Marine Reserve from a known particle source, a landslide in the eastern region of the reserve. In addition, we used this conversion to contrast the effects on PM of a natural disturbance event (landslide) with that of human land use. Do pore water solutes mediate bacterial metabolism and juvenile bivalve behaviour? Aysha Hohaia1, Dr. Kay C. Vopel1, Conrad A. Pilditch2 Auckland University of Technology1, University of Waikato2, [email protected] Climate change models predict an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall and thus the supply of terrigenous sediments to coastal waters. Understanding how this supply affects coastal ecosystems has become important for coastal managers worldwide. Here we describe an experiment designed to investigate how thin surface deposits of terrigenous clay affect settlement decisions of benthic juvenile recruits. This experiment builds on previous studies that revealed evidence for a link between bacterial activity in the sediment underlying terrigenous clay deposits and the behaviour of the recruits on the surface of the deposit: reduced end products of the anaerobic microbial 107 decomposition of organic matter diffuse upwards across the terrigenous clay deposit informing the recruit about poor substrate suitability. This effect results from an increase in the diffusive distance for the transport of oxygen from the seawater into the clay‐
underlying sediment, that is, a reduced supply of oxygen to the sediment. To test this model, we will study the behaviour of juvenile Macomona liliana in a laboratory flume. We hypothesize that juveniles that reject the surface of terrigenous clay deposited onto organic‐rich coastal sediment will not reject the surface of the same clay if it was deposited onto sterile coastal sediment. Understanding the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals: Speciation in the Kaipara Estuary Birthe Kortner, Sylvia Sander, Keith A. Hunter University of Otago, [email protected] The trace elements zinc and copper act as essential micronutrients in aquatic ecosystems. They fulfil important roles in biochemical pathways, but also exhibit toxic properties at higher concentrations. Therefore, depending on the geochemical characteristics of the ecosystem, microorganisms have developed strategies for metal homeostasis. The mechanisms for uptake and detoxification of trace metals largely depend on their chemical speciation and are often specific for each element. Kaipara Harbour, which is the largest estuary complex in New Zealand, is a highly dynamic transition zone between freshwater systems high in nutrients and the saline, relatively nutrient‐poor marine system. This chemical variability is further enhanced by tidal and seasonal fluctuations as well as anthropogenic activities. An increased understanding of the speciation pathways, especially the identification of organic ligands involved in the complexation of trace elements, can provide valuable information about the regulation of bioavailability and toxicity by aquatic organisms. These questions are to be addressed in a three‐year research project to be carried out at the University of Otago. Insights gained can then be used to assess the water quality in Kaipara Harbour and monitor changes associated with increased human use of the area. Predation by the sea star Astrostole scabra on New Zealand rocky reef prey communities: Implications for the management of exploited paua (Haliotis iris) populations Rory Kyle University of Otago, [email protected] Astrostole scabra (Asteroidea) is a generalist predator of New Zealand's temperate rocky reef ecosystems. Recent observations suggest that A. scabra abundance may be increasing, limiting the recovery of Haliotis iris populations depleted by overfishing. Wave 108 action has a strong influence in rocky reef ecosystems, and is known to directly reduce asteroid predation success by reducing speed of movement and successful capture rates. Therefore A. scabra interactions with prey are expected to change in relation to wave‐
exposure. The aim of this research is to asses A. scabra interactions with prey communities, to determine: 1) if wave exposure limits predation, 2) if A. scabra diet varies between reefs subjected to different levels of wave‐exposure, and 3) if the recovery of depleted H. iris populations is limited by A. scabra predation. Preliminary results indicate A. scabra abundance, movement and predatory success is negatively impacted by water motion. Predator‐prey interaction parameters (including: predator preference, prey escape rates, and density of prey and A. scabra populations) will be examined experimentally, and via field surveys. Parameters will be incorporated into a predictive model, to investigate the likely effect of A. scabra predation at specific reefs, based on wave‐exposure. This research will be shared with Taiäpure and Mäitaitai managers to develop site specific management techniques for restoring H. iris populations. Sea star fertilisation and larval development under in vitro simulated ocean acidification Maria Gonzales‐Bernat, Miles Lamare University of Otago, [email protected] Most marine species (ca. 70% of marine invertebrates) have external fertilisation and dispersive larvae that play a key role in marine populations dynamics so understanding on the effects of ocean acidification (OA) and on marine populations requires knowledge of larval responses. The response of larvae to OA scenarios has mainly been undertaken on calicifying larvae (such as molluscs and echinoderms) with few studies on non‐calcifying larvae. Equally important is understanding how high latitude species respond to OA given that polar sea surface waters will be affected earliest (i.e. an undersaturation of calcite and aragonite). We examined responses to OA in the larvae of two species of sea stars, an Antarctic species Odontaster validus and a New Zealand species Pateriella regularis. We examined fertilisation, larval development and morphology and survival in these species when exposed to ambient seawater (pH 8.1 or pH 8.2), to seawater pH predicted for 2100 (pH 7.7 and pH 7.6) and an extreme seawater pH of 7.0, adjusted by bubbling CO2 gas into filtered seawater. Fertilization in Odontaster validus and Patiriella regularis for the predicted scenarios of seawater pH in 2100 was robust. Larval survival in both species was not significantly reduced when reared at pH 7.8, but mortality increased significantly when pH dropped below 7.6. Normal size and shaped larvae were observed for O. validus and P. regularis reared in pH 7.8 seawater, however pH levels below 7.6 resulted in smaller and under‐developed larvae in both species. Overall, this study indicated that sea star reproduction and larval viability was largely unaffected at pH levels predicted for the year 2100, increasing our understanding of the robustness of larvae to pH changes in a lesser studied but important marine group. 109 Habitat‐forming coldwater corals show affinity for seamounts in the New Zealand region Kevin Mackay, Di Tracey, Ashley Rowden, Tanya Compton NIWA, [email protected] Determining the distribution of habitat‐forming scleractinian corals in the New Zealand region is necessary in order to understand the ecological significance of these taxa and the likely impact of anthropogenic activities on their persistence. Historical records from early publications, research trawl survey, commercial fishing bycatch, and recent biodiversity surveys were compiled for the habitatforming coral species Madrepora oculata, Solenosmilia variabilis, Goniocorella dumosa, Enallopsammia rostrata, and Oculina virgosa. These data were used to describe the observed depth, geographic distribution, and geomorphic habitat associations of the study corals in the region. A boosted regression trees analysis was also used to identify which of eleven environmental variables best describe the distribution of the five species across the New Zealand region, and to predict their spatial distribution. The contribution of the environmental variables differed greatly between species, but consistently identified depth and seamount occurrence as important factors describing coral observations. The models identified that M. oculata, S. variabilis and E. rostrata, occurred in deep waters (>1000 m) where seabed slopes were steep, tidal current and orbital velocities slow, sea surface primary productivity low, and where seamounts generally occur. By contrast, G. dumosa and O. virgosa were found in relatively shallower waters, where sea surface primary productivity was high and tidal current speeds were generally fast. Spatial predictions were consistent with the recorded observations and identified that all species apart from O. virgosa, were distributed throughout the region and were found primarily between ~200‐2000 m. Accessing bathymetry around New Zealand Kevin Mackay, Helen Neil NIWA, [email protected] In July 2010, NIWA released the New Zealand regional bathymetric dataset free for download over the worldwide web at These data represent bathymetry at national scale that encompassed New Zealand's Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in a variety of data formats including: raster data in a 250m resolution digital terrain model as a ESRI binary grid, jpeg and tiff; and contour data in 50m intervals from the coast to the 250m isobath, from then 250m intervals in ESRI shapefile, and MapInfo MID/MIF. Currently there have been over 1,000 downloads from this site. Bathymetric compilation, interpretation, and terrain model was made by the Charting Around New Zealand (CANZ) group at NIWA. Bathymetry was compiled from data held at a variety of national and international data archives, including: the National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research (NIWA); Royal New Zealand Navy; National Geophysical Data Centre (U.S.); South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (Fiji); 110 published scientific papers; recent swath bathymetric surveys funded by NIWA, Institute Francais de Recherche pour Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), France; Seabed Mapping New Zealand Limited and Land Information New Zealand (LINZ). Ongoing plans for data release include the NIWA paper chart archive in a digital format and multibeam bathymetry datasets at a survey level. Digitising the New Zealand Marine Sediment database Kevin Mackay, Helen Neil, Helen Bostock, Anne‐Laure Verdier NIWA, [email protected] NIWA (and its predecessor NZOI) have been collecting and analysing sediment from the seafloor around New Zealand and the South Pacific since the late 1950s. The station details (such as station ID, position, and date) were traditionally logged in ledger books and the sediment analysis (grainsize analysis: % sand, % mud, % carbonate) was filed in paper folders. We have just completed a data rescue project involving the digitisation of sediment analysis of ~28,000 samples, reconciling the data with the existing station database, and transferring the data into a GIS. One of the immediate results from this data rescue project has been the obvious grainsize distribution patterns around New Zealand’s shelf. This information will aid with marine benthic habitat classification and other marine sediment resources. The newly digitised data also provides a way of quality controlling highly suspicious sediment sample locations, which maybe the result of errors in the original station position data entry. The next stage of this project will be to create a public searchable web interface for this data and provide data storage for all New Zealand marine sediment data. Please contact us if you have any published grainsize, carbonate, general sedimentary data, to contribute to the database. Te Whaka a Te Wera Mataitai Nigel Scott Te Whaka a Te Wera Mataitai Management Committee Stewart Island, [email protected] From earliest time Te Whaka a Te Wera (Paterson Inlet) has held spiritual significance to the Tängata Whenua and provided a rich food basket of mahinga kai to sustain Ngäi Tahu Whänui. For centuries Te Whaka a Te Wera has provided safe haven for mariners seeking shelter and replenishment from the often tempestuous waters of Te Ara a Kiwa (Foveaux Strait). With a maximum depth of 45 metres, the Inlet's combination of rocky reef, sand and soft mud floor bottom is an important habitat for a prolific and diverse range of marine life, including at least 56 different species of fish. The Inlet's estuaries, beaches, reefs and islands continue to provide a bountiful harvest of kaimoana (seafood), enjoyed by locals and ever increasing numbers of visitors. In recognition of the continuing special 111 significance of Te Whaka a Te Wera, Rakiura Mäori, together with support from the Stewart Island community, successfully sought and secured legislative protection with the establishment of Te Whaka a Te Wera Mätaitai in December 2004. This poster will outline the current fisheries management provisions that have been established in Paterson Inlet through the mätaitai reserve. Population connectivity of New Zealand Sole (Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiae) from two, neighbouring South Island regions Patricia Mockett, Stephen Wing University of Otago, [email protected] A key objective of marine ecology is to gain an understanding of the processes driving and maintaining population dynamics, an important factor being the connectivity between subpopulations of organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the level of connectivity between subpopulations of New Zealand Sole, Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiae from the neighbouring Otago and Southland regions of New Zealand. P.novaezeelandiae individuals of a full range of size classes were collected from five study sites surrounding the Otago Harbour and three study sites in the Foveaux Strait. Both of these regions exhibit unique hydrological and geographical characteristics which have a strong influence on associated biological communities. Morphology and growth data was used to test the hypothesis that populations of P. novaezeelandiae could be differentiated by region. Differentiation of growth and morphology is consistent with a low degree of mixing in these populations, implying the existence of separate stocks. Conversely homogeneity of these measures among these regions implies more uniform conditions or mixing of these populations. This commercially harvested species is sparsely documented in the scientific literature and the information provided by this study is in itself an important tool in its management. Is There A Green House Around New Zealand From Oceanic N2O Emissions? Muhammed Nayeem Mullungal1, Robert Van Hale1, Russell.D.Frew1, Cliff Law2 University of Otago1, NIWA2, [email protected] Nitrous oxide is an atmospheric trace gas which was first identified as an agent in stratospheric ozone depletion and later classified as an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 300 times that of CO2 on a molecular basis. It has important implications for atmospheric chemistry and global climate change. Its concentration of 275ppbv (pre‐industrial period) in the ambient air is increased to the current value of 320 ppbv and oceans account for 25‐30% of global N2O emissions. But still the marine nitrous oxide source and processes are a dilemma due to the paucity of data. Two microbial pathways, nitrification and denitrification; dominate N2O production with their N2O 112 source product varying with oxygen availability. The study area involves the 60 km Polaris transect and sampling stations of the GP 13 NZ‐GEOTRACES, all around New Zealand. This study focuses on the processes responsible for the marine N20 formation and its seasonal and spatial distribution in the ocean along with its exchange with atmosphere by applying stable isotopes. Study involves measurement of N2O using GC and IRMS both in ocean and surrounding air along with dissolved oxygen. Organic Complexation of Metals in Deep‐Sea Hydrothermal Vent Systems Zach Powell1, Andrea Koschinsky2, Sylvia G. Sander1 Jacobs University Bremen, Germany2, University of Otago1, [email protected] Deep‐sea hydrothermal vents form along tectonic plate margins where seawater seeps through cracks and interacts with molten rocks, scavenging high concentrations of dissolved metals and gases. The mineral rich fluid exits either through super‐hot vents forming black or white smokers; or after subseafloor mixing with seawater in diffuse low temperature vents. Both subsequently support a chemosynthetic primary producing biota. Until recently, it was assumed that the majority of metals released were precipitated close to the source and the net flux to the open ocean was negligible. However, the discoveries of metal‐binding organic compounds have been shown to greatly increase the flux of hydrothermally‐derived trace metals to the global ocean. Neither the chemical nature, nor the exact sources of these compounds are yet known, but it is thought that they are produced by the hydrothermal biota and/or abiotically at high temperature and low pH conditions. This work aims to determine the source(s) and primary function of these metal‐binding organic compounds, and their contribution to the global biogeochemical cycling of trace metals. This will be investigated using hydrothermally‐influenced seawater from the Kermadec Arc, with electrochemical and mass spectroscopy techniques, and geochemical modelling. Is ammonium assimilation able to reduce oxidative stress in Ulva? Ralf Rautenberger, Catriona Hurd, David Burritt University of Otago, [email protected] Eutrophication of coastal ecosystems resulting from anthropogenic land‐use is an increasingly growing problem in coastal ecosystems. Thus, rapid growth of opportunistic green macroalgae can lead to large blooms. In contrast, these algae can be simultaneously exposed to high radiation conditions, which might have a great impact on photosynthesis. Massive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is detoxified by superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the first instance as well as by other enzymes and metabolites of the ascorbate‐glutathione‐cycle. If ROS production exceeds the scavenging 113 capacity, reduced macroalgal growth or even cell death is a consequence of cellular oxidative stress. The research undertaken with a clone culture of Ulva sp. serving as a model organism was addressed to characterize the interactive effects between these two antagonistic environmental factors physiologically. The possible effect of ammonium (NH4 +) assimilation on detoxification of ROS was the central subject of the studies. The competition between ammonium assimilation and the Mehler reaction for electrons, which originate from the photosynthetic electron transport, was investigated in physiological laboratory studies. Ecological implications on Ulva's survival under unfavourable field conditions might be drawn from the revealed physiological results. Skeletal allometry of the southern New Zealand serpulid Galeolaria hystrix (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) in Big Glory Bay, Stewart Island Marc Andri Riedi, Abigail M. Smith University of Otago, [email protected] The serpulid tube worm Galeolaria hystrix Mörch, 1863 (Polychaeta: Serpulidae) is common in southern New Zealand and is known to occur individually as well as in dense aggregations. The worm secretes a calcareous protective tube and is usually found subtidally. In Big Glory Bay, Paterson Inlet, Stewart Island G. hystrix appears in three different settings; as individual worm attached to rocks, as individual worm living within the sediment or as whole worm aggregations forming so called subtidal patch reefs. Serpulid aggregations enhance local biodiversity by acting as habitat, shelter or as food source for other marine organisms. Despite its importance as temperate reef‐builder in New Zealand, G. hystrix is little studied. This poster compares the allometry (length, diameter, weight) of the worm's carbonate tubes found in the three different settings. The combination of these allometric results with tube growth rate measurements (ongoing study) will allow the calculation of carbonate production by whole G. hystrix reefs by simply analysing a photograph. These results will then demonstrate the importance of G. hystrix as an ecosystem engineer and its influence on local carbonate sedimentation. Free amino acids extraction from oligotrophic seawater and its impact on the oceanographic nitrogen fixation Amandine Sabadel University of Otago, [email protected] Evaluating the impacts of climate‐induced environmental alterations affecting ecological patterns and processes remains a very challenging aim for worldwide marine scientists and oceanographers. Toward this goal, compound‐specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis of amino acids by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass 114 spectroscopy (GC/C/IRMS) constitutes a fine new approach. First introduced in the 1970s by [Matthews et Hayes, 1978], this method has now been proved to be very efficient and reliable. Moreover, isotopic tracing techniques provide the means of identifying recent nutrient sources for consumers, and allow inferences about the spatial and temporal distribution of organisms which move between isotopically distinct habitats. The NZ‐
Geotraces cruise of June 2011 is a perfect opportunity to elaborate a vertical and horizontal pattern of nutrient, suspended matter and phytoplankton/zooplankton's distribution, in the southern Pacific Ocean. The close relationship of these data to the hydrographic properties of this transect will be highlighted with accuracy. Then, the study will aim to describe the relative importance of various sources of nutrients to higher trophic‐level organisms in the marine ecosystem by applying this analytical method. Secondary aim is to improve the extraction of chosen amino‐acids from seawater. Estuary Benthic Habitat Mapping Nathan Singleton, Hilke Giles Waikato Regional Council, [email protected] Waikato Regional Council has a statutory obligation to protect natural resources of the coastal environment. The availability of baseline data is vital to enable the detection of adverse effects that may occur as a result of human activities. Especially in the case of the smaller estuaries we often lack basic data to inform resource consent decisions pertaining to ecological effects of an activity. In 2007/2008 an ‘estuary benthic habitat mapping’ project was initiated in selected Waikato estuaries. The main goal of the mapping project is to derive comprehensive information on the distribution and abundance of common intertidal benthic species (mainly shellfish), and substrate type to inform the sustainable management of our estuaries. Five estuaries have been mapped to date: Kawhia Harbour, Aotea Harbour, Otahu Estuary, Tairua Harbour and Wharekawa Harbour. The most common species in these estuaries were the bivalves Austrovenus stutchburyi, Paphies australis and Macomona liliana, and gastropods Diloma sp., Cominella sp., and Zeacumantus sp. We found that the majority of A. stutchburyi (71‐80%) and P. australis (69‐90%) in most estuaries were juveniles. Extensive seagrass beds occur in each estuary apart from Otahu Estuary. A range of sandy surface sediment types were found over the estuaries. 115 Seismic oceanography ‐ Processing petroleum industry multi‐channel seismic data for water column targets Matthew Smillie, Andrew R Gorman University of Otago, [email protected] Little is known concerning the fine structure of water masses associated with the Sub‐
tropical Front southeast of the South Island. Multi‐channel seismic reflection data acquired perpendicular to this front, which is locally coincident with the north‐flowing Southland Current over the Great South Basin, reveal acoustic reflections of thermo‐
haline boundaries from within the water column. Visible structures include eddies and internal waves associated with interactions between various water masses and the varied seafloor topography in the region. A comparison of two petroleum industry data sets collected in March 2006 (DUN‐06 collected by the Pacific Titan) and summer 2007‐2008 (OMV‐08 from the Wavefield Inseis Discoverer II) has been made. These surveys are in close proximity to each other, which enables preliminary temporal interpretations of the variability of the Southland Current / Subtropical Front. Data processing, including detailed acoustic velocity analysis, stacking and migration was completed using GLOBE Claritas. The role of siderophores, oxalate and light in the iron dissolution kinetics of Australian dust R.S. Sruthi Thalayappil, Imelda Velasques, Sylvia Sander University of Otago, [email protected] Iron binding ligands play a paramount role in the biogeochemical cycling of iron in the ocean. The results of recent studies confirm that iron binding ligands are produced by microorganisms due to iron limitation (e.g. siderophores) or released from particles during a remineralisation process. Desert dusts are iron‐laden, whereas phytoplankton in remote regions are anaemic. It is still not well understood how much iron dissolves from aerosol particles deposited into the surface ocean. The aim of our experiments is to measure the rate of iron dissolution from different iron dusts (of Australian origin) in the absence and presence of siderophores, oxalate and light. In the presence of light the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) is an important factor and dissolution rates are in general higher than in the dark. In this project we will isolate and characterize iron binding ligands from natural seawater including the subantarctic waters sampled during the Munida time‐series transect cruises. These and model siderophores such as deseferrioxamine B and aerobactin will be used in ship‐board and laboratory manipulation experiments to see how they influence the dissolution of iron from aerosol and dust particles relevant for the subantarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. 116 Variation in coastal suspended particulate matter composition over spatio‐temporal scales and the influence on suspension feeding communities Tiffany Stephens, Stephen Wing University of Otago, [email protected] Coastal marine systems are dynamic, where communities are challenged with sudden changes in physical and biotic forcings. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), a complex community of living phytoplankton, organic matter derived from macroalgae, and detritus, is quick to respond to environmental variability in terms of both abundance and composition. SPM is also a key energy and nutrient source for basal trophic levels, the effects of which propagate through food webs. Current literature reflects a 'SPM is good' mentality but often fails to recognize that variation in SPM composition might influence benthic structure. For example, some consumers (e.g. Mytilus californianus and Balanus glandula) select specific particles out of the water column and reject others, likely a mechanism to cope with feeding competition. Identifying SPM sources, delineating SPM composition, and the spatio‐temporal nuances of such has been largely neglected. As part of my research, I will sample the water column and benthos along continental shelves in Antarctic, sub‐ Antarctic and sub‐tropical systems. I will utilize stable isotope and other biomarker techniques to describe how basal organic matter from SPM is routed through contrasting coastal food webs. I will focus on suspension feeders to identify potential changes in benthic community structure in varying SPM regimes. Distribution and abundance of Hector's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori) along the Otago coastline, New Zealand Jennifer Turek University of Otago, [email protected] Hector's dolphins are endemic to New Zealand and listed as Endangered. Populations have decreased to approximately 27% of 1970 estimates, largely due to bycatch from fisheries. Even with new protection measures introduced by the Minister of Fisheries in 2008, several Hector's dolphin populations are predicted to continue declining. Otago Hector's dolphins have the potential to link other Hector's dolphin populations both north and south of the region. Therefore, effort has been focussed on the Otago coastline from Oamaru to Taieri Mouth, performing the first extensive Hector's dolphin survey in this area. By undertaking along‐shore transects in small boats, distribution and abundance data has been collected which will be used to estimate the population size and geographic distribution of resident Hector's dolphins. These data will assist the Department of Conservation (DOC) in developing an effective management plan for Hector's dolphins in the area. In addition, these data will allow DOC to provide recommendations in order to minimise the impact of Port Otago's Next Generation dredging proposal on local Hector's dolphins. 117 Cues, not an endogenous rhythm, control the water‐column entry by benthic copepods Kay Vopel1, David Thistle2 Auckland University of Technology1, Florida State University, USA2, [email protected] Individuals of some benthic species swim out of or away from the sediment surface into the water column, i.e., they emerge. Individuals of both emergent and nonemergent benthic species can be entrained by near‐bottom flows. Both emergence and entrainment are of interest, e.g., for their roles in benthopelagic coupling, but the controlling factors are poorly understood. Our experiments with benthic copepods from contrasting environments showed that a factor (or factors) associated with the onset of darkness, rather than an endogenous rhythm, controls their dusk emergence. In addition, we argue that entrainment and emergence can interact in at least two ways: (1) light‐induced changes in oxygenation of the sediment pore water may affect the entrainment flux of benthic copepods, and (2) if large numbers of individuals are entrained in the time leading up to sunset, few will remain in the sediment to be part of the dusk peak in emergence. Reversing a functional extinction of giant clams in the South Pacific: Communicating with project advocates and adversaries Charles Waters University of Auckland, [email protected] Reversing the functional extinction of native Tridacnidae giant clams to a remote atoll in the South Pacific requires a solid understanding of tridacnid developmental biology and marine ecology. That is the easy part. A more formidable challenge is engaging governmental, political, economic, and local community audiences in a dialog that generates genuine project support. Conservation projects can be at risk without stakeholder comprehension of concepts such as sustainable harvesting, ecological systems, stewardship, or the future, as examples. Six years of experience as a volunteer scientist for the Cook Island Ministry of Marine Resources (MMR) has yielded several useful principles for effectively communicating my enthusiasm for marine biology to a variety of audiences. My poster presentation attempts to show how truth, credibility and good science are merely starting points in the education process. Imagination, keen awareness of audience values, identifying individual learning styles, passion for the topic, and basic communication strategies are also important. While these concepts can apply to many topics, characteristics unique to complex marine organisms and environments often require special handling. Scientists must begin sharing responsibility for unravelling some of the complexities of science before expecting well‐informed participation and support by the stakeholder community in protecting and restoring marine environments. Personal lessons learned from my communication successes and failures may benefit others attempting to implement conservation initiatives. 118 Southern right whale vocalisations: a pilot study at the Auckland Islands Trudi Webster, Steve Dawson University of Otago, [email protected] The Southern right whale (SRW) was hunted to near extinction and is endangered. The Auckland Islands (AI) are the stronghold for SRWs in New Zealand waters, and are likely their primary calving/breeding grounds. Although well studied in some right whale populations, acoustic behaviour of SRWs has received little attention in Australasia. This research aims to provide a quantitative analysis of vocal repertoire, quantify associations between vocalisations and behaviour, analyse temporal variation in calls and measure background noise. A successful pilot study was conducted as part of a winter 2010 AI expedition. Acoustic recordings were made on a custom‐built hydrophone array to localise sounds and a calibrated Sonatech hydrophone to allow precise measurement of sound levels. A pinger deployed during recordings provided a reference sound source. In total, recordings were made comprising 20+ hours of SRW vocalisation and environmental noise data. Initial analysis showed that SRWs are vocal day and night and that a wide variety of stereotyped vocalisations occur (e.g. gunshots, upcalls, moans). Background noise was dominated by snapping shrimp. Further fieldwork will be conducted in winter 2011 and 2012, with the addition of an autonomous acoustic recorder to sample data throughout the year. 119 Research News 120 Auckland Council In 2011, Auckland Council had continued long term monitoring programmes of its legacy councils to provide consistent, long‐term information on the environmental quality of Auckland’s marine environment as well as other issue‐specific marine monitoring and research projects, primarily focused on the effects of sediment and contaminant generation due to land use and development. The monitoring programme consists of: • Saline Water Quality Programme ‐ monitors contaminants associated with erosion, nutrients and biological wastes in the water column. • Shellfish Contaminant Monitoring Programme ‐ using in‐situ oysters and deployed mussels. • Sediment Contaminant Programme ‐ monitors chemical contaminant levels in near‐
shore sediments. • Benthic Ecology Programme ‐ monitors temporal changes in specific sediment dwelling, ecological communities harbours and estuaries. A second tier ecological programme tracks long‐term (decadal) shifts in habitat availability and quality throughout the region. • Beach Profile Programme ‐ monitors long‐term changes in foreshore accretion or erosion. • Reef Monitoring Programme – monitors ecology and sedimentation of subtidal reefs on the east coast • Benthic Health programme –is an integrating programme which assesses several elements of ecosystem health in our harbours and estuaries on a regional scale, using the benthic health model to derive an index of benthic community health In addition to monitoring, Auckland Council is undertaking two research programmes this year Broad scale mapping of marine ecosystems Maps and inventory of marine habitats have been provided for individual locations (e.g. Kaipara and Whangateau) but a large scale, region wide approach has been lacking. Due to this piecemeal approach there is paucity of information describing the types, breadth and range of Auckland’s marine habitats. The use of satellite imagery is being investigated to map marine habitats supporting algal communities both above high tide and underwater to a maximum of 20‐30 m depth. The true depth will be dependent on water clarity and processing capabilities of satellite imagery. Other methods are being investigated for deeper areas. Validation of antifouling compound inputs to ports and marinas and assessment of export to the wider marine environment 121 This project aims to measure export of copper from marinas to the wider coastal environment and to investigate the likelihood for environmental effects on aquatic biota from copper in the water column of marinas using the biotic ligand method. It all seeks to validate predicted environmental concentrations from the MAM‐PEC model for marinas around the Auckland region; There are three staff managing the marine monitoring and research programmes, Jarrod Walker specialising in reef ecology and Megan Stewart in soft sediment ecology and Marcus Cameron specialising in stormwater contaminants. Dominic McCarthy is the manager of Auckland Council’s Coastal Policy team. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Auckland Council support students through a 2 year Student Partnership Programme, which involves full time summer work with ARC at the beginning of their MSc and a stipend during their research year. We are also currently funding two marine PhD students. MSc: Rhian Moyle – The effects of catchment use on coastal zooplankton in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. University of Auckland. Supervised by Associate Professor Mary Sewell. PhD: Jared Kibele ‐ GIS based monitoring of marine biogenic habitats using aerial and satellite imagery. University of Auckland. Supervised by Dr. Nick Shears, Dr. Megan Carbines, Dr. Jarrod Walker. PhD: Kate James ‐ Temporal and spatial distribution and monitoring of Undaria pinnatifida. University of Auckland. Supervised by Dr. Nick Shears, Dr. Alwyn Rees, Dr. Jarrod Walker. 122 Cawthron Institute COASTAL AND FRESHWATER GROUP Cawthron’s Coastal and Freshwater group combines the expertise of both marine and freshwater ecologists to provide research and advisory services to a wide range of regulators and businesses needing assistance with requirements of the Resource Management Act where aquatic ecosystems are affected. Collectively, the group has specific expertise in: • Marine farming and fisheries: assessing the sustainability of marine farming and fishing activities, assisting stakeholders in improving the sustainability of marine farming and fishing operations, developing resource and environmental management tools. • Discharges and contaminants: the effects on land, water and sediments. • Coastal and estuary health: knowledge and advice on monitoring, mapping, management and restoration. • Resource management: advice and knowledge on coastal and estuarine systems for Regional Resource Management Plans. • Biosecurity: risk assessment, incursion response tools, marine pest and biofouling management. • Ecohydraulics: predictive models to assess changes in flow and allocation on fish, macro‐invertebrates and other in‐stream values. • Functional indicators to measure river health. • Socio‐economics, environmental valuations, sustainability assessments, social networks and behaviour change. There is 42 fulltime staff in the group which is complemented with part‐time staff, PhD students and contractor specialists. This past year has seen the departure of Dean Olsen and Iain Maxwell, and the addition of Natasha Berkett, Meghan Williams, Annika Wagenhoff, Rasmus Gabrielsson, Emma Newcombe, Dave Kelly, and Aurelie Castinel. The Coastal and Freshwater group was closely involved in the exhibition at Nelson’s Provincial Museum, Extraordinary Frontiers: Science, Innovation, and Mysteries from our environment. This exhibition was part of the 90th anniversary celebrations and showcased the work done by Cawthron scientists, for the Coastal and Freshwater group this included: • The protection and restoration of coastal and freshwater ecosystems. • The sustainable management and development of New Zealand's natural resources. There has been a change in guard within the Marine Biosecurity Team. Grant Hopkins has taken up the helm from Barrie Forrest, who now delivers his expertise to Cawthron in a 123 consulting capacity. Barrie continues the ongoing research into identifying likely ‘next pests’ to aquaculture in New Zealand. Grant’s research into vessel biofouling risks has expanded to look at ways to predict, and subsequently mitigate, biofouling risks in vessel sea chests. Javier Atalah leads Cawthron’s research in the use of biological control agents to manage marine pest populations and new incursions. Preliminary results from marina‐
based trials are very promising and have the potential to change the way in which fouling levels in busy hubs such as marinas and ports are controlled. Aurelie Castinel was welcomed into the team in early 2012. Aurelie is an epidemiologist who previously worked at MAF as a senior advisor. Her epidemiological skills will be usefully applied to biosecurity and aquaculture‐related issues. Kate Schimanski (University of Canterbury) is well underway with her PhD research investigating factors influencing the propagule supply of biofouling taxa, and Mauricio Cifuentes (Victoria University) has commenced his biofouling research in Pelorus Sound which aims to identify pest‐free ‘islands’ for aquaculture. NZMSS student rep (Victoria University), Lauren Fletcher is working to complete her PhD which investigates the ecology and impacts of the invasive ascidian, Didemnum vexillum. Holly Bennett (Victoria University) assisted Javier with lab‐based biocontrol studies and has returned to commence her Honours studies. The Marine Biosecurity team has provided consultancy advice for a diverse range of clients/projects including; biosecurity risk assessments for oil rig transfers and aquaculture developments, and contributed to the development of biosecurity standards for aquaculture activities. Cawthron’s Joanne Ellis leading a volunteer training session on the technique for collecting benthic core samples for the ecological survey of Tauranga Harbour, as part of the Manaaki Taha Moana project( in conjunction with Massey University). Cawthron are sub‐contractors to Massey University in a FRST funded programme ‐ Manaaki Taha Moana ‐ that aims to assist iwi to maintain and enhance their coastal ecosystems. There are two separate case study sites: the Tauranga Harbour and a section 124 of the Kapiti/Horowhenua coastline. Jim Sinner leads the Cawthron researchers, now in the third year of a six year programme. The main coastal issue for tangata whenua is loss of mahinga‐kai: the reduced ability to harvest from places that were once abundant food sources. In Tauranga Harbour, Joanne Ellis and Dana Clark have worked with local iwi, Bay of Plenty Regional Council and Waikato University, to carry out a broad‐scale survey of the Tauranga Harbour. Samples will be processed then Joanne will develop a benthic health model that would underpin future work on harbour ecology. With Ngati Raukawa in the Horowhenua, Craig Allen is investigating, with Chris Cornelisen, sources of faecal contamination in the Waiwiri stream and coastal shellfish beds and, with Roger Young and Kati Doehring, has recommended restoration options for Ōhau River loop habitat and fish passage. We are planning a study of changes in species composition in Horowhenua surf zone habitat and possible connections to poor water quality input from local streams and river plumes. The Coastal Aquaculture Monitoring Team, coordinated by David Taylor has had another extremely busy year. In addition to on‐going monitoring programmes of bivalve farms, the team (Nigel Keeley, David Taylor, Reid Forrest, Dana Clark and Robyn Dunmore) have developed comprehensive methods to assess the ecological effects of existing and proposed salmon farms in the Marlborough Sounds. Nigel Keeley he has made excellent progress in the second year of his Cawthron‐funded PhD (University of Tasmania). His PhD research is developing environmental management strategies for current and proposed aquaculture in the southern hemisphere, providing fundamental knowledge to underpin the anticipated significant expansion of finfish farming in New Zealand. He has published two papers so far from his PhD research. He has provided a chapter report to the Ministry of Fisheries assessing the benthic effects of aquaculture in New Zealand, and just finished preparing the Marine Environmental Monitoring and Adaptive Management Plan (MEM‐AMP) that will be used to monitor and manage the proposed NZKS finfish farms in the future. He has also been working closely with Sarah Dawson (Boffa Miskell) to develop the consent conditions that will accompany that application. In late 2012, Nigel (with assistance from Ellie Watts and Reid Forrest) also undertook a contract with a Wellington‐based fisheries modelling group (Dragonfly) to test new methods for assessing the biomass of wild paua populations that has potential as the future yardstick for that fishery. David Taylor and Nigel Keeley completed a project that assessed the effects of farming finfish on inshore benthic habitats areas in the Marlborough Sounds – a location often touted as the next frontier for aquaculture expansion in this country. David Taylor, Shaun Ogilvie and Paul McNabb continue their Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga funded research assessing the ‘Risks of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) in Kaimoana’. With the help of their research partners at the Hauraki Maori Trust Board, the project has identified times of year when the risk of exposure to TTX can increase on the Coromandel Peninsula. 125 A sign warning of toxic seaslugs at Narrow Neck Beach on Aucklands north shore, reminding people of the risks posed by these Tetrodotoxin rich organisms. Photo by David Taylor. Reid Forrest signalling that it is time to head for the surface in Tasman Bay. 126 Robyn Dunmore, Nigel Keeley and Reid Forrest completed annual monitoring and provided reports for New Zealand King Salmon Limited salmon farms and associated reef monitoring assessments. Dana Clark, David Taylor and Eric Goodwin, have prepared 32 reports for mussel farm extensions near Wilsons Bay, Coromandel. Working closely with the Waikato Regional Council team, a rationalised baseline monitoring plan using reference farms and control sites was implemented to cover regional plan requirements and reduce costs to farmers. Reid Forrest continues to raise the bar in aquaculture field‐work methods, developing and implementing new tools to measure the effects of aquaculture on benthic habitats. Using the latest CTD ‘flying fish’ and video technology, and with the help of Weimin Jiang and Robyn Dunmore, he has completed annual monitoring and reports on effects to the water column, waves and currents and the benthic environment associated with large offshore mussel farms in Golden Bay and Tasman Bay. Reid and Olivia Johnston have also been pivotal in the developing field of monitoring the offshore effects of off‐shore drilling operations on offshore benthic habitats. Reid has also been working closely with Paul Barter and Chris Cornelisen on the installation and servicing of scientific equipment on Cawthron’s in‐situ monitoring buoys, such as the TASCAM buoy. The coastal ecosystems team coordinated by Chris Cornelisen continues to be busy as ever. Robyn Dunmore continues to lead monitoring in Fiordland for assessing long‐term effects of freshwater discharge from the Manapouri Hydroelecric Power Station Meridian Energy. The monitoring is conducted collaboratively with NIWA and the University of Otago and involves biological monitoring of intertidal and subtidal rock wall communities and long‐term collection of hydrological conditions in Doubtful and Milford Sounds. Cawthron’s coastal scientists completed a number of projects for Councils through the MSI Envirolink scheme, including a study on the influence of tides on water quality monitoring data for Northland Regional Council, establishment of a real‐time water quality monitoring buoy for Hawkes Bay Regional Council, broad‐scale mapping of Nelson Bay’s estuaries, and development of contaminant risk models for bathing water quality along Kaiteriteri Beach. Cawthron in collaboration with Environmental Science and Research (ESR) and nine regional councils, completed an Envirolink Tools project aimed at developing Microbial Source Tracking (MST) tools as part of routine coastal water quality monitoring programmes. The project involved the application of MST markers at 54 sites across New Zealand; results provided a new level of information not previously available for determining sources of contamination leading to high levels of faecal indicator bacteria. In addition, Cawthron scientists (Marek Kirs and Chris Cornelisen) completed a two‐year project funded through Seafood Innovations Ltd. aimed at developing MST tools for monitoring and detecting faecal contaminants in shellfish. Chris Cornelisen and Jonathan Banks are further developing and testing molecular tools for source tracking faecal contamination in coastal waters. This work builds on the Motueka River Integrated Catchment Management programme and is aligned with a planned deployment of MBARI’s Environmental Sample Processor (robotic molecular lab) in Tasman Bay in May 2012. 127 Paul Barter and Chris Cornelisen continue work on real‐time coastal observation platforms through collaboration with MBARI. The main objective is to develop standardised approaches to providing open‐source data for a range of end users and the public. Most recently, Paul Barter and Andrew Mahon have been developing a new system modelled after TASCAM for Hawkes Bay Regional Council. A spin‐off from this technology has been Paul and Andrew’s development of a very small telemetered water quality buoy (nicknamed the micro water quality or µWQ “mu dub que” buoy for short). The first two of these buoys were recently supplied to the Marlborough Shellfish Quality Programme for deployment in Golden Bay. Caption: Side by side images the micro water quality (µWQ "mu dub que") buoy showing a 3D computer design rendering (left) and the finished product (right). Chris Cornelisen and Ben Knight in collaboration with MetOceans Solutions have begun development of a 3D hydrodynamic and aquaculture effects models for the Firth of Thames and Hauraki Gulf for the Waikato Regional Council. The underlying hydrodynamic model will be built using SELFE open‐source code to facilitate access to the model by a range of future end‐users. 128 Ben Knight continues his participation in the global IndiSeas programme and ecosystem‐
based fisheries research. This work has led to a visit to France and involvement in a world‐
wide collaboration of scientists to assess the health of fisheries. Ben has also been investigating energetic pressures on New Zealand’s primary marine resources from fisheries and water column carrying capacity issues arising from aquaculture and land‐based activities. Weimin Jiang has been involved in the estimation shellfish biomass in Otago Harbour and continues to research food‐web effects from fishing and aquaculture. Cawthron scientists, Chris Cornelisen, Nigel Keeley, Barrie Forrest, Deanna Clement, Olivier Champeau, in collaboration with NIWA, have been assisting the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Aquaculture Unit with a review and risk assessment of the ecological effects of aquaculture. Paul Gillespie continues to assess the impacts of the Bell Island wastewater discharge on coastal habitats. This project now spans more than 20 years investigation. Paul works alongside Olivia Johnston and Deanna Clement to do the State of Environment (SoE) monitoring of estuaries in the Nelson Bays region. The latest addition to the network is the Nelson Haven which harbours the largest area of eelgrass in Tasman Bay. This has required some modification of Cawthron’s standardised estuary monitoring protocol. In collaboration with Ben Knight, Paul has been actively involved with estimating ecological water column limits for aquaculture in Marlborough Sounds. This investigation facilitates work with Marlborough District Council to develop and implement a long‐term SoE monitoring programme for the Sounds. In collaboration with Chris Cornelisen, Paul Barter and Ben Knight, Paul continues to investigate catchment influences on ecosystem processes and fishery resources in Tasman Bay. Cawthron’s marine mammal expert Deanna Clement is co‐supervising several PhD projects assessing marine mammal species in the Marlborough Sounds. Deanna is currently developing a marine mammal sighting and passive acoustic database for Golden and Tasman Bays to complement on‐going research in the Sounds and provide important insights into the distribution and movement of marine mammals across the top of the South Island. The impacts assessment team (coordinated by Paul Barter) has had a busy year with some innovative developments and expansion into new areas. The core focus of the team is still on assessing effects to coastal systems from anthropogenic inputs but this has expanded to include increasing collection of physical oceanographic data to support modelling efforts which are intrinsically linked to assessing adverse effects. As a member of Maritime New Zealand’s national response team, Paul Barter spent several weeks in Tauranga working on the C/V Rena oil spill. This included prioritising sensitive ecological habitats, and helping develop water quality indicators and techniques for assessing beach opening criteria. Ross Sneddon provides impact assessment and advice on the effects of contaminants from a variety of point and non‐point source discharges throughout New Zealand. This year Ross has worked on assessments of the impacts from reclamation, harbour dredging 129 programmes and sea disposal of dredge spoil, metals accumulation and bioavailability in marine sediments. He has also overseen projects for the collection of oceanographic data. Ross Sneddon and Olivia Johnston about to deploy an RDI Workhorse Sentinel ADCP in Tasman Bay from RV Waihoe. Olivia Johnston’s extensive work in the environmental impact monitoring of offshore oil facilities in the Taranaki region, has also seen her lending her expertise to the development of a joint operator Taranaki‐wide framework/protocol for Maritime New Zealand (MNZ). This will ensure there is a robust and consistent approach to production and drilling‐related discharge management. Her work also includes monitoring Kupe pipeline and umbilical biofouling estimates. Ian Challenger continues to investigate indicators of sustainability that can be applied in communities across the top of the South Island as part of the MSI funded programme on soft urban infrastructure for sustainable settlements. He is working on an MSI funded programme to integrate indigenous tikanga (custom) and matāuranga (traditional knowledge) into the Natural Step Process. Following an earlier study to estimate the value of reducing stormwater impacts on Auckland's coastal environments, Chris Batstone is developing a sustainability indicator system for application in a spatial decision support system to assess strategies for managing the impacts of urban stormwater on streams and estuaries, as a subcontract to NIWA. Marg O'Brien and Mark Newton are investigating the role of social networks in providing resilience and ability to respond to environmental challenges, as part of a MSI funded programme on the ‘soft infrastructure’ of sustainable communities. 130 Clockwise from top left: Dave Taylor spotting 12 Kingfish directly behind the photographer on Tasman Bay mussel farms; Ross Sneddon and Reid Forrest deploying an FSI 2D‐ACM current meter in Tasman Bay from RV Waihoe; Paul Barter retrieving a deployed FSI 2D ACM current meter (with entangled drift Ulva) from Tasman Bay. AQUACULTURE AND BIOTECHNOLOGY GROUP The Aquaculture and Biotechnology Group was formed in 2010 from a merger of the Aquaculture and Aquatic Biotechnologies Groups and has 36 scientist and technicians working on a range of research projects focused on supporting the aquaculture industry. Danette Olsen resigned as Group Manager in late 2011, to be replaced by Mike Mandeno as acting Group Manager from February 2012. Key research themes for the group are: Aquaculture Production Systems Shellfish Selective Breeding Cryopreservation Shellfish Health Seafood Safety Environmental and Molecular Tools Algal Technologies 131 1. AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Hatchery Biotechnology Dr Henry Kaspar and Cara McGregor continue work on scaling up the continuous culture of Chaetoceros calcitrans. Large‐scale, reliable production of this micro‐alga as live feed in shellfish hatcheries will be a significant advance for mussel and oyster spat production. Pacific Oyster Lead by Achim Janke, this programme focuses on further developing commercial production of oyster spat. A novel method for triploidy induction has enabled reliable production of triploid spat from diploid parents (e.g. selectively bred broodstock). The emergence of the micro‐var variant of the ostreid herpes virus in New Zealand has severely impacted the industry. In response, selective breeding, targeting lines resilient to this virus, has commenced in partnership with industry. Open Ocean Aquaculture Led by Kevin Heasman, aquaculture and structural design aspects of open ocean fish and shellfish farming are being investigated in conjunction with other groups in Cawthron and various industry parties. Results to date indicate that open ocean aquaculture is technically feasible and provides a major opportunity for the growth of New Zealand aquaculture. 2. SHELLFISH SELECTIVE BREEDING Aquaculture Genetics Greenshell™ Mussel Led by Nick King and including Dr Norman Ragg, Dr Andrew Fidler, Dr Zoe Hilton and Dr Steve Webb this highly successful selective breeding programme continues to develop. Families selected on the basis of simple growth characteristics (e.g. shell length, meat weight) continue to show very encouraging improvements in gain with each new generation. New research now aims to refine selection criteria; looking at growth efficiency, physiological robustness and processing characteristics. A substantial research effort conducted by Cawthron and staff seconded from the mussel industry, has now identified the major husbandry hurdles associated with the hatchery production of young mussels. Commercial‐scale batches of mussel larvae are now produced at Cawthron’s Glenhaven Aquaculture Centre, while on‐going trials continue to fine‐tune the larval rearing process. 3. CRYOPRESERVATION Dr Serean Adams and Dr Samantha Gale lead the cryopreservation programme, developing methods for live‐freezing and thawing shellfish sperm, eggs, embryos and larvae that will provide important tools in the shellfish selective breeding programme, and give flexibility and efficiency in the production of commercial quantities of shellfish spat for New Zealand aquaculture industries. Methods for cryopreserving oyster and mussel 132 sperm are well developed and rearing of larvae from cryopreserved mussel and oyster eggs is thought to be a world first. We continue to refine and develop these methods to cater for commercial‐scale batches. 4. SHELLFISH HEALTH Dr Steve Webb leads our pathology research programme at Cawthron; he has been assisted by molecular biologist Dr Jeannie Kuhajek. Histopathology has been used in general health surveys. These have included juvenile Haliotis iris, for seed translocation, hatchery Perna canaliculus, Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea chilensis, and Ostrea chilensis in the field to ascertain the effect of current speed and stock density on infections with Bonamia and APX. Other collaborative projects under way included identification of chlamydia‐like organisms in the clam Spisula aequilatera, studies on the genetic variability of Bonamia, and visualisation of a putative digestive epithelial virus in Pecten novaezelandiae. Experiments are under way to ascertain any relationship between pathogen loads and culture density of flat oysters (Ostrea chilensis). The pathogens Bonamia exitiosa and Apicomplexan X (APX) will be monitored and results will allow optimum holding densities to be achieved. 5. SEAFOOD SAFETY The Cawthron‐led MSI Seafood Safety Programme which includes AgResearch, Plant & Food and ESR, was established in 2007 and works with industry and regulators to develop a comprehensive approach to seafood safety. Cawthron is also exploring real‐time remote monitoring as a prospect and is collaborating in research with AgResearch to define more closely the true potential for human harm from the toxins. The joint toxicology work is also underpinning the setting of regulations worldwide for toxic compounds. Cawthron scientists are Dr Lesley Rhodes (Programme Leader) Kirsty Smith, Paul McNabb and Lincoln MacKenzie. Krystyna Ponikla is curator of the nationally‐
significant Cawthron Institute Culture Collection of Micro‐algae, which is backed up by the successful cryopreservation of more than 20 micro‐algal strains including shellfish feed species, small dinoflagellates and diatoms in addition to some species of cyanobacteria (blue‐green algae). Cawthron’s marine biotoxin analytical laboratory and harmful phytoplankton monitoring programme are major commercial laboratory service activities that originated from this research. Dr Pat Holland retired in 2011. 6. ENVIRONMENTAL/MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES Environmental technologies are currently focused on developing and applying tools for improved environmental management. Work includes the development of molecular tools for detection of cyanobacteria (Dr Susie Wood) and invasive marine organisms (Dr 133 Xavier Pochon, Kirsty Smith). We are further developing Microbial Source Tracking (MST) techniques for identifying sources of micro‐organism contamination (e.g. bacteria) in aquatic systems such as rivers, streams (e.g. for Regional Councils) and aquaculture growing areas (Dr Jonathan Banks). Dr Doug Mountfort retired in 2011 Dr Andrew Fidler has an MSI NERF grant with which he is investigating potentially useful activities within the genome of particular species of ascidians. 7. ALGAL TECHNOLOGIES Algal technologies scientist Dr Mike Packer is researching how to achieve large‐scale commodity growth of algae for products such as biofuels and utilising algal growth to capture industrial waste like carbon dioxide. To achieve this, breakthroughs in scaleable bioreactor technology and algal harvesting are needed. To reach this goal high‐value products, such as nutraceutical raw materials, are seen as important economic drivers to allow algal projects to succeed. Eventually, an integrated bioeconomy around algal growth, where the impact of waste and several values streams are linked by the growth of algae, is envisaged. We are also developing a platform for the rapid optimisation of culturing algae strains. 134 Department of Conservation The Department’s main marine science involvement is under the Marine Mammals Protection Act, the Wildlife Act, the Marine Reserves Act, the Conservation Act, and statutory processes under the Resource Management Act. More information is available on the Department’s website (, and the standard email address for DOC staff is [email protected] An organisational review within the Department has been progressing during 2011/12, and this will alter the structure and staffing in the coming year. AQUATIC & THREATS UNIT Department of Conservation, Wellington (Manager: Hilary Aikman). The Aquatic and Threats Unit is part of DOC’s National Office. The unit has the following sections: Marine Conservation Team (Manager, Sean Cooper) with oversight of: • protection of marine priority species and priority sites, and ecosystem maintenance, marine mammal protection and advice, advice on marine biodiversity protection; identification of priority sites for marine protection; advice and support for marine reserves establishment; and marine conservation communications and advocacy. National stakeholder engagement includes co‐ordination with Mfish (under the Marine Reserve Protocol), and development of proposals relating to offshore marine protection. • Research and science advice services to the department on protection and restoration of priority marine species and priority sites including captive rearing/translocation of seabirds; seabird ecology; population investigations and recovery; marine mammal ecology; population investigation and recovery; advice to the International Whaling Commission; marine classification and identification of design, protection and monitoring for priority marine sites; and science communication. Technical and scientific staff of the Marine Conservation Team include: Ian Angus ‐ Senior Technical Support Officer, Marine Conservation, fisheries interactions, including management of NZ sea lion, Hector’s dolphin threat management and shark conservation measures. Carolyn Lundquist ‐ Conservation Planning tools. Advice and support for marine protected areas, marine ecosystem mapping, modelling and analysis. Dan Breen Senior Technical Support Officer, Conservation Planning tools. Advice and support for marine protected areas, marine ecosystem mapping, modelling and analysis. Laura Boren – Senior Technical Support Officer, Marine Mammals, provides national marine mammal science, technical and operational management advice and support 135 Ann McCrone ‐ Marine conservation spatial planning, data management, technical advice related to the development, communication and improvement of marine conservation management, development and improvement of national marine reserve monitoring procedures and standards. Dr Louise Chilvers Marine Mammal/New Zealand sea lion scientist – undertaking research including population dynamics and foraging ecology. Head of Delegation International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee. Ecology, behaviour and population biology of marine mammals. Clinton Duffy Scientific Officer (Marine Species ‐ Fish) ‐ undertaking collaborative research on the conservation biology of great white sharks with Dr Malcolm Francis (NIWA), and basking sharks and bronze whaler sharks with Dr Demian Chapman (Stony Brook University, NY); threat classification of marine fishes including ongoing taxonomic research on spiny dogfishes (Squalus spp.) and smoothhounds (Mustelus spp.); review of the biodiversity values of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve; and connectivity of intertidal rocky reef invertebrate populations. He is based in Auckland Conservancy Office. Dr Debbie Freeman Scientific Officer (Marine Ecology). Ongoing research has focussed on the development of marine monitoring methodologies, including a framework for assessing ecological integrity in the marine environment. Irene Llabres Pohl Technical advisor – Oceanography. Involved in identifying, compiling and creating spatial databases describing human impacts to the NZ marine environment. Laura Wakelin Technical advisor – Marine Mammals. Data management, communication and technical advice related to marine mammal interactions, including strandings. MARINE CONSERVATION SERVICES SECTION (Manager: Russell Harding) Administration of the Conservation Services Programme (CSP) is the core focus of this section. The programme investigates the adverse effects of commercial fishing on marine protected species and works towards a vision of “commercial fishing is undertaken in a manner that does not compromise the protection and recovery of protected species in New Zealand fisheries waters”. The CSP aims to understand and monitor protected species interactions with commercial fishing activities (e.g. through the protected species observer programme), monitor the status of protected species populations known to be incidentally taken in fishing operations, and develop ways of mitigating the bycatch of protected species. Most population and mitigation projects are contracted out by open tender. The section is also involved in other related work areas, including • collaboration with the Department of Primary Industries in developing government policy related to fisheries interactions with protected species; • scientific research relating to marine protected species; • investigating new fishing gear or operational methods that may reduce bycatch; and 136 •
international collaboration through participation in relevant multilateral initiatives (e.g. Agreement for the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources). For more information on MCS, see Staff of the Marine Conservation Services Section include: Igor Debski: Scientific Officer with a focus on population and interaction projects. Kris Ramm: Scientific Officer with a focus on mitigation projects, including the CSP fisheries observer programme. PLANNING UNIT – POLICY GROUP Manager Guy Kerrison – Unit’s work includes providing advice and support on RMA and management planning matters. Key areas of work have included: Aquaculture implementation The Department of Conservation (along with other agencies such as Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry for the Environment and Te Puni Kokiri) works with the Aquaculture Unit within MAF to assist councils with implementation of the new aquaculture legislation – which took effect in October 2011. Off‐shore Islands Regional Coastal Plan The Department has publicly notified a Regional Coastal Plan for the Kermadec and Subantarctic Islands under the Resource Management Act 1991. The key issues the plan seek to address are the prevention of biosecurity breaches and oil spills. The key restrictions in the proposed plan to address those issues are surface water access controls based on vessel length and proximity to shore; the requirement for a hull inspection for all vessels prior to departure for the islands if going closer than 1000m from shore; and a prohibition on carrying heavy fuel oil (HFO) as a cargo or using it as a fuel inline with the MARPOL restriction on carrying and using HFO in the Antarctic area that came into effect August 2011. Decisions on submissions will be publicly notified on 2 may 2012. DOC PUBLISHING TEAM (Key contact Katherine Jensen, Communication Channels Manager, is within National Office). The team continues to assess, edit and publish contract research reports for its 'DOC Research & Development Series, DRDS' (formerly 'DOC Science Internal Series, DSIS'), 'Science for Conservation, SFC' monograph series, 'DOC Marine Conservation Services Series, DMCS', 'DOC Technical Series, DOCTS' handbooks, 'Threatened Species Recovery Series', and a variety of newsletters, factsheets and occasional books. Many of these works are relevant to the marine science community within and outside New Zealand. 137 Electronic copies are distributed to key individuals and libraries on a regular basis; and all new publications are mounted in full on the website as they come out: see > Publications > Science and Research, where the issues are listed (by series then date of publication). A programme of retrospective pdf‐ing of key publications pre‐1999 was also completed at the end of 2011 and posted on the DOC website. A searchable database is accessible on the website and electronic versions of most publications are free to download. Hardcopies of most series publications ceased to be produced in 2010, although paper copies of some older editions can still be requested from the Publishing Team (address below) and some non‐series titles may still be printed in the future. DOC’s new visual identity was applied to all new Science and Technical reports from late 2011 to bring them into line with DOC’s new design standards. Our listserver continues to advise subscribers of new DOC Publications as they come out. These can be received as single notifications, which include bibliographic information with a full abstract and link to the PDF on the website, or as a monthly newsletter, which includes bibliographic information and links to PDFs only. If you'd like to subscribe to either list, please email us and specify 'detailed' or 'monthly'. Publishing Team, Department of Conservation, PO Box 10420, Wellington 6143, New Zealand (fax+64‐4‐496 1929), mailto:[email protected] . CONSERVANCIES The Department includes 11 conservancies with marine responsibilities. Northland Conservancy (Key contact Vince Kerr) Northland is engaged in a range of monitoring and MPA work. Work this year has been done in the Bay of Islands in collaboration with hapu and the BOI based Fish Forever group. A descriptive study has been completed at Okahu and Waewaetoria islands and invertebrate and fish monitoring at Deep Water Cove. Fish and Crayfish and habitat mapping has been done at the Whangarei Harbour. Vince Kerr remains involved with a number of community and Iwi/hapu groups in Northland who are interested in investigating and developing marine protection and management options in their areas. There is now significant interest in Northland in MPA and there are many groups and interests actively preparing for MPA processes. Auckland Conservancy Waikato Conservancy (Key contact Kristina Hillock) A lobster and benthic community survey was undertaken in Te Whanganui a Hei marine reserve in Autumn 2011, along with baited underwater fish monitoring. This survey is undertaken on a two‐yearly cycle, alternating with a fish survey. Both programmes of work contribute to the long term monitoring data sets for the marine reserve. In addition to the biological surveys, some sediment monitoring (suspended sediment content) was undertaken within the marine reserve. 138 East Coast‐ Bay of Plenty Conservancy Tongariro‐Wanganui‐Taranaki Conservancy (key contacts Bryan Williams/Callum Lilley (Taranaki Area Office) During March and April of 2011, baited under water video footage was collected in Tapuae Marine Reserve (30 drops) and at a control site adjacent to the reserve (30 drops). Preliminary analysis shows blue cod numbers were significantly higher inside the reserve than at control sites (p=0.0001). Snapper numbers also appear to be higher within the reserve, although the result was not significant (p=0.053). BUV footage was also collected at five historical underwater visual census sites. Two of these “case study” sites are under full protection, two under partial protection (within the Sugar Loaf Islands Marine Protected Area) and one is outside of the protected areas (Waiwhakaiho). BUV footage for the case study sites is yet to be analysed. A pilot Experiencing Marine Reserves (EMR) programme was run with a local school in 2011 and funding was secured from DOC, the Tindall Foundation and Origin Energy to allow four schools to take part in the programme in 2012. Taranaki Area Office is continuing to support the Maui’s dolphin research programme led by Auckland. Wellington Hawke’s Bay Conservancy (key contact Helen Kettles (marine) and Nadine Bott (marine mammals)) A variety of research, and monitoring, was carried out at the Taputeranga Marine Reserve by six post graduate students from the Victoria University of Wellington. During 2011 only one new research permit, and three for collections, were issued for this reserve. Biological monitoring of indicator subtidal invertebrates and fish communities were undertaken by the department in January‐March. This monitoring continues to build on excellent baseline work undertaken by CMEER at Victoria University of Wellington. A collaborative approach between the University and DOC is being taken for monitoring of this marine reserve. There was little research undertaken in the Kapiti Marine Reserve in 2011 and no new research permits were issued. No department monitoring was undertaken at the Kapiti or Te Angiangi Marine Reserves. Five post graduate researchers received grants, and some logistics support, from the department for conservancy marine reserves research in 2011. Nelson/Marlborough Conservancy (key contact Andrew Baxter). The Conservancy maintained its ecological monitoring programmes at Long Island‐
Kokomohua Marine Reserve (outer Queen Charlotte Sound), Tonga Island Marine Reserve (Abel Tasman National Park) and Horoirangi Marine Reserve (north of Nelson). A joint initiative with the Marlborough District Council investigating significant natural marine areas in the Marlborough region was completed in 2011. The Conservancy also 139 continued to work with Te Korowai o Te Tai o Marokura (Kaikoura Coastal Marine Guardians) to develop a management strategy for the Kaikoura coastal and marine environment. A research programme investigating the behavioural effects of tourism on sperm whales at Kaikoura was completed in 2011. West Coast Conservancy (key contact Don Neale). In August 2011, the Minister of Fisheries and Aquaculture and the Minister of Conservation jointly announced their agreement to proceed with the implementation of a number of the recommendations from the West Coast Marine Protection Forum for marine protected areas (MPAs) on the West Coast of the South Island. This involves directing DOC officials to proceed with applications for marine reserves at; - Kahurangi (85km2, 8466ha), - Punakaiki (36km2, 3558ha), - Ökärito (46km2, 4641ha), - Ship Creek near Haast (approx 16ha), - Gorge, which is south of Haast ( 8.5km2, 847ha) The Department is proceeding with an application for five marine reserves on the South Island West Coast 140 MAF will proceed with implementation of Fisheries Act regulations prohibiting bottom trawling, dredging and Danish seining at; - Punakaiki (3.2km2, 326ha) - Gorge (92km2, 9231ha) An inventory of the West Coast’s islands and coastal rockstacks was updated to a near‐
completed state. Only a few of the region’s 86 stacks are yet to be surveyed as part of a regional baseline inventory of these sites, which hold significant natural values such as burrowing seabirds, and endemic fauna and flora. The conservancy also continues to monitor and manage populations of Hector’s dolphin, fur seal kekeno (including mark‐recapture pup censuses on three rookeries annually since 1991), Fiordland crested penguin tawaki, and Westland petrel taiko. Canterbury Conservancy (acting contact Euan Kennedy) Conservancy support for a Canterbury University PhD looking at the effects of tourism on fur seals around Banks Peninsula is ongoing with the final report due in mid‐2012. Fur seal breeding colonies around Banks Peninsula were geospatially mapped and their spatial extent was compared to a similar survey carried out in 2007. Conservancy support for a PhD looking at the effects of tourism on Hector’s dolphins was completed. Its findings have been used to shape the conditions applied through tourism concessions to reduce pressures on the dolphins and other marine mammals, especially in Akaroa Harbour. Biological monitoring of red rock lobster using baited pots was completed in Pohatu Marine Reserve and over 100 lobster were tagged in order to understand local movement patterns. The proposed marine reserve in Akaroa Harbour was declined by the Minister of Conservation. The spatial extent of undaria in Akaroa Harbour was mapped. Response to marine mammal sightings and strandings were ongoing, mostly involving Hector’s dolphins and NZ fur seals. The Conservancy continues to manage populations of white‐flippered penguin, yellow‐eyed penguin and sooty shearwater through predator control work and survey and monitoring programs around Banks Peninsula and on Motunau Island. There is ongoing engagement with RMA and CPS commitments, mostly involved with reviewing AEEs for wastewater treatment facilities for local councils and with the Lyttleton Port Co reclamation. Otago Conservancy (key contacts Bruce McKinlay (TSO, Species), Jim Fyfe (Coastal Ranger) and Mel Young (YEP Ranger) ‐ Coastal Otago Area) Marine conservation research being undertaken in Otago at present is focussed on the threatened yellow eyed penguins and New Zealand sea lions. As well as facilitating the annual monitoring of local population status (particularly for YEP) the Conservancy assists with a range of research projects led by other groups. 141 Southland Conservancy (key contacts Greig Funnell (Conservancy office), Kath Blakemore (Te Anau Area), Ros Cole (Murihiku Area). Fiordland (Te Moana O Atawhenua) Marine Area The Department continues to work closely with the Fiordland Marine Guardians and other management agencies in the Fiordland Marine Area. 2011 saw the Guardians carry out a review of the management measures that were put in place in 2005, and the Department played a key role in providing monitoring information that supported this review. The find of a single mature Undaria plant in Breaksea Sound, Fiordland in April 2010, has led to a multi‐agency response ‐ DOC, MAF and the regional council are teamed up in an attempt to locally eliminate it from this area. The three agencies still believe this goal is achievable, and despite the find of 6 mature plants in early 2011 and a subsequent spike in juvenile plants found, numbers have been steadily dropping since with less than 20 plants being found on each of the last three surveys, and isolated to just a few small areas (<10m2) of the fiord. The Fiordland bottlenose dolphin management continued in 2011 with the monitoring of the Doubtful and Dusky/Breaksea Sound populations, and the continuation of the Doubtful Sound Code of Management for vessels. Three surveys were carried out on each of the Doubtful Sound and Dusky/Breaksea Sound populations, to assess abundance and calf survival. Calf production and survival in the Doubtful Sound population has been higher over the 2010 and 2011 summers compared to previous years, providing a significant boost to the overall population abundance. Monitoring of these populations in collaboration with Otago University researchers will continue in 2012. A project to assess the behavioural response and acoustic response of the dolphins to vessels was started in 2011. This project will be complete in 2013 and will provide information useful to the management of these populations. 142 Environment Canterbury Environment Canterbury has ongoing state of the environment monitoring programmes and undertakes or contracts out investigations. Dr. Lesley Bolton‐Ritchie is responsible for running the water quality and coastal ecosystems monitoring and investigations programmes. As part of the coastal water quality programme there was sampling at sites in Pegasus Bay from January to June (end of the financial year) and at sites in Lyttelton Harbour/Whakaraupō from July. There was also ongoing quarterly coastal water quality monitoring at 32 sites through the region. Annual benthic monitoring of eight intertidal soft sediment sites was carried out in March/April 2011. The recreational water quality programme consisted of weekly sampling, for fifteen weeks, of 46 sites over the summer months. This programme was disrupted by the earthquake on the 22 February because of the damage and hence closure of the Environment Canterbury building including the laboratory. Environment Canterbury staff are now accommodated at a number of different locations in Christchurch and Lincoln, with the laboratory presently based at the NIWA campus in Christchurch. Sampling for the 2011/2012 summer began in November 2011. The weekly faecal indicator organism concentrations are available on the Environment Canterbury website. Following the 22 February and 13 June earthquakes there were discharges of untreated sewage into the Avon/Ōtākaro and Heathcote/Ōpāwaho rivers and the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary/Ihutai. All discharges had ceased by late October 2011. The rivers and estuary were closed for contact recreation and shellfish gathering until all discharges ceased. The February earthquake caused a significant change to the physical environs of the Avon‐
Heathcote Estuary/Ihutai with liquefaction and north south tilting of the estuary seabed. The details of the impacts was determined by NIWA on contract to Environment Canterbury and the Christchurch City Council; the reports from this work can be found at:‐services/monitoring/pages/ecological‐effects‐
There was more liquefaction within the estuary with the June and December earthquakes.
The joint Environment Canterbury, Christchurch City Council and Ihutai Trust ‘Healthy rivers and estuary of the city’ monitoring programme continued. This included monthly water quality monitoring, weekly recreational water quality monitoring over the summer months and annual benthic monitoring in the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary/Ihutai. In 2011 the benthic monitoring was undertaken by EOS Ecology. The data collected have been invaluable for the assessment of the earthquakes on the water quality and ecology of the rivers and estuary. The University of Canterbury continued with the monitoring of the sediment bed levels at Banks Peninsula harbour and estuary sites over the 2011/2012 summer. Assessment of the benchmarks established in late 2010 found they had all moved as a result of the earthquakes, with the direction and distance of movement varying between marks. The earthquake on 23 December 2011 caused at least one of the benchmarks to move by 10 143 cm. While a great deal of fieldwork was carried out over the recent summer the long term programme will be put on hold until LINZ re‐survey their benchmarks in the area. Justin Cope the Coastal Resources Scientist is responsible for running the regional physical coastal monitoring and investigations programme with assistance from the Coastal Resources Officer Bruce Gabities. Their work continues on investigating coastal processes and long term state of the environment monitoring and reporting in the Canterbury region. This programme involves the surveying and analysis of 250+ coastal profile and topographic survey sites, collecting data on trends shoreline movement, sediment volumes and sediment size characteristics. Environment Canterbury enjoys several project partnerships including the operation of a Directional Wave Buoy off Banks Peninsula (with NIWA and Christchurch City Council) and sea level recorders at Sumner and Timaru (with NIWA). Following the February earthquake an investigation was instigated to determine what damage had been done to our coastal profile survey control network and what this means to the future accuracy of our coastal cross section monitoring programme. It was found that all of the marks had moved, with the direction and distance of movement varying between marks. As a consequence the annual surveying of the coastal profiles was not carried out in 2011. Rather all marks of the survey control network have been re‐
surveyed. 144 Geomarine Research In 2011, Bruce Hayward, Hugh Grenfell, and Ashwaq Sabaa continued their foraminiferal research at their laboratory near Tamaki Campus, Auckland. Jill Kenny continued to work on a Lottery‐funded project to identify and map the best areas of coastal landforms around New Zealand for addition to the New Zealand Geopreservation Inventory so their protection can be promoted. DEEP SEA FORAMINIFERAL ECOLOGY We began a collaborative program with Helen Neil and Helen Bostock (NIWA) to fill the gaps in our coverage of the foraminiferal distribution in the NZ EEZ, mainly off the west and south coasts of the South Island and east of East Cape‐Hawkes Bay. SEA‐LEVEL RISE Field work focussed on finding suitable salt marsh study sites in the northern North Island. Our documentations of significant sea‐level rise in the last 600 yrs at Shag River mouth, North Otago, and in the last 120 yrs in Manukau Harbour were submitted for publication. Our records from Waikawa Harbour (Catlins) and West Haven Inlet (NW Nelson) are being written up in 2012. QUATERNARY PALEOCEANOGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN OCEAN In early 2011 Bruce Hayward was an on‐board participant during sea‐floor coring for paleoceanographic studies in the South East Pacific (Sonne Cruise SO213, led by Ralf Tiedermann) and in the Solander Trough (Tangaroa Cruise TAN11/06, led by Helen Bostock). On‐board age control was provided and further planktic foraminiferal studies will be undertaken to document sea surface (SST) temperature variation and frontal movements during the last few hundred thousand years. During the year Ashwaq Sabaa undertook many planktic census counts from cores around NZ to generate SST estimates as part of a joint program led by Gavin Dunbar (Victoria University) and Helen Neil (NIWA) investigating paleoceanographic conditions during warm interglacials MIS5e, 7 and 11. TECTONIC INSTABILITY Our work has continued in collaboration with Kate Clark and Ursula Cochran at GNS Science with new cores recognising a 900 yr old tsunami deposit and 600 yr old earthquake subsidence at Big Lagoon, Marlborough, and new studies documenting the subsidence in Avon Estuary, Christchurch during the recent earthquakes and possibly during liquefaction associated with previous Holocene shakes. CAUSES OF EXTINCTION IN THE DEEP SEA We completed our mammoth monograph on the Cenozoic taxonomy and evolutionary history of six families of elongate, cylindrical foraminifera that became extinct during the 145 Last Global Extinction in the deep sea less than 1 myrs ago. It has been submitted to the Cushman Foundation, Washington DC for publication. OSTRACOD STUDIES Margaret Morley and Bruce Hayward have completed their study of the ostracods in the Hauraki Gulf and prepared a manuscript describing their ecological distribution. Forty‐five taxa are new records for New Zealand and Margaret has illustrated 114 of the 128 recorded species. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Liesbeth Van Kerckhoven (Auckland University) Causes of extinction in the deep‐sea – impacts of the Paleocene‐Eocene Thermal Maximum. Brigida Figueira (Auckland University) Foraminiferal record of Late Holocene sea‐level rise around New Zealand. 146 Greater Wellington Regional Council ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT GROUP (primary contacts: Megan Oliver, Iain Dawe and Juliet Milne) Estuary monitoring undertaken in the 2011 calendar year included intertidal surveys of sediment chemistry and benthic fauna and flora in the Waikanae, Hutt and Whareama estuaries, and both arms of Porirua Harbour. Sedimentation measurements were also made in these estuaries. Dr Barry Robertson (Wriggle Coastal Management) taking a sediment core from one of GWRC’s intertidal monitoring sites in Waikanae Estuary (top); mapping the extent of macroalgal cover in Porirua Harbour (bottom). (Photos: Wriggle) In late April 2011, Greater Wellington convened a Porirua Harbour and Catchment science workshop to discuss the three key issues facing Porirua Harbour (sedimentation, pollution and habitat loss) and the science research needs and management initiatives required to address these. Following this workshop, and with the joint collaborations of Drs Jeremy Gibb (CMEC), Mal Green (NIWA), Barry Robertson (Wriggle) and Leigh Stevens (Wriggle), a CLUES catchment sediment yield model and a ‘source‐to‐sink’ model describing the fate of catchment sediments were developed. This work is ongoing. 147 The Porirua Harbour workshop also prompted a seagrass restoration feasibility study to be carried out by Dr Fleur Matheson from NIWA. Greater Wellington and NIWA scientists deployed light loggers at six sites in Porirua Harbour in July 2011 to capture information about water clarity; a crucial factor when considering suitable sites for seagrass restoration. A second ‘summer’ deployment is planned for January/February 2012. A report is expected in early 2012. Light loggers deployed for a seagrass restoration feasibility study in Porirua Harbour (Photo: Shyam Morar, GWRC) In early 2011, the sediment chemistry analyses and benthic invertebrate identifications from the 2010 Porirua Harbour subtidal sediment survey were completed. These results are being compiled into a report for publication in mid 2012. In October/November 2011, the second Wellington Harbour subtidal sediment survey was undertaken to assess the impacts of stormwater contaminants on the sediment quality and benthic community health of the harbour. This survey collected sediment chemistry and invertebrate samples from 16 subtidal sites within the harbour. In addition, sediment samples from stormwater catchpits were collected from the surrounding urban catchments to identify contaminant sources. The 2011 survey was co‐funded by Wellington City Council (WCC) as a requirement of their global stormwater discharge consent. A repeat survey is planned for 2016. The summer recreational water quality monitoring programme began in mid November 2011. Under this programme – jointly carried out with four of the region’s territorial authorities – microbiological water quality at 61 marine and 20 freshwater sites is assessed weekly until the end of March. The number of marine sites is 13 fewer than in the 2010/11 summer and reflects the outcomes of meetings held with the territorial authorities and Regional Public Health in September. The primary purpose of these 148 meetings was to review the current Suitability for Recreation Grades (SFRG) for the region's beaches and rivers. A SFRG is assigned to each recreation site and is determined by combining the last five years of summer water quality monitoring results and a qualitative assessment of microbiological risks in the catchment. A report on the updated SFRGs is due to be released in mid 2012. In November 2011, Greater Wellington’s Environmental Policy Department contracted NIWA to identify sites of significance in the coastal marine area of the Wellington region. This information is required for the current review of the Regional Coastal Plan for the Wellington region – the “rule book” for ensuring the region’s natural resources are managed sustainably. The final report is expected by mid 2012. A two‐and‐a‐half year study modelling storm surge and coastal inundation to identify vulnerable low‐lying coastal areas around the Wellington region is nearing completion. An interim report was released in August 2011 that summarised the extreme water level elevations and work is currently focussed on the storm surge modelling. The final stage of the work will use future projections of sea level rise to identify areas that are likely to be vulnerable over the coming century. The aim of this work is to ensure that these areas have appropriate planning controls to avoid placing development in areas that are likely to experience flooding in the near future. A related project is looking into local sea level rise. Many projections of sea level rise use global eustatic averages, but local sea level rise can be affected by tectonic uplift or subsidence and localised climatic effects. This work consists of three sub‐projects. The first will take the data from the Wellington and Porirua Harbour tide gauges and analyse the sea trends up to 2012. The second will look at inter‐annual and decadal scales fluctuations in the sea surface due to climatic phenomena like El Nino and the Southern Oscillation, that can exert a significant effect on local sea level. The third sub‐project is looking at the longer term historical changes in sea level over the past 14,000 years to take account of tectonic effects that can cause relative localised rise or falls in sea level. This work will be drawn together to calculate a regional sea level rise figure, with that figure used to make future projections based on the IPCC scenarios. The work will feed into the storm surge modelling project and will also be used to inform local decision making and plan development. Historical shoreline analysis has been conducted at the Waimeha Stream mouth and beach at the north end of Waikanae on the Kapiti Coast. The work highlights periods of erosion and accretion and the effects of human impacts on the dunes. The aim of the work is to inform two coastal dune restoration projects that start at the beginning of 2012. Recent work at Greater Wellington has shown that the Wellington region only contains 2% of its former active duneland extent. Thus, this ecosystem type is threatened and faces ongoing pressure from development and human impact. The projects have the twin aims of enhancing the resilience of the coast to erosion events and sea level rise and improving local biodiversity in a degraded dune environment. 149 Hawke’s Bay Regional Council Environmental Science COASTAL AND ESTUARINE ECOLOGY Hawke’s Bay Regional Council continues its coastal State of the Environment monitoring. This programme consists of estuarine ecological monitoring, and hard and soft‐shore coastal ecosystems. Monitoring undertaken in the Ahuriri, Porangahau and Wairoa estuaries has shown that the concentration of contaminants within sediments are generally well below levels of concern, although some point source discharge contamination has been identified. Animals and plants living in the estuary were typical of east coast, North Island estuaries. Intertidal reef habitats were surveyed at Mangakuri; Hardinge Road; and Te Mahia reefs and a diverse range of species were found. These reefs will be surveyed regularly into the future in order to provide baseline data and to allow for evaluation of change in community assemblages over time. Yearly soft‐shore ecological monitoring was completed at Opoutama and Pourerere beaches. Monitoring sites were picked to represent tidal zones and proximity to anthropogenic impacts. Infaunal species composition varies widely between beaches and between sites. However, the species present were typical of east coast, North Island beaches. The Hawke’s Bay Regional Council plans to continue to monitor the health and state of our regions estuaries, reefs and beaches to ensure the retention of key ecosystem services. COASTAL WATER QUALITY A near‐shore coastal water quality monitoring project is part of Councils state of the environment monitoring network. Seven coastal areas are monitored at 6‐weekly intervals for indicators of coastal water quality, including nutrient concentrations, chlorophyll a levels, physicochemical properties and bacteria. Coastal water quality in Hawke’s bay is comparable to that of the rest of New Zealand. Council also undertakes recreational water quality monitoring at 32 sites throughout the region, and has recently undertaken a number of studies into the source of elevated levels of bacteria at sites which have shown persistent water quality issues. Unfortunately many of the results have remained inconclusive. 150 Massey University (Auckland and Palmerston North)‐natural‐
sciences/institute‐of‐natural‐sciences_home.cfm AUCKLAND COLLEGE OF SCIENCES INSTITUTE OF NATURAL SCIENCES: COASTAL‐MARINE RESEARCH GROUP NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION GROUP ECOLOGICAL STATISTICS GROUP PALMERSTON NORTH NEW ZEALAND WILDLIFE HEALTH CENTRE INSTITUTE OF VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Massey University is primarily involved in marine sciences through staff and post graduate research interests. However, undergraduate modules in marine biology began in 2010 as part of the taught undergraduate degree in Biological Sciences (offered on the Auckland campus). Prof. Marti Anderson (Auckland campus) Development and comparison of statistical methods for multivariate ecological research, with expertise in experimental and mensurative sampling designs, environmental monitoring, and quantitative modelling and assessment of natural (especially marine) systems. Principal projects: • Quantifying spatial and temporal variation in biodiversity of subtidal rocky reef fish communities in north‐eastern New Zealand (now in its 12th year of sampling). • Beta diversity of demersal fish assemblages in the northeast Pacific (U.S. Coast): interactions of latitude and depth (with Dr Nick Tolimieri, NOAA, Seattle, USA). • Quantifying turnover in biodiversity of fish assemblages with depth and latitude, using stereo baited remote underwater video (stero‐BRUVs). This is a RSNZ Marsden‐funded project with colleagues at Te Papa (Clive Roberts, Vincent Zintzen, Andrew Stewart and Carl Struthers). • Collaborative work investigating effects of environmental impacts of heavy metals in soft‐sediment estuarine systems (with Atsuko Fukunaga, U. Hawaii). • Studies of Antarctic microbial communities inhabiting sea ice (with Andrew Martin, U. Tasmania). • The biogeography of algal assemblages in the Mediterranean (with Marta Sales, Centre d’Estudis Avançats de Blanes‐CSIC, Spain). 151 •
Presenting workshops in multivariate analysis for ecological and environmental scientists. The software (PERMANOVA+, and add‐on for PRIMER), developed with colleagues Bob Clarke and Ray Gorley from PRIMER‐e and Plymouth Marine Laboratory (see www.primer‐ continues to provide an important tool for researchers in the analysis of community data. Prof. David Raubenheimer (Auckland campus) Field‐based studies of nutritional ecology of marine fauna. Principal projects: • The relationship between nutritional ecology and life history of the marine herbivorous fish Odax pullus along a latitudinal gradient. • Macronutrient selection in herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous marine fishes. • Heavy metal accumulation in New Zealand predatory fishes. • Nutritional ecology of Australian gannets (Morus serrator). Assoc. Prof. Dianne Brunton (Auckland campus) The ecology and conservation of little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), North Island, New Zealand. Principal project: • The foraging ecology of the Northern little blue penguins, New Zealand. Dr Stuart Hunter (Palmerston North campus) Disease and pathology of New Zealand marine mammals Principal project: • Investigations into single stranding events of a range of cetacean species. Dr Elizabeth Laman Trip (Auckland campus) Demography and life history of coral and temperate reef fishes. Principal projects: • Geographic variation in the demography of a number of acanthurid and chaetodontid fishes of the Red Sea. In collaboration with Ass. Prof. Michael Berumen (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology) and Prof Howard Choat (James Cook University, Australia). • Nutritional ecology and demography of New Zealand snapper. In collaboration with Prof David Raubenheimer and Dr Alice Tait. • Mechanisms underlying intra‐specific variation in life span across latitudes in the New Zealand butterfish (funding applications under review). In collaboration with Prof Neil Metcalfe (University of Glasgow, UK) and Ass. Prof. Robbie Loewith (University of Geneva, Switzerland). Dr Emmanuelle Martinez (Auckland Campus) Effects of tourism, behavioural ecology and distribution of marine mammals. 152 Principal research projects: • Effects of tourism on common, bottlenose and Hector’s dolphins. • Occurrence and distribution of common and Hector’s dolphins and false killer whales in New Zealand waters. • Historic perspectives of humpback whales in the Hauraki Gulf area. Research associate Dr Emmanuelle Martinez and doctoral student Sarah Dwyer at Massey (Auckland) preparing to conduct a post‐mortem of a young orca (Orcinus orca) stranded north of Auckland (Photo: Massey University). Common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Hauraki Gulf (Photo: K. Rankmore) 153 Dr Laureline Meynier (Palmerston Campus) Feeding ecology and diet of marine mammals, in particular pinnipeds. Principal research projects: • NZ sea lion bio‐energetics and feeding behaviour. • NZ fur seal foraging habitat use and diet. • Fatty acid analysis applied in studying long‐term diet in marine mammals. Dr Sinead Murphy (Auckland Campus) Large‐scale marine mammal population assessments and studies on detailed reproductive and developmental mechanisms. Principal research projects: • Cetacean stressors ‐ The independent and interactive effects of multiple stressors on reproduction and development in cetaceans. • Use of marine mammals as indicators of ecosystem health and the extrapolation of post‐mortem data (from stranded and by‐caught cetaceans) as a valuable tool for assessment of marine mammal population status. • Effects of contaminants on reproduction in small cetaceans inhabiting western European waters. Dr Mat Pawley (Auckland campus) Environmental monitoring and impact assessment and the analysis of ecological data. Principal projects: • Assessing variability in ordination plots of ecological data (with Marti Anderson (Massey University, Bob Clarke and Ray Gorley from PRIMER‐e and Plymouth Marine Laboratory). • The analysis of spatially autocorrelated ecological data. • The distribution and abundance of pipis and cockles in the Northland, Auckland and Bay of Plenty regions. • Statistical analyses for cetacean research with Karen Stockin (Massey Albany) and colleagues in the U.K. (Carl Donovan and Monique Mackenzie, St Andrews). Dr Wendi Roe (Palmerston campus) Anatomy pathology, histopathology and disease of New Zealand marine mammals. Key species include Hector’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori sp.) and New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). Principal projects: • Causes of mortality in small cetaceans • Toxoplasmosis in Hector's dolphins • Markers of hypoxia and head trauma in marine mammals • Causes of mortality in New Zealand sea lions • Mycobacterial disease in pinnipeds • The role of brucellosis in Hector's and Maui dolphins • Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae 154 Dr Karen Stockin (Auckland campus) Ecology and conservation of New Zealand marine mammals. Field and lab‐based research focussed on biology, life history and anthropogenic impacts. Principal projects: • Taxonomic identity of New Zealand Delphinus. • Biology and life history of common dolphin in New Zealand waters. • Effects of tourism on common and bottlenose dolphins. • Foraging ecology and diet common dolphins. • Life history of dusky dolphins, pilot whales and beaked whales. • Occurrence and distribution of common dolphins and false killer whales in New Zealand waters. • Historic perspectives of humpback whales in the Hauraki Gulf area. Dr Alice Tait (Auckland campus) Ecological physiology with a focus on nutritional and digestive ecology. Principal projects: • Nutritional ecology of NZ snapper, with Prof. David Raubenheimer and Dr. Elizabeth Laman Trip. • Transgenerational effects of a perturbation in the nutritional environment, with Dr. Mark Vickers, Prof. Peter Gluckman and Prof. David Raubenheimer. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Cheryl Cross (Auckland Campus) Supervisors – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Deanna Clement An assessment of Delphinid distribution and abundance in Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. Sarah Dwyer (Auckland Campus) Supervisors – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Deanna Clement, Prof. David Raubenheimer Density and distribution of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Dan Godoy (Auckland Campus) Supervisors – Dr Karen Stockin, Assoc. Prof. Dianne Brunton Migration and habitat‐use of green sea turtles (Chelonia mydasin) in New Zealand waters. Oliver Hannaford (Auckland campus) Supervisors –Prof. Marti Anderson, Prof. Paul Rainey Relationship between genetic beta diversity and environmental heterogeneity, using bacterial Vibrio populations inhabiting anemones as a model system. 155 Jürgen Kolb (Auckland campus) Supervisors – Assoc. Prof. Dianne Brunton, Prof. Paul Rainey, Dr Rosemary Barraclough The role of Piscicolidae (Annelida: Hirudinea) in the marine ecosystems of Antarctica and New Zealand. Gabriel Machovsky Capuska (Auckland Campus) Supervisors – Prof. David Raubenheimer, Assoc. Prof. Mark Hauber (Hunter College, New York) Sensory and nutritional ecology of Australasian gannets (Morus serrator). Wendy Markowitz (Palmerston campus) Supervisors – Prof. Doug Armstrong, Prof. Bernd Würsig (Texas A & M) Social structure and behaviour of dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) off Kaikoura, New Zealand. Anna Meissner (Auckland campus) Supervisors – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Emmanuelle Martinez, Prof. Mark Orams (AUT University) Impacts of commercial tourism on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and common dolphin (Delphinus sp.) in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Monika Merriman (Auckland Campus) Supervisors – Prof. David Raubenheimer, Dr Karen Stockin Diet and nutritional ecology of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in New Zealand waters. Komkiew Pinpimai (Palmerston Campus) Supervisors: Dr Wendi Roe, Dr Keren Dittmer Klebsiella meningitis in sea lion pups Krista Rankmore (Auckland Campus) Supervisor – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Mat Pawley Abundance, site fidelity and social structure of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) along the northeastern coast of North Island, New Zealand. Adam Smith (Auckland Campus) Supervisors – Prof. Marti Anderson, Prof. David Raubenheimer, Assoc. Prof. Russell Millar Effects of marine reserves on reef fishes in north‐eastern New Zealand. Helen Smith (Auckland Campus) Supervisor – Marti Anderson Examining a variety of potential resemblance measures for their use in ecology. 156 PhD student Adam Smith aboard the RV Poisson, Massey’s 4.3m RIB, ready for a fine day of diving. Massey University PhD student, Oliver Hannaford (centre), helps Charles Bedford (right) and Vincent Zintzen (left, our colleague from Te Papa), to deploy a baited trap off the Kaikoura coast, as part of our RSNZ Marsden and Te Papa‐funded study of NZ fish biodiversity. Stereo‐video units (also deployed) are on the deck at left. 157 MSc Tania Gaborit‐Haverkort (Auckland Campus) Supervisor – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Emmanuelle Martinez The occurrence and distribution of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) off Tauranga, North Island, New Zealand. Friederike Jordan (Auckland Campus) Supervisor – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Sinead Murphy Skull morphometry of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) from New Zealand waters. Fiona McKenzie (Auckland Campus) Supervisor – Assoc Prof Dianne Brunton The foraging ecology of the northern Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor iredalei). Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) at Great Barrier Island (Photo: S. Dwyer) MVSc Kelly Buckle (Palmerston Campus) Supervisor – Dr Wendi Roe Prevalence and significance of Brucella sp. Infection in Hector’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus hectori). Micah Jensen (Palmerston Campus) Supervisors – Dr Brett Gartrell, Dr Nick Cave, Kerri Morgan Nutritional analysis of hand rearing diets used for translocating Procellariiform seabirds to new colony sites. Baukje Lenting (Palmerston Campus) Supervisors – Dr Wendi Roe, Dr Brett Gartrell The causes of mortality in adult New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) post‐
mortemed on Enderby Island, with a special interest in Mycobacterium pinnipedii. 158 Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), including calf, at Great Barrier Island (Photo: S. Dwyer) The spectacled triplefin, Ruanoho whero, one of the more common reef fishes being sampled by Adam Smith, as part of his study of effects of marine reserves on fishes (Photo: A. Smith). PGDipSci STUDENT Laura Torre (Auckland Campus) Supervisor – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Emmanuelle Martinez Historic perspectives and opportunistic sightings of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski, 1781) in the Hauraki Gulf area. 159 Jochen Zaeschmar (Auckland Campus) Supervisor – Dr Karen Stockin, Dr Emmanuelle Martinez False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidents) in New Zealand waters. BSc (Hons) STUDENT Antoine Lambert (Palmerston Campus) Supervisors‐ Dr Laureline Meynier, Assoc. Prof. Patrick Morel The diet of New Zealand sea lions with fatty acids analysis. 160 Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Te Papa holds major, nationally important collections in marine fishes, crustacea, molluscs, marine mammals, seabirds, macroalgae and marine reptiles. These collections are managed by curatorial and/or collection management staff, however, Te Papa still does not have a full complement of curatorial staff to cover all collection disciplines. A major strategic objective for Natural Environment is to catalogue every specimen lot into Te Papa's database system, and make the data available via Te Papa's website. The collections, together with their associated data, provide an ever‐expanding knowledge base that underpins Te Papa’s research, exhibition, publication and information programmes. In addition, the marine group actively participates with other organisations, individuals and universities in research projects as diverse as taxonomy, evolution, anatomy and molecular ecology. COLLECTION MANAGEMENT Simon Whittaker (Head of Collections Management Natural Environment) manages the collection management and technical team. The team ensures that Te Papa’s Natural Environment collections are securely housed in environmentally controlled conditions, with specimens being identified, documented, imaged, databased, verified and maintained for use by members of the research community, museum exhibition teams and the broader general public. This year we continued with our focus upon planning and implementing ongoing maintenance programmes across the collections, and continued with a dedicated approach to databasing prioritised collections, specifically New Zealand material. We also initiated a seismic review of the collection stores in late 2011. The assessment phase has been completed and we are now planning to roll out remedial work in 2012. In 2011 we also welcomed Dr. Susan Waugh as our new Senior Curator Natural Environment, who oversees the curatorial group and research. Susan brings with her a wealth of knowledge and expertise in sea bird research. INVERTEBRATE GROUP Bruce Marshall continues research on systematics and biogeography of Mollusca of the New Zealand EEZ and adjacent waters. Projects include new monoplacophorans from the Coral Sea, deep‐sea wood eating gastropods of the genus Pectinodonta (Patellogastropoda) from the tropical Western Pacific, and three articles on Muricidae, including a revision of the Muricidae of the NZEEZ (paper on Typhinae submitted). Papers on subantarctic Cellana species (Nacellidae) and another commenting on taxonomic changes in Marcus Huber’s recent bivalve book were accepted for publication. Papers describing new Miocene limpets from cold seeps, and recording a shell tool from Wairau Bar with connections to Hawaiki were published. 161 In November 2011 Stefano Taiti of Italy and Maria Minor from Massey University examined, and identified as far as possible, Te Papa’s entire collection of terrestrial isopods. The collection proved to be of considerable interest and value including well preserved lots collected recently and up to a hundred years ago, and a number of new taxa. Work to database these lots is currently underway with the assistance of Technician Kent Chamberlain. Rick Webber is collecting and collaborating on research into terrestrial amphipods with Dr Olivier Ball of the Northern Polytechnic in Whangarei. Rick’s paper with Colin McLay on NORFANZ hermit crabs is now almost complete. He continues to work on the revision and description of a new Scyllarinae (slipper lobster) for New Zealand. In collaboration with Elliot Dawson (Research Associate in Wellngton) Rick is compiling an inventory of the Decapoda of the Cook Islands and other Pacific Islands held in the collections of Te Papa and NIWA. Graham Bird of Waikanae is continuing his valuable work on the Tanaidacea of New Zealand. Rick is collaborating with Graham on a paper to re‐describe a tanaid species from southern New Zealand and on collecting and describing other coastal tanaids of New Zealand collected over the past two years. VERTEBRATE GROUP Anton van Helden (collection Manager ‐ Marine Mammals), has continued investigating new records of cetaceans from the New Zealand region. The exhibition Whales/Tohora is still touring internationally, and has just opened in its seventh overseas venue (Ottawa). Following this it will travel to Cleveland and talks are being had that will hopefully see it travel on from there to the National Museum of Natural History in New York. Specimens of rare and unusual specimens have continued to be collected by Te Papa, including the first complete skeletal remains of the world’s rarest whale, the Spade‐toothed whale Mesoplodon traversii and collection is underway of a new record for New Zealand of a True’s beaked whale Mesoplodon mirus. International collaborative work has continued on the description of the anatomy of the Pygmy Right whale Caperea marginata with a small specimen being collected for CT scanning that will take place in April of this year. Anton has been involved in the Our Far South (, a venture organised by the Morgan Foundation to promote awareness of the Sub‐Antarctic Islands, the Southern Ocean and the Ross Dependency, which involved a month‐long voyage down to Antarctica. Anton has worked on a paper for an auditing overview of the current state of the Marine Mammal collection and the inventory of the collection, which is ongoing. BOTANY Jenn Dalen (Collection Manager ‐ Marine Algae) continues incorporating collections generated from various marine algae biodiversity projects, primarily those carried out by NIWA (Wellington) researchers ‐ Wendy Nelson, Kate Neill, Roberta D’Archino and collaborators. Taxonomic work also continues, with a focus on documenting new algal records for the New Zealand region. 162 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd Christchurch MARINE ECOLOGY AND AQUACULTURE GROUP John Zeldis, Ude Shankar and Dave Plew at NIWA Christchurch have been developing the ‘CLUES Estuary’ tool to predict the nutrient loading and potential nutrient concentrations in all of New Zealand’s estuaries. The outcomes of the project are initial description of the threat levels faced by estuaries in terms of potential nutrient concentrations, after accounting for catchment loading, estuarine physiography and hydraulic oceanic exchange. Regional Councils are keen to use this new module of the CLUES (Catchment Land Use for Environmental Sustainability) tool, to assess contemporary and potential future status of estuaries under land‐use change scenarios. John Zeldis and David Schiel have continued to lead the joint University of Canterbury / NIWA research on the recovery of the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary (Christchurch) from eutrophication following the diversion of the city’s wastewater to the new ocean outfall. Neill Barr and John Zeldis presented the aspects of this work concerning macroalgal biochemistry at the Coasts and Estuaries Research Federation (CERF) conference at Daytona Beach, Florida, USA in a talk: ‘Wastewater treatment plants and earthquakes: what are these 'blooming' seaweeds telling us?’ The talk described how nuisance macroalgae reflect fluctuations in eutrophication within their cellular biochemistry as shown by the ecosystem‐scale experiment that is transpiring in this quake‐hit estuary. John Zeldis and Kim Currie have been leading ocean research in Firth of Thames (Hauraki Gulf) which has shown it to be a very strong net source of CO2 to the atmosphere (partial pressure of CO2 double atmospheric) and that it is acidic. These features are strongest adjacent to the major river inputs to the Firth, and are likely driven by net oxidation of organic matter loaded from the Waikato farming region. This year, a new voyage to the Firth further investigated the drivers of this process including the net carbon and nutrient fluxes from Firth benthos and water column, across the inner to outer Firth gradient in net heterotrophy (John Zeldis, Craig Depree, Scott Nodder, Pete Gerring, and Mark Gall). Early results show that both benthos and water column were net heterotrophic, and were most so in the inner Firth site adjacent to river mouths, consistent with predictions. This work is significant for evaluating the role of land use in climate change (CO2 dynamics) and coastal ocean acidification (aqueous carbon chemistry). Karen Robinson traveled to Plymouth, UK to attend the Plankton 2011 Symposium, based on Plankton Biodiversity and Global Change. This was hosted by the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS) and incorporated celebrations for the 80th anniversary of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR). The CPR is a useful tool for recording long term spatial and temporal changes in marine communities and has shown strong evidence for the impacts of climate change on marine planktonic populations. This is particularly noticeable in the northern hemisphere where the plankton recorder dataset covers nearly 60 years of plankton identification and counts. CPR sampling in the Southern Oceans is still in its early phases, and mostly concentrated south of Australia, but has also shown population migrations over time. Two CPR surveys have been 163 commenced in NZ waters, and results are promising, but given the long term nature of this work, no conclusions can be made at this stage. Oral and poster presentations were given at the symposium. A workshop was also held for plankton analysts from various nations who work on CPR samples to continue quality control rules and ensure that results are comparable internationally. Karen also spent time analysing CPR samples from the Southern Ocean as well as across the Chatham Rise, along with microzooplankton samples for various programmes. The inherent connectivity and scale of coastal and oceanic environments presents many challengers for monitoring. The study of aquatic optics (hydrologic optics) provides tools to meet the spatial and temporal demands in these dynamic environments. One key application is the use of satellite remote sensing of water colour to produce maps of chlorophyll a (a proxy for algal biomass) and its primary production. Currently empirical algorithms work well in the open ocean (Case 1 waters), but are inaccurate in optically complex coastal environments (Case 2) due to the varying influences of suspended mineral sediment and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM ‐ yellow colour) from river plumes. This requires the development of alternative approaches. Over the past few years Mark Gall has been researching biogeo‐optics – the link between the biogeochemical and inherent optical properties (IOPs – absorption and scattering) of natural waters. Temporal collections in two marine areas (Firth of Thames and Pelorus Sounds) and from nineteen significant rivers of varying catchment types have been collected and are currently being analyzed with historical marine datasets. These provide a wide range of biogeo‐optical properties suitable for a classification. They are being used to simulate the expected dynamics in the water‐leaving light (radiance) seen by satellite sensors for river plumes and coastal environs. In this way, datasets will assist in developing and applying remote sensing ocean colour algorithms for New Zealand ‘Case 2’ optical water types, to improve the accuracy of monitoring, algae, suspended sediments and dissolved organic carbon through space and time. As part of NIWA’s Environmental Effects of Aquaculture programme, Mark Gall implemented deployment of P‐SMART – a portable scientific monitoring and real‐time telemetry buoy – near salmon and mussel farms in Crail Bay, Pelorus Sounds. P‐Smart makes observation of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll fluorescence), river colour (CDOM), backscatter (turbidity – clarity), salinity and temperature, which are telemetered through NIWA’s NEON network. Understanding aquaculture sustainability requires understanding ecosystem functioning and its dynamics. Part of this process is the capacity to make observations on suitable scales to provide fundamental understanding in these dynamics. These will support aquaculture ecosystem modelling initiatives and data for assimilation and validation. Jeffrey Ren developed a preliminary Aquaculture Ecosystem Model to simulate long‐term ecosystem functioning over a range of aquaculture products (e.g. finfish, shellfish, seaweeds, depositors and/or combinations) and environmental (trophic order) scenarios. The model can predict not only growth of cultured species under dynamic environments, but also environmental impact of aquaculture. It provides a management tool for sustainable aquaculture towards ecosystem‐based management of aquaculture, particularly finfish culture. 164 A generic dynamic energy budget (growth) model of macroalgae has also been developed to predict growth and biomass in response to changing environmental conditions. The model is based on common physiological behaviour of macroalgae and hence has a general applicability to different algae / weeds in estuaries, rivers, lakes and marine ecosystems in New Zealand. When applied to Ulva, the model can successfully simulate the growth behaviour in the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary. The model can be served as a predictive tool to simulate / predict macroalgal growth under different scenarios (e.g. different levels of N & P concentrations from wastewater and riverine discharge) at different time of the year (light intensity & temperature). This model will serve as a framework for a broader nation‐wide predictive tool of estuarine algal growth and the use of such algae as environmental indicators of N‐loading (Jeffrey Ren). Chris Woods, Dan Cairney and Craig Depree continued work on biofouling accumulation on marine farms. The focus of the current fieldwork has shifted from mussel farms to biofouling communities on finfish (King salmon) farms and their relative contribution to farm ecotrophic effects. Jeffrey Ren and Chris Woods are working toward further expansion of Jeffrey’s marine farming ecosystem model to include a component of biofouling organisms to assess the potential ecotrophic effect of these organisms on mussel farms. Seabird research at NIWA has centred around interactions of seabirds with fishing activities, on population trends in several key species, and the conservation of threatened seabirds. Paul Sagar, David Thompson and Leigh Torres are continuing the long‐term study of Buller's albatrosses at the Snares Islands. This project began in 1992 and annual visits to study colonies since then have provided detailed information about survival and recruitment rates, breeding success and frequency, and foraging areas. Population data from this and previous studies now extend over 60 years and have been used by Chris Francis to develop a population model that incorporates the direct effects of fishing mortality on population viability of seabirds compared to other sources of mortality or trophic effects of fishing. Geo‐locator loggers were deployed on 38 breeding birds during April 2008 and 22 birds during April 2009. Retrieval of these each April 2009‐2012 provided the first information about the foraging areas and migration routes of these albatrosses throughout a 12‐month period. In addition, during April 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 GPS loggers were used to obtain detailed information about the foraging movements of Buller’s albatrosses during the chick guard stage. The locations of 11–25 birds in each year were recorded once every 2 minutes and provide sufficient data to examine the behaviour of the birds in relation to contemporaneous fishing activities in the area. The analyses of fine‐scale individual bird behaviour and fishing vessel location and catch‐effort data provide greater insight into seabird‐fisheries associations. This knowledge will also improve our understanding of seabird foraging strategies and help to generate effective conservation management solutions while minimizing regulatory burdens on fisheries operators. Matt Rayner (FRST post‐doc, based at our Auckland campus) completed tracking projects on several species of Pterodroma petrels from a variety of breeding locations, including the Chatham Islands, Kermadec Islands, and Lake Hauroko. 165 Finally, from October 2011 to January 2012 the third field season of a 6‐year MSI‐funded programme was completed to determine the at‐sea distributions of Campbell albatrosses and grey‐headed albatrosses breeding at Campbell Island through the deployment of state‐of‐the‐art tags on threatened marine megafauna. PhD students Caitie Krueger and Lisa Sztukowski will use these data to generate reliable spatio‐temporal habitat use models of these species, and then incorporate these maps with layers of risk assessment from various anthropogenic threats to produce predictive, dynamic maps identifying critical habitats that necessitate protection. Another aspect of this programme resulted in Kyle Morrison (Massey University) completing the second field season of his PhD project on the demography and foraging of rockhopper penguins at Campbell Island. MARINE BIOSECURITY AND BIODIVERSITY GROUP The FRST‐funded Marine Biodiversity and Biosecurity OBI is a joint programme involving NIWA, Te Papa and Cawthron Institute, and led by Wendy Nelson (Wellington) and Graeme Inglis (Christchurch). It is continuing to address biodiversity and biosecurity issues for a wide range of ecosystems covering five general themes: • Measuring and maintaining biodiversity. • Marine taxonomy and care of the NIWA invertebrate collection. • Tools for marine pest risk assessments. • Surveillance and monitoring for marine pests. • Management and mitigation of marine pests. NIWA’s Christchurch Marine Biosecurity Group (Graeme Inglis, Barb Hayden, Oli Floerl, Lisa Peacock, Kimberley Seaward, Lindsay Hawke and Caroline Williams) continued work on a wide range of projects. Work continued on a 3‐year programme of nationwide targeted summer/winter surveillances as part of the Marine High Risk Site Surveillance (MHRSS) programme for MAF Biosecurity New Zealand. Targeting 5 primary and 4 secondary non‐indigenous marine species (as well as other non‐indigenous or cryptogenic organisms of lesser concern), these surveillances centre upon: Whangarei Harbour, Waitemata Harbour, Tauranga Harbour, Wellington Harbour, Nelson Harbour, Picton Harbour, Lyttelton Harbour, Otago Harbour and Bluff Harbour. Involving a number of staff from various NIWA sites, the Christchurch surveillance team concentrated on conducting surveillances in Lyttelton, Otago and Bluff harbours (Graeme Inglis, Don Morrisey, Chris Woods, Lisa Peacock, Kimberley Seaward, Lindsay Hawke, Caroline Williams, Martin Flanagan, Neil Blair, Dan Cairney, Megan Carter, Eric Stevens, Andrew Willsman, Derek Kater, Braden Crocker and Pete Notman). The Biosecurity Group conducted a project for MAF Biosecurity NZ to determine the utility of using settlement collectors as a passive surveillance method for marine pest monitoring. This project involved hydrodynamic measurements as well as laboratory and field experimentation to determine the sensitivity of a range of settlement substrates to three target non‐indigenous species: the ascidians Styela clava and Ciona intestinalis, and 166 the alga Undaria pinnatifida. The overall aim of the work was to calculate the probability of detecting small to large populations of these species in a survey area, and whether and how the incorporation of settlement arrays into the nationwide marine pest surveillance would enhance existing detection probabilities for these species (Oli Floerl, Graeme Inglis, Lisa Peacock, Caroline Williams, and Matt Enright). The Biosecurity Group concluded another project for MAF Biosecurity NZ to determine the utility of using settlement collectors as a passive surveillance method for marine pest monitoring. In this work, the utility of settlement collector arrays for marine pest surveillance was evaluated using Lyttelton Port as an experimental location. The project involved the development of a hydraulic model of the port, laboratory experiments and in situ field experiments to determine the rate at which marine pest propagules encounter array surfaces and the sensitivity of these surfaces to a range of target species. The data were used to parameterize stochastic scenario tree models that calculated the confidence of detecting target pest populations (expressed as a probability) in the port if they are present. This was done for a range of population sizes and sampling effort (Oli Floerl, Graeme Inglis, Lisa Peacock, and Dave Plew). In 1997, the Australia and NZ Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) developed a Code of Practice that regulates practices for the use and maintenance of toxic antifouling paints on ship hulls, as well as vessel husbandry practices in coastal waters of NZ and Australia. The ANZECC Code addresses the risk of contamination and invasive species for both countries. In 2009, the Australian Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) commissioned a review of the ANZECC Code to align it with developments in technology since development of the Code. NIWA won the contract for Phase 1 of the review, completed in June 2009. In 2010, NIWA was contracted to lead Phase 2 of the review, the actual rewriting of the Code in partnership with Aquenal, Australia. NIWA and Aquenal produced the final draft of the ‘new’ Code of Practice, which has been renamed the Australia and New Zealand Code of Practice for Antifouling and In‐
Water Cleaning. The new Code of Practice balances the risks associated with managing environmental risks with the risks associated with failing to manage them, and also includes a decision‐support tool that will be used by environmental management authorities in Australia and New Zealand to decide on appropriate maintenance processes for vessels and other movable structures operating aquatic environments (Oli Floerl). The New Zealand Government has proposed an Import Health Standard (IHS) for levels of biofouling on vessels entering New Zealand from overseas. MAF Biosecurity NZ contracted NIWA to evaluate the risks associated with 11 different management options for a variety of vessel types that visit New Zealand for short and long periods and provide a draft decision framework for use at the border by Quarantine Inspectors (Graeme Inglis, Chris Woods, and Oli Floerl). Oli Floerl and Graham Rickard worked on a study that examines the influence of climate change on the importance of global bioregions as sources of non‐indigenous species to New Zealand. Ocean climatologies prepared for the IPCC that are based on likely climate change scenarios are being used to calculate predicted global environmental similarities for 2050 and 2100. Changes in the identity of global regions with high environmental similarity to New Zealand, and predicted changes in New Zealand’s global trade relationships are then used to evaluate whether the geographic focus of border and pre‐
167 border management of marine biosecurity threats to New Zealand will need to be re‐
evaluated in a changing climate. NIWA, in partnership with Biofouling Solutions (Hobart / Perth), was contracted by the Western Australian Department of Fisheries to conduct a feasibility study on the use of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) for underwater vessel biofouling inspections in comparison to commercial diver inspections. Such inspections are an important biosecurity management tool in the Western Australian marine environment due to the amazing number of international vessel and infrastructure arrivals associated with the petroleum/gas extraction and exploration industry (Oli Floerl). Chris Woods and Graeme Inglis provided an advisory report to the Northland Regional Council (NRC) to assist them in developing a regional framework for marine pest surveillance in Northland that builds upon existing programmes of work, including the National Marine High Risk Site Surveillance (MHRSS). MARINE HYDRODYNAMICS GROUP The research focus of the group remained largely on coastal hydrodynamics and hazards. Development of the finite‐element unstructured‐grid hydrodynamic model RiCOM continued as a collaboration between Emily Lane and David Plew with the model author Roy Walters. Plans are being made to parallelise RiCOM so that it is able to run on the NIWA supercomputer. Emily Lane and Jade Arnold conducted tsunami inundation modelling to assess the impact of a South American tsunami on Christchurch and Kaiapoi given the changes in topography since the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Emily Lane continued her work on storm surge modelling looking at potential changes due to future possible CO2 emissions scenarios. Three A2 scenarios and one B2 scenario were modelled. She also looked at classifying storm surge by areas according to the Kidson weather types they are most likely to occur during. In late February, Emily Lane helped out with a post‐disaster survey in far North Queensland measuring storm surge inundation due to Cyclone Yasi in the worst hit coastal communities. In a collaboration between NIWA and GNS Science, Emily Lane worked on investigating submarine landslide generated tsunamis in coastal canyons. Using information that Joshu Mountjoy at NIWA Wellington had collected during surveys of the Cook Strait system of submarine canyons Emily modelled potential scenarios in Nicholson Canyon near Wellington. Daivd Plew worked with the Canadian Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture Network (CIMTAN) programme in a field experiment at a site in Kyuquot, BC Canada. At this site, Sablefish, scallops and kelp are grown. Scientists from the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), University of Victoria, and Dalhousie University are studying various ecological processes in and around the site including pelagic bacteria, deposition, 168 dispersion of particulates and solutes. David contributed with ADCP current mapping and measurements of cage‐induced turbulence and mixing. In conjunction with the Ocean Physics group in NIWA Wellington, David Plew, conducted field experiment at the Clay Point salmon farm in the Tory Channel, Marlborough Sounds, as part of NIWA’s Environmental Effects of Aquaculture programme, looking at the effects of the fish farm on flows, and measuring turbulence and mixing caused by fish and cages. Alison Kohout has steadily been progressing toward her goal of deploying a series of wave recorders on Antarctic sea ice this spring. Over the last year, Alison has been developing the instrument design, deployment method and the spectral wave analysis. The instruments will be deployed in one of the roughest locations in the world, the region where the Antarctic sea ice meets the Southern Ocean, and will be exposed to extreme winds and temperatures. To guarantee a successful collection of data without instrument failure, careful consideration of the instruments’ design and deployment method are required. The electronics are housed in a nitrogen‐filled case weighing only 3 kg. The case is protected by a heavy‐duty rubber cover with a smooth upper surface, to avoid snow build up and loss of satellite transmission, and a rough bottom to prevent sliding on the ice. The instruments will be lowered onto ice floes from a helicopter. Wave motion will be detected using a tri‐axis gyroscope, magnetometer and accelerometer. Onboard spectral analysis will be performed to derive wave statistics. The results will provide insight into the decay of wave energy, and hence floe deformation, as swell propagates through Antarctic sea ice. 169 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ‐
Greta Point BENTHIC ECOLOGY GROUP This Wellington based group focuses on the ecology of a wide variety of benthic habitats and species including shallow, deepwater and Antarctic benthic species, seamount and vent fauna. This research is supported through a combination of funding from the Ministry of Fisheries, the Department of Conservation, MSI, Antarctic NZ, regional councils and international funding sources as well as some commercial contracts. Jenny Beaumont is a benthic ecologist and at present principally works on the ecology of rocky reefs and seamounts and in large scale ecosystem mapping projects. She has experience in benthic ecology of artificial reefs as well as an interest in Antarctic ecology. David Bowden is a benthic ecologist working on species distributions in a range of habitats including methane seeps, the Chatham Rise, Challenger Plateau, and the Ross Sea. He plays an important role in developing NIWA’s capacity to acquire, curate, manage and analyse seabed images of continental shelf and deep sea habitats. Vonda Cummings works on benthic community ecology and shellfish population ecology especially with her colleagues from NIWA’s Hamilton campus. Work in the past year has included investigating settlement cues and dispersal of post‐settlement macrofauna in response to disturbance, determining suitable methodology for community‐based shellfish reseeding projects, and developing NIWA’s Ross Sea (Antarctica) shallow water coastal research, particularly investigating the effects of ocean acidification on a variety of shallow water Ross Sea species. Mark Fenwick’s principal work is in the quantitative analysis of images of marine benthic fauna and the sorting and curation of museum specimens. Claire Guy is part way through a 2 year post‐doctoral fellowship addressing the ecological impacts of ocean acidification and temperature change on Antarctic benthic communities. Her work includes the development of multifactorial dynamic models to investigate physiological responses of two key Antarctic benthic mollusc species (Laternula elliptica and Adamussium colbecki) to near future pH and temperature levels. This will enhance predictive capabilities on how key populations and broader coastal ecosystems might respond to combined environmental changes. Claire has also been involved in manipulative experiments investigating the impacts of temperature and pH change on native New Zealand marine species. Jane Halliday continues to work closely with her NIWA Hamilton based colleagues. Predominately this work is to quantify human induced changes on estuarine systems, and using benthic soft‐sediment macrofauna as indicators of ecosystem health. Rob Stewart works on a wide variety of projects including organising and taking part in biological sampling aspects of ocean voyages and the analysis of benthic images from 170 deepwater cameras primarily used on seamounts and more recently in the South Taranaki Bight. Other tasks include management of the Greta Point aquarium facility and assisting the continuous plankton recorder project. Ashley Rowden undertakes research on benthic assemblages of deep‐sea habitats such as seamounts, vents, seeps, canyons and trenches. As well as describing patterns of benthic community structure, he is particularly interested in understanding the influence of disturbance, habitat heterogeneity and productivity on deep‐sea biodiversity. His research has practical applications for determining the impact of fishing and mining on benthic habitats and assemblages, and the design of marine conservation and management measures to ensure the protection of biodiversity while allowing the use of marine resources. COASTAL GROUP This Wellington based group is involved in a wide range of research projects, including marine benthic, inshore, pelagic, and shellfish ecology and fisheries, oyster ecology and stock assessment, the estimation of age and growth in shellfish and finfish, rock lobster recruitment and shark reproductive ecology, as well as the effects of fishing, and the relationships between fisheries, ecosystems, and the physical environment. Jeff Forman leads the project that continues to monitor the rates of puerulus settlement along the major rock lobster fishing coasts of New Zealand. Jeff also plays an important role in assessing the rates of Bonamia infection in the Foveaux Strait oyster stocks, is involved in trophic relationship studies, and maintains the meta database for Ministry of Fisheries projects. Malcolm Francis focuses on the study of inshore and pelagic fish, fisheries and ecology, with emphasis on sharks and other cartilaginous species. Malcolm and Warrick Lyon continued their collaboration with Clinton Duffy (Department of Conservation, University of Auckland) investigating the migrations and diving behaviour of great white sharks. As a result of NIWA/DoC research since 2005, the large‐scale migrations of white sharks are reasonably well understood: New Zealand sharks make annual migrations to tropical locations of the south‐west Pacific. The focus of our research has now shifted to determining their fine‐scale movements and local temporal and spatial distributions. Since March‐April 2011, 45 white sharks have been tagged with acoustic tags around north‐eastern Stewart Island, and 25 data loggers were deployed at strategic locations around northern Stewart Island, Ruapuke Island and Foveaux Strait. Acoustic tags send out coded, individually identifiable sound ‘pings’ that can be detected up to a kilometre away by data loggers. Preliminary results indicate that sharks departed from the region on their tropical holidays in June–July, and returned from December onwards. Hotspots in the region have been identified, and small‐scale movement data collected. New studies have begun on bycatch mitigation and estimation of survival rates of discarded manta and devil rays from purse seine nets; assessing the possible effect of vessel nationality and environmental variables on basking shark bycatch in trawl fisheries; and reviewing available biological and population information for the eight species of fish protected in New Zealand waters. 171 Lynda Griggs Lynda continues to work on pelagic fisheries, including bycatch in tuna fisheries and the provision of data to international agencies. Lynda also works with longline fishery observers and observer data, and provides sea surface temperature forecasts to tuna fishers. She has been involved with the transfer and loading of observer data from various fisheries onto the central observer database, and this has expanded to include benthic data and fishing gear. Steve Mercer continues his role as NIWA’s chief diving officer and plays a critical role in training NIWA and other NZ scientists for ice diving as well as overseeing New Zealand’s Antarctic diving operations. NIWA’s diver training programme is now conducted in accordance with the Australian Diver Accreditation Scheme (ADAS) guidelines, and at the completion of training, divers are now issued with a Scientific Diver qualification which has international acceptability. Steve also plays an active role on NIWA’s Health and Safety committee. Keith Michael continues his case study of drivers of oyster production in Foveaux Strait and is beginning two new research areas, rebuilding shellfish fisheries in Golden and Tasman Bays and the status and importance of shellfish populations in Porirua Harbour. Oyster research includes the interactions of environmental drivers, benthic assemblages, oyster biology and ecology, microcell parasites (especially Bonamia exitiosa), and the response of the oyster fishery to fishing. In addition to annual stock assessment or bonamia surveys, a number of other key research projects were completed in 2012. This research is being undertaken through a number of collaborative projects with MFish, Seafood Innovations, and the fishing industry. NIWA and the Bluff Oyster Management Company recently completed collaborative surveys of the oyster population and the status of bonamia infection in Foveaux Strait. Data from these surveys will be used for a stock assessment in October 2012. Survey data show a continued rebuild of the oyster fishery. Oyster tissues sampled in February 2012 will be used to evaluate a high‐
sensitivity, high throughput qPCR method for the detection of bonamia with Els Maas and Margaret McVeagh. Research to rebuild shellfish fisheries in Golden and Tasman Bays will initially focus on stakeholder and Iwi engagement, research reviews, and developing a strategic research plan and involve a large NIWA team from Greta Point (Alistair Dunn, Kelly May, Brent Wood, Suze Baird) and Nelson (Sean Handley and Stephen Brown). The Porirua Harbour study will likewise focus on reviews of historical data and recording oral histories (with Kelly May) to develop appropriate shellfish survey methods (Reyn Naylor and Peter Notman) and is a joint project between Ngati Toa and NIWA. Reyn Naylor has been involved in studies to estimate age in paua using growth checks in the shell. Estimating the age of abalone overseas has commonly been achieved by counting these internal growth checks, but validation of the annual periodicity of the checks is necessary both between species and areas. We have collected shells for analysis from several sites in Fiordland and from around Banks Peninsula and Kaikoura, and will compare counts of the rings in these shells with independent estimates of age made with stable oxygen isotope analyses (with Helen Neil). The basis of this method is that the ratio in which two oxygen isotopes are incorporated into the shell depends largely on the water temperature at the time of shell precipitation. Plots of water temperature at shell length reveal seasonal cycles of water temperature associated with summer and winter, the number of which allows the estimation of age. 172 Pete Notman is actively involved in a wide range of diving projects which last year included port surveys looking for invasive species and paua research dives. Pete is currently involved in a number of GIS projects including updating the bathymetry of the Macquarie Ridge ocean floor and preparing and updating NABIS maps of species diversity. Pete has participated in a number of TTR sand research field trips to the Whanganui area and is also Greta Point’s Regional Small Boat Manager, maintaining the fleet and coordinating operations. Caoimhghin Ó Maolagáin continues to traipse tenderly over the untrammelled terrain of chondrichtyan biochronology (with Steve parker and Malcolm Francis). Routine fish ageing duties underpin a rather nuts&bolts year: from such tantalising species as tarakihi (with Mike Beentjes and Steve Parker), through definitively difficult Trachurus murphyi (with Peter Horn), and of course, that quintessentially prickly deepwater duo of orange roughy and the black oreo dory (with Ian Doonan, Peter McMillan and Alan Hart). A myriad of microscopical methods. Microscopy is used daily at Niwa in fields of study as diverse as reconstructing past climates by tree‐ring analysis to the ageing of fish; from the histopathology of acquacultured species to the identification of toxic microalgae. Here an identical piece of lens paper is imaged using four differing methods. 173 Otolithectomy 101. How old is a fish at a given length? Fisheries researchers answer this question by sectioning excised fish ear stones or otoliths, to reveal growth rings in a way similar to tree ring analysis. First step: find the otolith!" DEEPWATER FISHERIES GROUP Staff in the deepwater group are involved in a wide variety of research across NIWA, but their focus is research on deepwater fishes and fisheries. Work on deep‐sea fisheries involves assessing fish stock size using acoustic and trawl techniques, analysing commercial catch and effort data, researching fish biology, and completing quantitative stock assessment modelling. There continues to be a growing emphasis on examining broader ecological and environmental aspects of the fish, their fisheries, by‐catch species, the impacts of fishing in the high seas as well as in Ross Seas region, and understanding the general ecology of deep‐sea habitats. As a result, the group has become more involved in deep sea biodiversity programmes to investigate ecology, habitat, and effects of fishing on invertebrate and fish fauna. Owen Anderson has been working on a range of fisheries projects including stock assessment of orange roughy: most recently on the estimation of sustainable catch limits on seamounts; estimation of non‐target catches and discarding in commercial fisheries; and fisheries conversion factor data, reviewing and updating the factors used to convert landed weights of processed fish to greenweights. Owen has also been involved in research on the ecology of deep‐sea habitats, including seamounts, co‐authoring a paper with Di and Malcolm on deep‐sea fish distribution in a New Zealand seamount complex, and participated in a research voyage comparing the fauna of deep‐sea habitats in the outer Bay of Plenty. Owen maintains his interest in marine invertebrates, co‐publishing 174 The Invertebrate Guide (Third Edition) with co‐authors Di and Reyn Naylor, drafting a taxonomic revision of a group of New Zealand deep‐sea sea‐urchins, and working in the invertebrate collection identifying echinoid and crinoid specimens collected on research voyages. Susan Jane “Suze” Baird was involved in a variety of projects related to the environmental effects of fishing. Suze is currently describing the seabird and marine mammal distribution data collected from IPY Ross Sea trips, and working with Di Tracey on DOC projects to map and describe the spatial distribution of protected corals, identifying areas where deep sea corals are at highest risk of interactions with commercial fishing gear, and is exploring the use of predictive models. Suze also worked alongside Brent Wood on metadata aspects of NIWA online catalogues, contributed to the GIS analysis of seamount habitat characterisation studies led by Malcolm Clark, helped develop methodology with Malcolm and Kevin Stokes for ecological risk assessment for New Zealand’s deepwater fisheries, and collated marine mammal distribution information for the Ministry for Primary Industries NABIS website. Mireille Consalvey co‐ordinated the international Census of Marine Life project CenSeam (a global census of marine life on seamounts) for which NIWA hosted the secretariat (also comprising Malcolm Clark and Ashley Rowden (NIWA) and Karen Stocks from the San Diego Supercomputer Center, USA). CenSeam started in 2005 and ran until March 2011. CenSeam worked towards challenging the reigning seamount paradigms, and developing an overall greater understanding of seamounts and their similarities and dissimilarities to other deep‐sea habitats, and delivered several books, special issues, book chapters and publications advancing our understanding of seamount ecosystems. At the close of CenSeam, Mireille moved to coordinating a Census of Marine Life “successor”; an International Network for Scientific Investigations of Deep‐Sea Ecosystems (INDEEP), alongside colleagues from the UK and Spain. The aim of INDEEP is to move from examining individual habitats to considering the entire deep‐sea realm. INDEEP will develop and synthesise our understanding of deep‐sea global biodiversity and functioning and provide a framework to bridge the gap between scientific results and society to aid in the formation of sustainable management strategies. Mireille has also been involved in the MSI deep‐sea communities programme, editing the book “Biological Sampling in the Deep Sea” (due for publication late 2012/early 2013) and hosting the 13th Deep‐Sea Biology Symposium (to be held in Wellington, December 2012). Malcolm Clark heads an MSI‐funded programme on the ecology of deep‐sea communities, and their vulnerability to human impacts. This programme covers multiple deep‐sea habitats, including continental slope, seamounts, canyons, hydrothermal vents and seeps. A number of NIWA staff are involved in this, including Ashley Rowden, David Bowden, Mireille Consalvey, Rob Stewart, Kareen Schnabel, and Di Tracey, as well as numerous taxonomists. Malcolm has continued research on the biodiversity of seamounts on the Kermadec Ridge, with a view towards improving our understanding of potential impacts of seafloor mining for polymetallic sulphides. He has been involved with the International Seabed Authority developing environmental management plans, and with South Pacific countries undertaking an assessment of deep‐sea mining issues in the region. Fisheries work in the past year included developing methodology with Suze and Kevin Stokes for ecological risk assessment for New Zealand’s deepwater fisheries. 175 Malcolm has maintained an active presence at international meetings related to deepwater fisheries research and management, including in 2011 a United Nations review of progress in implementing measures for high seas fisheries sustainability and habitat conservation. Matthew Dunn is the Group Manager. The focus of his work continues to be quantitative stock assessments for middle depths and deep sea fishes (with Owen Anderson and Ian Doonan), including analyses of commercial fisheries catch per unit effort data, descriptive analyses of the fisheries, analysis of biological data, and stock assessment modelling. The stock assessment research in 2011 was focused on orange roughy, including the development of Management Strategy Evaluation simulation models, and on ling on Chatham Rise. Matt continued to lead research into the trophic interrelationships of fish species on the Chatham Rise, and studied the diet of Antarctic toothfish (with Jeff Forman, Peter Horn, Darren Stevens, and Matt Pinkerton). Matt led the NIWA research programme Enhancing Fisheries Value and Market access, which included research on the productivity of elasmobranch and other by‐catch species. Matt also taught fisheries at Victoria University Wellington as part of the 3rd year applied marine biology course. Alan Hart focused on projects to estimate the abundance of deepwater fishes, along with image analysis for various biodiversity studies of benthic invertebrates. Alan has been analysing images taken as part of the Chatham Rise phosphate exploratory survey Alan continued to work on the analysis of acoustic data collected during an oreo survey on the south Chatham Rise, used to estimate biomass for stock assessment. Alan continued to work on ageing black oreos and a number of other deepwater fishes including Johnson’s cod, slickheads, basketwork eels, and several species of deepwater rattail. Peter “Chazz” Marriott continued to do a wide variety of work. He used his photographic skills to support a wide range of projects both within and outside of the deepwater group. Chazz continued to oversee and run the micromill and trained people in its use, mainly supporting fish age validation studies as well as research on corals, fossil bivalves and stalagtites looking at growth rates, site nativity, and past climate histories. Chazz was an active member of the NIWA dive team. Chazz also manages the otolith laboratory over seeing specimen preparation and staff training. This year he has worked on the ageing and age validation of a range of inshore, pelagic and deepwater species. Peter McMillan completed work on the three volume set of field identification guides to New Zealand fishes Volume 1: A field guide to common species caught by bottom and midwater fishing, Volume 2: A field guide to less common species caught by bottom and midwater fishing and Volume 3: A field guide to common species caught by surface fishing, and these have all been published. Peter, along with Te Papa, California Academy of Sciences, and NIWA colleagues, published a taxonomic review of the genus Macrourus (rattails or grenadiers) including a new species from the Antarctic. Peter continued to work on New Zealand oreo fisheries, and along with NIWA colleagues completed an acoustic and trawl survey of black oreo on Chatham Rise using the Sanford Ltd vessel “San Waitaki”, and a Tangaroa jack mackerel trawl survey. Peter was also involved in age validation studies of black oreos and deepwater by‐catch fish species with Matt Dunn, Alan Hart, Helen Neil, Peter Marriott, and Peter Horn. 176 Di Tracey continued her work on deepsea fish and invertebrates, with the main focus being on protected coral species and VMEs in the NZ region as well as in the High Seas and Ross Sea, with Ashley Rowden and Steve Parker. Research continued on coral identification alongside international taxonomists, participating in the International Coral Symposium, and leading DOC projects on protected coral by‐catch with Suze. Di leads the MPI project identification of benthic invertebrate samples from research trawl and observer trips with Sadie Mills, Neil Bagley, and numerous taxonomists, and the recent ocean acidification in fisheries habitat project that also includes researchers Helen Bostock, Vonda Cummings, and Helen Neil. The Invertebrate Guide (3rd Edition) was published with co‐authors Owen Anderson and Reyn Naylor. Seamount ecology research for Di also included publishing work with Malcolm Clark and Owen on deep‐sea fish distribution between seamounts within a seamount complex ‘Graveyard’ off New Zealand. Di organised and ran the Joint Commission Meeting (JCM) workshops in 2009, and Think Tank sessions on deep‐sea corals in 2011. Brent Wood continued to provide database and Geographic Information System (GIS) expertise to support deepwater fisheries, biodiversity, and other NIWA projects. He has an interest in the use of Open Source (free) software GIS and database tools, and within NIWA takes a lead role in specifying and building computer systems and analysis methods based on these tools. Brent's work over the last year has focused on developing web sites for public access of research data, including the underlying databases, working on an international climate database project, and implementing & populating metadatabase systems for NIWA and client use, as well as participating in research trawl surveys. He has recently taken on the role of data delivery programme leader for NIWA, overseeing how NIWA provides its data to clients and the public. MARINE BIODIVERSITY GROUP The NIWA Marine Biodiversity Wellington Group are systematics experts in marine macroalgae and in a variety of invertebrate taxa. Their original researches on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the New Zealand biota, plus the on‐going development of the NIWA Invertebrate Collection, are supported through funding from FRST, MFish, and NIWA. The Group also provide taxonomic services within NIWA and for various external agencies. The Marine Invasives Taxonomic Service (MITS) provides identifications of all taxa collected by MAF Biosecurity New Zealand marine surveillance. The NIWA Invertebrate Collection (NIC) at Greta Point, Wellington, provides one of the largest New Zealand repositories for marine invertebrate diversity and contains specimens of nearly all phyla from the southwest Pacific region and the Ross Sea. Kareen Schnabel (Collection Manager), Sadie Mills (Assistant Collection Manager), Dean Stotter (Marine Science Technician) and Caroline Chin (Marine Ecology and Biodiversity Technician) maintain the registration database and collection curation, host visitors, and oversee the sample acquisition through research programs by NIWA, MFish and FRST (e.g. New Zealand American Sentry Mineralization Survey – NZASMS, Fisheries Oceanography II, Biogenic Habitats on the Continental Shelf voyages in 2011). The general and the type collections are continually expanded, and upgrading the facility and improving 177 accessibility is on‐going. In 2011 the NIC added nearly 9,600 sample lots to its database, processed 60 loans and donations to other institutions and 28 national and international scientific visitors, students and volunteers, resulting in 78 new species descriptions. The team also engaged in outreach and teaching activities such as tours to the collection and museum displays. The algal team of Wendy Nelson, Kate Neill and Roberta D’Archino (macroalgae) and Hoe Chang (microalgae) run or contribute to several algal research projects, and contribute algal expertise to MITS and the biosecurity surveillance field programmes. Hoe Chang has current research interests concerning the biology and biodiversity of dictyochophyte and coccolithophore phytoplankton. Kate, Roberta and Wendy have strong collaborative links with Judy Sutherland (University of Auckland) who provides expertise in molecular biology and phylogenetic analyses of macroalgae, and also with Jennifer Dalen at the herbarium of the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Janet Bradford‐Grieve remains on campus in an emeritus position. She has published papers on a cladistic analysis of the Calanoida (Copepoda), based on morphological and genetic data. She is currently working on a revision of the family Megacalanidae. She has edited, and published in 2011 (with Mary Livingston), a document reviewing decades of research on the oceanography and fisheries off South Island titled: “Spawning fisheries and the productivity of the marine environment off the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand” Hoe Chang completed studies on molecular genetics, pigment composition, cell morphology and life history of a harmful raphidophyte, Chattonella globosa. This species has now been reassigned to a new genus in the Class Dictyochophyceae. Phytoplankton work for the International Polar Year Census of Antarctic Marine Life has also been completed. He continues to work on molecular genetics, pigments and life history of two dictyochophytes (Pseudochattonella verruculosa, Dictycha octonaria) and also the biodiversity of a group of phytoplankton with calcium carbonate scales (coccolithophores). Roberta D’Archino is a phycologist with strong field and diving experience. She has been focusing on work on the systematics of the red algal family Kallymeniaceae and has contributed to a wide range of other projects including work on algae from Stewart Island, the Antipodes and Bounty Islands (Department of Conservation collections), as well as contributing to projects funded via MFish (BRAG). Roberta has international linkages and continues collaborative work with colleagues particularly in Taiwan and USA. Tracy Farr led a research programme on rhodoliths in northern New Zealand, assessing their associated biodiversity and their vulnerability to impacts (funded via BRAG). Tracy was also a key member of the OBI algal taxonomy programme and of the BRAG soft sediment environments project but moved to the Royal Society in 2011. Dennis Gordon continued work on the systematics and phylogeny of Cretaceous to Recent Bryozoa. Applications of this research extend to identifying invasive and nuisance bryozoan species, those from areas of seafloor impacted by dredging and trawling, or which are newly sampled such as seamounts and hot vents, and new fossil taxa and stratigraphic range records. Much time in 2011 was devoted to preparing final drafts and illustrations for volume 3 (Kingdoms Bacteria, Protozoa, Chromista, Plantae, Fungi) in the 178 three‐volume Inventory of New Zealand Biodiversity. He is involved with the Catalogue of Life (team member) and World Register of Marine Species (Steering Committee). Michelle Kelly (Auckland campus) is project leader for Marine Invertebrate Taxonomy in the FRST‐funded Biodiversity and Biosecurity programme at NIWA. Her latest NIWA Biodiversity Memoir, on the New Zealand Hexactinosida Glass Sponges, with Professor Henry Reiswig of the Royal British Colombia Museum, was published in 2011, and several works on the carnivorous sponges of New Zealand deep seas were published. Michelle and Carina Sim‐Smith are systematically working through the Astrophorida families at present, with a study on the New Zealand Ancorinidae in press, and the New Zealand Geodiidae in progress. Daniel Leduc studies the ecology and taxonomy of free‐living marine nematodes. He is conducting a FRST‐funded postdoctoral research project on the ecology of deep‐sea nematode on the New Zealand continental margin. The main objectives of this project are to (1) identify the ecological drivers of nematode diversity using existing sample collections, and (2) assess the impact of physical disturbance on the function and structure of nematode assemblages on the Chatham Rise. Daniel also continues working on the description of New Zealand’s largely unexplored nematode fauna. Anne‐Nina Lörz has taxonomy and ecology of New Zealand and Southern Ocean amphipods as her main research interest. She has described several new species via morphological and molecular tools. Anne is working on the relationship of the Antarctic and New Zealand amphipods with a main focus on molecular biogeography. Her special interests are the New Zealand abyssal and trench habitats. Sadie Mills is the Assistant Collection Manager of the NIWA Invertebrate Collection. Along with curation and cataloguing of invertebrate samples she continues to participate in NIWA biodiversity research voyages and to develop her Ophiuroidea parataxonomy skills, working with Tim O’Hara from the Museum of Victoria to identify and describe New Zealand and Antarctic brittle star species. Kate Neill led research on the macroalgae of soft sediment environments (funded via BRAG) along with working on a range of macroalgal projects in biodiversity, biosecurity, and aquaculture. Kate continues to develop her Asteroidea (starfish) identification skills, and is learning to identify several other invertebrate groups. She contributes her invertebrate skills to a number of other projects, including deep sea ecology, fisheries, and seamounts. Wendy Nelson works on the systematics and biology of New Zealand seaweeds. In particular she is focusing on the systematics of the Gracilariales, Corallinales, Gigartinales and Dictyotales. Amongst her current projects she is working on preparing a book on common seaweeds of New Zealand, the macroalgal eflora, a project on rhodolith ecology (funded by BRAG), and has collaborative projects with various international colleagues particularly from Korea, USA, Canada, Taiwan. Wendy and Roberta, together with Jennifer Dalen, are jointly involved with colleagues in New Caledonia on a project supported by Fonds Pacifique. 179 Geoff Read became an emeritus researcher at NIWA during 2011. He continues writing up multiple projects on the biology and taxonomy of New Zealand Polychaeta and working on identifications for voyage and inshore polychaete samples, resulting in discovery of several new taxa in 2011. He is coordinating editor for Polychaeta and is newly a member of the Steering Committee at the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS at He also moderates the international Annelida list, and has a web‐site for annelid research information. Kareen Schnabel is the Collection Manager of the NIWA Invertebrate Collection (see above). She also continues to be responsible for coordinating curation and cataloguing of biological samples on various NIWA biodiversity voyages. Besides these tasks, her research interest is in the taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of southwest Pacific anomuran crustaceans with special focus on squat lobsters (superfamilies Galatheiodea and Chirostyloidea). Collaborations with international and national scientists are on‐going and have resulted in scientific publications such as chapters in the Squat Lobster Biology book and the description of a new yeti crab off Costa Rice in 2011. Serena Wilkens manages the New Zealand Marine Invasives Taxonomic Service, including the database (Specify) and the specimen collection, with support from Caroline Chin. She oversees daily running of the service, sample registration, loan dispatch and client liaisons. She also works alongside the Christchurch Biosecurity team on hull fouling projects and procedures for cruise ship inspections and assists with the MAFBNZ targeted surveillance program. In addition she is training in crustacean and sea anemone parataxonomy. She is also investigating the effects of vessel sound on larval settlement from a range of hull fouling organisms. MARINE ECOLOGY GROUP This Wellington based group contains the molecular genetics unit and the DeltaPlus continuous flow stable isotope mass spectrometer facility that provide specialist analysis for a wide variety of NIWA and external clients. Other members of the group work on a variety of seabird, marine mammal, reef and bacterial ecology questions. This research is supported through a combination of funding from the Ministry of Fisheries, the Department of Conservation, MSI, regional councils and international funding sources as well as some commercial contracts. Julie Brown is responsible for operating the Thermo Fisher Scientific range of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (MS) and peripheral devices in the DeltaPlus continuous flow stable isotope MS facility at Greta Point. This includes all aspects of maintenance and trouble shooting. Sample preparation and analysis, data compilation and quality control are also a large part of Julie’s role. Sarah Bury’s main interests are phytoplankton ecology, primary production, carbon and nitrogen fluxes in the ocean, and the application of stable isotope techniques to environmental studies. C and N stable isotopes are currently being used in trophic and migration studies of Antarctic toothfish in the Ross Sea and snapper in the Hauraki Gulf. Sarah runs and manages the DeltaPlus continuous flow stable isotope mass spectrometer 180 facility at Greta Point. The DeltaPlus analyses carbon and nitrogen content and stable isotope ratios in solid and liquid samples and is central to environmental process work within NIWA. Debbie Hulston works mainly with the fisheries group at NIWA, Greta Point. The work involves Hoki otilith reading, Jack Mackeral otilith preparation and reading and participating in sea voyage surveys (Chatham rise, Sub Antarctic) for stock assessments. She also participates in sampling and reading heart/gills for the Bonamia surveys. Other projects include enzyme and molecular assays and collection of water column and sediment sample on sea going voyages for the Biophysical moorings surveys and a Marsden funded research programme. Anna Kilimnik is a DeltaPlus mass spectrometer technician responsible for the C & N stable isotope analysis of a wide range of solid organic samples. Along with sample preparation, other work includes sample runs and trouble shooting and instrument maintenance. Margaret McVeagh is a Molecular Biology technician who works on a wide range of molecular projects. These include DNA barcoding, molecular taxonomy, gene‐mapping with microsatellites, and QPCR. These can be used for stock/population genetics, ID and discrimination of cryptic species, evolutionary genetics, and identification of introduced species and forensic samples. Alison MacDiarmid is at the tail end of a project examining historical changes in NZ’s marine ecosystem over the last 1000 years as well as projects assessing risks of human activities to marine environments in the EEZ and various commercial projects. Her rock lobster research now takes place within the context of a broader ecological projects. Els Maas is a marine microbiologist with interest in bacterial involvement in biogeochemical cycles in the oceans and bacterial phylogenetics. She is a PI on a Marsden funded research investigating the effect of ocean acidification on bacterial processes in the oceans. She contributes to NIWA’s Oceans OBI, investigating bacterial processes in the sediments and the water column and has a special interest in the diversity and functioning of siderophore producing (iron‐scavenging) bacteria. She also teaches medical microbiology and contributes to 3 other courses at Victoria University. Catherine Stevens left NIWA part way through the year to return to Canada where she is continuing to analyse and publish her work on mesozooplankton from New Zealand and Antarctic waters. David Thompson is primarily involved in research on the foraging and population biology of seabirds, and the use of stable isotope techniques in ecology. He works closely with Paul Sagar from NIWA Christchurch and with Leigh Torres. He is co‐PI of the NIWA team working on a FRST funded threatened marine mega‐fauna project. Leigh Torres specializes in the spatial ecology of marine mammals, seabirds, sharks, and large predatory fish. Leigh examines the spatio‐temporal habitat use, distribution and behavioural patterns of a species in relation to environmental characteristics and anthropogenic threats such as fisheries, vessel traffic, habitat alteration and climate 181 change. By spatially integrating species distribution datasets (i.e., tracking or sightings data) with layers of oceanographic and anthropogenic variables, Leigh develops dynamic habitat use models that incorporate the functional ecology of a species to identify important areas of use. These methods reveal how distribution and behavioral patterns alter within a heterogeneous marine environment and lead to the development of predictive habitat use models. This year, Leigh has worked on projects relating to the behaviour and spatial ecology of Hector’s dolphins, southern right whales, sperm whales, killer whales, bottlenose dolphins, blue whales, Buller’s albatrosses, Campbell albatrosses, grey‐headed albatrosses, black petrels, New Zealand sea lions, and southern elephant seals. She is also a co‐PI of the NIWA threatened marine mega‐fauna project. MIDDLE DEPTH FISHERIES AND ACOUSTICS GROUP Staff in this combined group are involved in a wide range of research projects across NIWA, with the focus primarily on research relevant to the stock assessment of middle depth species (hoki, hake, ling, southern blue whiting, toothfish, gemfish, warehou, squid, and barracouta), and the development and implementation of acoustic and camera technology to estimate abundance of orange roughy, hoki, southern blue whiting, oreos, oysters, scampi, and other species. Projects involve assessing stock abundance using acoustic, trawl survey, and camera techniques, analysing commercial catch and effort data, and researching fish biology. There is an increasing emphasis on broader ecological and environmental aspects of the fish and their fisheries. Members of the group face a busy workload over the next few years having recently negotiated contracts with the Ministry of Fisheries under the 10‐year research programme for New Zealand deepwater fish stocks. Richard O’Driscoll is the group manager and principal scientist. He was involved in a wide range of programmes using acoustics and trawling to estimate fish abundance in 2011/12. A highlight was leading a voyage to the Southern Ocean, east of the Campbell Islands, to acoustically survey southern blue whiting. This voyage attracted international attention, as the scientists and crew on Tangaroa were accompanied by Happy Feet the celebrity emperor penguin. New technology developed by NIWA has allowed members of the group to obtain the first visually‐verified estimates of the acoustic target strength (TS) for a number of New Zealand fish species. Using a combined acoustic‐optical system (AOS) mounted to the headline of a trawl, simultaneous acoustic measurements and video footage are obtained as fish enter the net. Richard will present TS results on southern blue whiting to the ICES Working Group on Fisheries Acoustics Science and Technology in France in April. Richard continues to work collaboratively with the fishing industry to analyse collect acoustic data from commercial vessels. He co‐supervises Pablo Escobar, an MSc student at the University of Auckland on a project looking at large‐scale distribution of mesopelagic fish in the South Pacific using acoustic data from ships of opportunity. Neil Bagley continues to spend a lot of time at sea, participating in research surveys in the Sub‐Antarctic (twice), Taranaki, and to the Chatham Rise in the past year. Neil was also responsible for feeding Happy Feet on his voyage south! Neil coordinates NIWA’s fishing gear requirements, and planned and led a workshop to on trawl gear technology. He is busy gearing up for another busy winter at sea. 182 Sira Ballara has carried out a range of analyses associated with stock assessment. This work includes description and analysis of catch effort and biological data for the hoki, hake, and ling fisheries. Sira continues to improve and refine her R code, and has started training in stock assessment modelling. Peter de Joux is a senior electronics technician, who had a key role in designing and building the acoustic optical system (AOS) which combined high‐definition video with net‐
mounted acoustics. Peter also designed a side‐looking acoustic system for surveying jack mackerel and is installing fibre‐optic communications on our towed acoustic systems. Adam Dunford is the Assistant Group Manager and is responsible for the electronics technical team. Adam provides scientific and technical expertise and support to internal and external users of NIWA’s acoustic systems. He is also responsible for the calibration of acoustic systems and the data acquisition system on Tangaroa. Adam led the analysis of acoustic data from the AOS, and has an ongoing project to monitor smelt abundance using acoustics in Lake Rotoiti. Pablo Escobar, an MSc student at University of Auckland has taken up residence at NIWA Wellington, where he continues to work on his thesis on fisheries acoustics. Pablo is on a Chilean scholarship and is being jointly supervised by John Montgomery (University of Auckland) and Richard O’Driscoll. His thesis will explore large scale distribution patterns on mesopelagic fish in the South Pacific using acoustic data collected on Kaharoa ARGO deployment voyages. Pablo has been to sea on four Tangaroa fisheries voyages with NIWA. Stéphane Gauthier left NIWA in June 2011 to take up a new position at the Institute of Ocean Sciences in Sidney, British Columbia. Peter Horn carries out the stock assessments for ling and hake, and leads the projects involved with commercial catch sampling and age estimation from hoki, hake, and ling fisheries. He maintains a heavy commitment to fish ageing, reading gemfish, toothfish, hoki, ling, and bluenose otoliths. Peter continues to publish results from a recently completed study on feeding relationships on the Chatham Rise, and reviewed literature on spawning fidelity in marine fisheries in relation to New Zealand hoki. Brian Miller joined NIWA as a fisheries acoustics scientist in November 2010, having completed his PhD on marine mammal acoustics with Steve Dawson at the University of Otago. Brian quickly come up to speed with fisheries acoustics, and developed innovative software to analyse results from the AOS. Unfortunately, for NIWA, Brian was attracted away to his “dream job” as a marine mammal acoustician with Australian Antarctic Division in May 2011. Ben Lennard is a member of the fisheries electronics team. He has a key role in developing hardware and software to upgrade NIWA’s electronic wetlab data acquisition system. Ben recently designed a radio tag for seabirds. Warrick Lyon is responsible for coordinating and maintaining trawl gear for inshore surveys and has a growing role in survey data analysis. He also leads a project on gurnard 183 ageing. One of Warrick’s highlights from the past year has been a nationwide project to assess rig nursery areas. He also continues to be involved in tagging great white sharks in a project with Malcolm Francis. Dan MacGibbon is a fisheries analyst in the group. Last year he carried out analysis of catch effort and biological data for lookdown dory, ribaldo, stargazer, school shark, and pale ghost shark fisheries. Dan is a regular participant on inshore, middle‐depth and deepwater fisheries surveys and was chief penguin‐wrangler on the southern blue whiting acoustic survey! Richard Nelson is the principal electronic technician in the group. He has a leadership role in the acoustic workshop, and is responsible for the development of acoustic, camera, and wet‐lab equipment. Richard continues to develop our autonomous echosounder and this will be deployed on a mooring for the first time in June 2012. He also made improvements to NIWA’s benthic (scampi) camera system Johannes Oeffner joined the group as a fisheries acoustics scientist on a one‐year fixed term contract in October 2011 (replacing Brian Miller). Johannes has an undergraduate degree in biology from the Westphalian Wilhelms University of Munster, Germany. He then completed a Masters degree in biomimetics and locomotion in fluids at the University of Applied Sciences Bremen Germany, which included four months working at Harvard University, USA, where he investigated the drag reducing effect of shark skin. Johannes will be involved in both the technological development and application of NIWA’s fisheries acoustics systems. Chris Ray joined the group as an electronics technician in November 2011. Chris is an experienced technician with an extensive background in the Royal New Zealand Airforce, at the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, the Department of Internal Affairs, and Capital and Coast Health. He has already proved his worth at sea on a survey of jack mackerel off Taranaki. Oliver Ross joined the group as a fisheries acoustics scientist in November 2011 (replacing Stéphane Gauthier). Oliver completed a PhD in physics at the Southampton Oceanography Centre on biological‐physical interactions between phytoplankton and turbulence. He came to NIWA from Barcelona (Spain) where he was working on the “” project developing methods using hyperspectral optical data to identify harmful phytoplankton groups based on their absorption and scattering pattern. Oliver’s partner was unable to find work in New Zealand, and he resigned and returned to Europe in March 2012. Darren Stevens continues to lead the important Chatham Rise middle depth trawl survey. He is a key investigator within the team at NIWA looking at trophic interactions (feeding studies) and has carried out recent work on the diet of grenadiers, deepwater sharks, toothfish, and orange roughy. Darren also continues to develop his skills as a cephalopod parataxonomist, identifying observer and research caught cephalopods. He has recently compiled identification sheets for trawl caught cephalopods and provided cephalopod images to the Tree of Life web project. 184 Neil Bagley (NIWA) and Lisa Argilla (Wellington Zoo) give Happy Feet a drink onboard the NIWA research vessel Tangaroa (Photo Richard O’Driscoll, NIWA) Happy Feet reluctantly leaves the NIWA research vessel Tangaroa after hitching a lift to the Southern Ocean on a southern blue whiting survey (Photo Richard O’Driscoll, NIWA) 185 Di Tracey (NIWA), Brian Hunt (University of British Columbia), and Emily Duder (University of Auckland) sort mesopelagic fish in the wetlab onboard the NIWA research vessel Tangaroa during a survey on the Chatham Rise in November 2011 (Photo Richard O’Driscoll, NIWA) Neil Bagley and Richard Nelson (both NIWA), assisted by one of the deckhands on Tangaroa, position the acoustic‐optical system (AOS) in the hoki trawl (Photo Peter Marriott, NIWA) 186 Poster from the Middle Depth and Acoustics Group at NIWA, Greta Point. 187 OCEAN GEOLOGY & SEDIMENTS GROUPS In 2011, the Ocean Geology and Ocean Sediments groups comprised up to 18 permanent technicians and scientists who undertake both science research for the "Public Good" of New Zealand, and commercial consultancy. Current research science projects focus on the style and spatial distribution of active submarine faults, fault development within the wider Pacific‐Australia Plate boundary deformation zone; Quaternary sea‐level fluctuations; backarc rifting and rift magmatism; submarine volcanism; high‐resolution stratigraphic analysis of sediment dispersal along the continental shelf and margin and down deep‐sea channel systems; catastrophic failure and collapse of the continental margin; characterisation of near‐field earthquake and tsunami sources; impacts of ocean acidification on sea‐floor sediments and benthic communities; benthic habitat mapping and characterisation; and submarine geological hazards. The group also works on modern and recently past oceanographic systems, with the aim of quantifying the rates and processes of carbon productivity and sequestration in the Southern Ocean and SW Pacific over seasonal to millennial timescales. Two 3‐year FRST‐funded projects investigating the “Paleoseismicity of the Hikurangi and Fiordland Margins” and “Deep‐Sea Mining of the Kermadec Arc” were also operating in 2011, the former due to be completed in 2012. The group is at the forefront of acquiring modern digital and geological data to characterise seafloor morphology, composition and its history, and hence endeavour to better understand the geological, biological, climatic and oceanographic processes that interact to affect the shape of the New Zealand seafloor. We have integrated mapping studies with benthic biological research to undertake habitat mapping projects at a variety of scales and resolutions, and have played active roles in recent Ocean Survey 20/20 projects, funded by LINZ, MFish, DoC and NIWA. Marine geologists at NIWA run collaborative projects with other CRI's, most New Zealand Universities, and earth science research groups from the USA, UK and several European countries. We also undertake a significant range of commercial consultancy projects including New Zealand continental shelf delimitation (UNCLOS), hydrographic surveys within New Zealand and Ross Sea (Antarctica) waters, submarine cable route investigations, offshore resource evaluations (including precious hydrothermal minerals, ironsands and phosphorites), offshore pipeline investigations, and habitat mapping for environmental management and impact assessments as well as site surveys for petroleum and offshore minerals exploration industries. Dylan Amyes joined the Ocean Geology group as an Electronics technician in October 2007 after an 11 year stint in the NZ Army where he was a Sergeant, working as an electronics instructor and workshop supervisor. His main roles in NIWA are to facilitate and maintain electronics support for NIWA’s research vessels (RV Tangaroa, Kaharoa and Ikatere), including scientific navigation, geophysical systems and multi‐beam echosounders. Dylan resigned from NIWA in January 2012. Simon Bardsley joined the Ocean Sediments group as an Ocean GIS technician in 2009 after completing degrees in Geography and Geology at the University of Canterbury, specialising in GIS‐spatial analysis and remote sensing, followed by 3 years working for Environment Canterbury as a GIS Analyst. Simon resigned from NIWA in October 2011. 188 Philip Barnes undertakes research on stratigraphy, fault structure, rates of active tectonics, and earthquake potential in many areas of coastal New Zealand, including the Bay of Plenty, eastern North Island, Eastern Marlborough, Cook Strait, north Canterbury, and Fiordland regions. The research involves the acquisition and interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, multibeam bathymetric data, and seafloor samples, in order to understand the sedimentary responses to major changes in sea level and climate, as well as earth deformation processes in the Pacific‐Australia plate boundary forearc, backarc, and strike‐slip tectonic zones. Sedimentary sequences are studied in detail to provide the temporal framework for determination of tectonic deformation rates and processes. Recent initiatives have included work with German and NZ colleagues on the tectonic controls on gas hydrate locations along the east coast North Island, new interpretations of fault structure and seismic hazard in Cook Strait, slip rates and structure of the southern Alpine Fault off Fiordland, thrust faulting off Hawke’s Bay and Poverty Bay, and the search for earthquake faults off Christchurch. Phil’s research involves national and international collaboration, has linkages with other NIWA, GNS, and New Zealand university programmes, and contributes to better understanding of global processes and regional coastal hazards. Phil is a Principal Scientist at NIWA. Helen Bostock is a paleoceanographer and sedimentologist who arrived in 2006 from Canberra where she was working on coastal sedimentary systems at Geoscience Australia. Her main research interests are in ocean circulation changes and the sedimentary response to sea level fluctuations and climate change. Helen’s research involves stable isotope analyses on foraminifera from marine cores, grain‐size and mineralogy of sediments in cores and surface samples, combined with multibeam bathymetric data and seismic profiles. She was involved in the acquisition of new cores from Macquarie Ridge in April 2008 to understand changes in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Helen is currently supervising a number of students from Victoria University of Wellington, investigating paleoceanographic circulation changes. Helen is an adjunct researcher at VUW, and also has collaborations with colleagues at GNS science, Auckland University, The Australian National University, Canberra, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA. Helen has been actively developing research in NIWA on the potential effects of ocean acidification in the NZ region on benthic fauna and water column chemistry and has attended a number of workshops in the USA, Australia and NZ to assist in developing ideas for this new area of research. Claire Castellazzi is in charge of NIWA’s marine geophysical data, processing and archiving facility. She started her career in geophysics on the remote Kerguelen Island where she was in charge of the seismological observatory for a year. After that, she worked for 3 years as a 3D multi‐channel seismic processer onboard petroleum industry seismic vessels in the Gulf of Guinea and Gulf of Mexico. Before joining NIWA in 2006, Claire worked at the University of Lausanne working on land seismic data for the Geophysical Society of Switzerland. Claire resigned from NIWA in November 2011. 189 Multi‐channel seismic reflection profile across the Hikurangi subduction margin, eastern North Island (left) and offshore faults mapped in Cook Strait (right), with fault sources used in the National Seismic Probabilistic Hazard Model (developed by GNS Science) shown in red. Sediment cores, x‐rays and, sediment physical properties (left) and foraminifera species (right) used for paleooceanographic studies. Peter Gerring specialises in habitat mapping utilising side‐scan sonar acquisition and processing, video and still camera, and various types of sampling. He participates in numerous surveys both in coastal waters and offshore on RV Tangaroa, involving operating a wide variety of instruments including multi‐beam sonar data collection and processing. Pete also assists in GIS projects and has upgraded his skills in seismic reflection acquisition and specialises in the maintenance of the seismic air guns and compressors. Geoffroy Lamarche is a Principal Scientist in marine geology and geophysics. He focusses his research work on the geological processes that affect the seafloor of the continental shelf and deep ocean around New Zealand. His interests are: (1) the natural geological 190 processes associated with the active Pacific‐Australia plate boundary; (2) the mechanisms of generation and propagation of natural marine hazards and their impact on coastal communities, and (3) the characterisation of geological seafloor resources and the impact of their extraction on the marine environment. His research endeavours to better understand the mechanisms of fault interactions and fault growth, so as to identify earthquake sources and hazards, to constrain a possible frequency‐magnitude relationship for mass transport deposits, and to develop methods for the characterisation of seafloor geological resources and habitats using remote‐sensed oceanographic data. The research considers the marine environment at large and goes beyond the specificity of marine geology and geophysics in that it is developed in collaboration with benthic ecologists, marine biologists and physical oceanographers. Geoffroy's areas of research include the Bay of Plenty, the East Cape Region, Cook Strait and the Kermadec Arc. His broader interests in the South‐West Pacific region has him developing research programmes aimed at building paleo‐historical tsunami records in the Pacific islands of Wallis and Futuna. Geoffroy leads international collaborative research projects with the research groups of Géosciences Azur (Nice, Nouméa), Géosciences Rennes (Rennes), and IFREMER (Brest), in France, the UK National Oceanographic Centre (Southampton) and the University of Tasmania. He is the Programme Leader of the MSI core‐funded programme "Discovery, survey and assessment of New Zealand’s ocean resources and knowledge of their dynamics". Kevin Mackay is the Marine Data Manager, responsible for managing digital bathymetric and station data using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Relational DataBase Management Systems (RDBMS). Current projects include: the development of systems and processes for the processing, analysis and storing of all data collected during Ocean Survey 20/20; and the integration of geological, biological and physical marine data into a single frame‐work named MINZ (Marine Information New Zealand). He continues to provide support to marine geology and geophysics research, and commercial projects by undertaking GIS analysis and computer processing of swath multi‐beam bathymetry and backscatter strength data, with emphasis on seafloor mapping, terrain modelling and imagery sensing. He also leads and/or participates in swath multi‐beam and geological data acquisition for research (FRST) and commercial projects. Kevin has been actively involved in New Zealand’s United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) project, including the final submission in New York in 2008, and past work with GNS Science helping the Philippines Government with their submission. John Mitchell is project leader for the seabed resources and charting objective tasked with the production of several charts and posters, including Cook Strait, Wellington South Coast and Harbour and the Hauraki Gulf. He leads and participates in research and commercial voyages, concentrating on multibeam data collection and processing, hydrographic surveys and United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) surveys. He was Voyage and Project Leader for several Ross Sea voyages over the last 10 years, and continues to lead large, multi‐disciplinary consultancy projects for government agencies and external commercial clients, including Ocean Survey 20/20 Southern Hikurangi multi‐beam survey and an UNCLOS survey for the Papua New Guinea government. 191 Cook Strait multi‐beam bathymetry (top left), backscatter reflectivity (top right) and sediment data (bottom left) were used to derive a first‐order habitat map (bottom right). Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour posters published in 2011 by the NIWA Ocean Geology group. 192 Multi‐beam digital terrain model of Opouawe Bank and Canyon, offshore Wairarapa, southern North Island, location of active methane seeps. Joshu Mountjoy is a Marine Geologist focused on active seafloor processes. Joshu analyses marine geophysical data (multibeam, multi‐channel and high resolution seismic reflection data) and geological data (sediment cores, rock samples) to gain insight into the development of New Zealand's tectonically active submarine landscape. His primary research interests are submarine landslide processes – including triggering mechanisms (earthquakes, gas hydrates) and hazards; controls on seafloor erosion processes; mechanisms of submarine canyon activity; and seafloor neo‐tectonics. Joshu leads a collaborative NIWA‐GNS Science project funded by the Natural Hazards Research Platform to quantify the probabilistic hazard from landslide‐generated tsunami in Cook Strait, and is involved in an international proposal to drill the Hikurangi Margin offshore Gisborne to understand slow slip earthquake processes at a site co‐incidentally located beneath his favourite submarine landslide complex. He also leads a project to determine the paleo‐
tsunami history on the Pacific Island of Wallis, and leads a Riskscape objective focussed on rainfall‐triggered landslides. Research is carried out in collaboration with numerous agencies, including GNS Science, the University of Auckland, the University of New South Wales, Géosciences Azur (Nouméa), the University of Malta, the University of Barcelona, ETH Zurich, and the University of Bremen. Helen Neil is currently investigating seasonal to millennial changes in oceanographic conditions and production. The nature and timing of abrupt climate change at mid‐high southern latitudes is poorly understood. A regional focus on the southern and western water masses of New Zealand aims to elucidate the transmission of climate signals at high latitudes. Modern oceanographic records are compared to analogues of environmental change derived from long‐lived macro‐fauna, bottom sediment characteristics, and assemblages in surface net tows, sediment traps and sediment cores records. Other research interests are derivation of climate millennial records from speleothems (with Paul Williams, University of Auckland) and deep‐dwelling bamboo corals, including applicability of coral geochemistry in assessments of deep ocean change (with Di Tracey, NIWA, Ron Thresher, CSIRO.). Work on the use of bomb radiocarbon to validate otolith ages and stable isotopes to investigate life histories of New Zealand’s deep‐dwelling fisheries is continuing in conjunction with Di Tracey, Peter Marriott, Peter Horn, Peter 193 McMillan, Chris Francis (NIWA) and Allen Andrews, Uni. Of Hawaii. This combination of modern and past records will facilitate future prediction of global processes and change in the New Zealand region. Recent research focus has been on the sedimentary, oceanographic and climatic systems of the west coast South Island collecting cores with the RV Marion du Fresne and Tangaroa and mapping the deep‐sea canyons off this coast in collaboration with colleagues at NIWA, GNS Science, Geomarine Research, Victoria University, Otago University, CNRS‐Géoscience‐Rennes and Michigan University.. Helen runs and manages the Micromill (for small volume sample collection) and the Kiel (small‐
volume) carbonate system for derivation of stable (O and C) isotopes central to paleoceanographic and fisheries‐related research work within NIWA. Helen is currently supervising a number of students from Canterbury University, and is an adjunct Assoc. Professor at VUW. She was also editor of proceedings of the highly successful 4th International Deep‐sea Corals Symposium held in Wellington in December 2008. In 2009, Helen was appointed the Group Manager of the newly named Ocean Sediments group. Cross‐section of a deep‐sea cold water coral used for paleoceanographic interpretations of past ocean temperatures and climate‐driven water mass re‐organisation. Scott Nodder is involved in research investigating oceanic sediment and elemental (C, N, P, Si) fluxes using floating and moored sediment traps and sediment cores. This work is in conjunction with benthic biological and sedimentological studies that are designed to understand the relationships between benthic and pelagic processes and the impact of such processes on the cycling of carbon in the oceans around New Zealand. Study areas include the Southern Ocean, west coast South Island, Subtropical Front (Chatham Rise), Hauraki Gulf, Firth of Thames and northeast coast of New Zealand. Ongoing research links have been established with other NIWA oceanographic scientists, GNS Science (Chris Hollis, Peppe Cortese, Erica Crouch, Mark Stirling), NZ universities (in particular with Conrad Pilditch, Waikato, and Keith Probert, Otago), and with overseas researchers (e.g., Gerard Duineveld, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Jean‐Noel Proust, CNRS‐
Géoscience‐Rennes, and Liz Sikes, Rutgers University, USA). Other research interests are Ocean Survey 20/20 benthic biodiversity and habitat mapping (Chatham Rise‐Challenger Plateau, Bay of Islands), Cook Strait cold seeps and methane (with Cliff Law and Els Maas, NIWA), Taranaki‐Wanganui shelf sedimentology, fault structure and neotectonics, marine particulate matter and remineralisation processes, nutrient fluxes, continental shelf sediment transport, and the oceanic carbon cycle. Since 2008, Scott has been the Group Manager of the Ocean Geology group, and was voted the President of the Geoscience Society of New Zealand for 2011‐13, having been the Secretary and Vice President (Geology) for the previous 5 years. 194 Sediment trap (left, photograph by Els Maas, NIWA), moorings (middle) and ocean colour data (right, courtesy of NASA/Orbimage and Matt Pinkerton, NIWA). Lisa Northcote provides technical support for scientists such as Helen Neil, Helen Bostock, Scott Nodder and Alan Orpin, as well as field and lab support for scientists in other groups. She has adopted a leading role within the NIWA marine geology laboratory undertaking standard grain‐size and chemical analyses as well as stable isotope sample preparation, and sediment trap and macrofaunal analysis. Lisa has built up a significant knowledge of modern foraminiferal taxonomy and assemblage characterisation and is currently analysing fauna from South Island West Coast, Hawke Bay, Chatham Rise, and Campbell Plateau. The establishment of seasonal to interannual variability in ocean temperatures and productivity from living foraminiferal assemblages will allow the derivation of modern analogues for past environmental changes in subtropical and subantarctic waters. Alan Orpin is a marine geologist working on the marine component of the transfer of sediment from mountains to the deep sea as a part of the international MARGINS programme [margin sedimentary processes]. Primarily he is investigating the accumulation of post‐glacial terrigenous sediment on the East Coast margin (in collaboration with other NZ researchers, East Carolina University, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, and the Virginia Institute of Marine Science, USA). The group is also trying to establish links between the late Holocene terrestrial record of climate and landscape change with offshore sediment dispersal using sediment core proxies from the marine and lacustrine environments. Other high‐sediment yield regions of the NZ margin of interest include the Westland margin, where initial work has been undertaken with Helen Neil and Scott Nodder (NIWA). Other research includes the development of mapping tools for benthic habitats with workers from NIWA and the Geological Survey of Canada (Atlantic), and sedimentation in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia with collaborators from James Cook University. Alan has also been involved in projects to identify cold seeps sites from marine geophysics and geological information collected from marine geophysical and geological surveys. 195 Data records from the Poverty Bay tripod deployment periods in 2010‐11 (left) and multi‐
cores showing highly fluidised mud collected from the Poverty shelf (right). Tripod data and photograph courtesy of Dr JP Walsh (East Carolina University). Arne Pallentin was the main GIS technician for the New Zealand United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) project, working in cooperation with MFAT, LINZ and GNS Science. He is primarily responsible for the analysis of bathymetric data, geodetic calculations and charting in NIWA. He also provides support for research in the Ocean Geology/Sediments and other groups, as well as commercial consultancy projects, facilitating GIS analysis for a wide range of applications ranging from biodiversity to tsunami research. Anne‐Laure Verdier provides support to marine geology, hydrographic and benthic habitat research and consultancy projects by undertaking GIS analyses, with emphasis on seafloor mapping, terrain modelling and imagery sensing. She joined NIWA in early 2008, has a hydrographic surveying background and has participated in swath multibeam and geological data acquisition surveys around New Zealand. Anne‐Laure resigned from NIWA in October 2011. NIWA’s research vessel Tangaroa which underwent an extensive re‐fit in 2010‐11 (left) and NIWA staff deploying the seismic hydrophone streamer and controller “birds” (right). 196 Steve Wilcox is an electronics engineer responsible for the commissioning, installation and maintenance of NIWA’s marine geotechnical systems, in particular the Kongsberg EM302 and EM3002 swath mapping systems; NIWA's high‐resolution seismic reflection systems (boomer, 3.5 kHz and multi‐channel airgun sources) and the new DP‐2 control systems on the Tangaroa. Richard Wysoczanski joined NIWA in January 2009 to continue NIWA’s research work on submarine volcanism to the north of New Zealand, including working on NIWA’s recently successful Deep‐Sea Mining FRST‐programme (focussing on the Kermadec arc). Collaboration is an important component of the research including work with GNS Science, Victoria University and University of Auckland, and scientists from UK and Japan, with a joint workshop organised in Japan to discuss future Kermadec arc research. Richard is supervising a number of students, focussing on the geochemistry and processes involved in submarine and subaerial volcanic eruptions from arc environments. Richard has fulfilled post‐doctoral and full‐time positions at the Australian National Institution, Smithsonian Institute and JAMSTEC (Japan), was a visiting scientist at Carnegie Institute of Washington, and most recently was the Laboratory Manager at the state‐of‐the‐art geochemistry lab at Victoria University. In 2011, he started work on contract at VUW, managing the Geology Department’s microprobe facility. 197 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd Hamilton BENTHIC ECOLOGY GROUP Dr Simon Thrush, a Principal Scientist at NIWA, studies the ecology of soft‐sediment habitats, although he continues to publish articles on a variety of topics including Antarctica and Ligurian rocky reefs. Simon has been developing methods for predicting and measuring resilience and ecosystem goods and services of coastal systems with a variety of national and international colleagues. Following on the back of his NZMSS Lifetime achievement award in 2010, Simon was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand this year, and was involved with two successful Marsden Fund grant applications. Dr Judi Hewitt, Principal Scientist, continues her interest in statistical modelling and the meaning of biodiversity measures. With Simon she has published the first empirical paper demonstrating increases in temporal variance before a regime shift. She also works closely with resource managers such as Auckland Council by analysing long term ecological data sets and developing tools such as the Benthic Health Model. Dr Drew Lohrer’s main interest is ecosystem functioning (particularly primary production and nutrient flux in soft‐sediment habitats) and how this is altered by the activities of key macrofauna and the disturbances that affect them. He works with a variety of macrofaunal species and community types, intertidally and subtidally, including the Antarctic. Drew is the Marine Ecology group manager and serves on the NZMSS Council. Dr Carolyn Lundquist splits her time between NIWA and DoC, and is continuing her work in modelling species connectivity and dispersal. Recently, she has been investigating what happens when you mulch up mangroves to remove them and leave the mulch on site. Carolyn is also a delegate to Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), elected by the Society for Conservation Biology. 198 Dr Michael Townsend interests centre on the functioning of soft sediment communities. This year Michael’s main focus has been around ecosystem goods and services and how the functioning of estuarine and shallow sub‐tidal ecosystems underpins the benefits delivered by the coastal environment. This has led to the development of methods which integrate ecological information effectively into management and decision make processes. New to the group are 3 post‐doctoral fellows: Drs Iván Rodil (Spain), Silvia de Juan (Spain) and Casper Kraan (Netherlands). Dr Iván Rodil has been with the group for 2 years and works closely with Drew on a variety of projects related to ecosystem functioning. His recent activities have involved developing a functional traits index to identify sites where macrofaunal communities are being negatively affected by mud and heavy metals. He has also been working on how carbonates in sediments modify nutrient fluxes and potentially buffer against the effects of ocean acidification. Dr Silvia de Juan has been granted a 2‐year postdoc by the Spanish government to evaluate potential indicators of stress at local and regional scales in estuarine benthic communities, working most closely with Judi. She has interacted with the NIWA team on several previous occasions between 2009 and 2011, investigating the temporal and spatial scales of benthic community diversity and habitat‐richness relationships. Dr Casper Kraan came to NIWA to work with Simon after securing a Marsden Fund grant. The project is focussed on defining how the relationships between abundance patterns of benthic macrofauna and different biotic and environmental processes change from single points to whole intertidal areas. Casper has also been awarded a Marie‐Curie fellowship, which will start in April 2013, allowing a more in depth approach to studying hierarchical species distributions and collaboration with overseas experts in the field of Bayesian modeling. 199 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ‐
Mahanga Bay The NIWA facility at Mahanga Bay focuses on cooler water aquaculture (complementing NIWA’s warm water facility at Bream Bay) across the whole spectrum of potential cultured species from micro‐ and macro‐algae, through bivalve and crustacean shellfish and echinoderms to finfish. Research encompasses basic studies of new species, development of farming techniques, development of water treatment technologies and investigation of ways to improve the efficiency of established commercial aquaculture systems. Recently the facility has developed a large, temperature controlled, ocean acidification facility that has been used to investigate the potential impacts of changes in acidity of Antarctic and temperate waters on a range of marine species. Throughout the year we have had three interns: Caitlin from the USA, and Larissa and Daniel from Germany. Larissa worked on copepods on sea cucumbers while Caitlin and Daniel assessed oxygen consumption/demand and waste production of juvenile hapuka. We currently have two visiting scientists on site, Kimberley Maxwell (Toku Toru, Nelson) and Xuebin Cao (Shangdong Oriental Ocean Sci‐Tech Co. Ltd, China) who are developing and refining techniques for hatchery culture of New Zealand sea cucumbers. Philip Heath is Principal Scientist and Group Manager at Mahanga Bay. He maintains an advisory role in most of the projects undertaken at the aquaculture facility. He is programme manager for the Aquaculture Environment Interactions programme, aiming at developing an improved understanding of aquaculture and environment interactions, with a particular emphasis on ensuring sustainability within the emerging finfish farming industry. He is also currently involved in an EU consortium to co‐ordinate research on integrated multi aquaculture techniques. Phil has maintained research interests in commercial fish and paua (abalone) cultivation systems, and more recently in culture of sea cucumbers. He has been involved in aquaculture development projects in New Zealand and the Middle East. Graeme Moss continues to be involved in the selective breeding programme, running the paua objective which aims to improve paua broodstock for the aquaculture industry. He has been involved in the production and monitoring of over 100 paua family lines at three farm sites. Potential F1 broodstock from the families have started to be identified and selected for future breeding. Graeme is also working on developing and refining techniques for hatchery culture of sea cucumbers. Graeme’s boatmaster skills continue to be utilized in the groper programme. Sheryl Miller is currently working with Graeme Moss on the sea cucumber project. This research is being done alongside Kim and Xuebin’s research for comparative purposes. She has been involved in investigating the vulnerability of rhodoliths (free‐living coralline algae) to various environmental stressors with the seaweed group, which is in its final stages of completion. She is also assisting Kelly May (Te Kuwaha) with collating biological information of the Moeraki region and producing a guideline for kaimoana monitoring to support Moeraki runaka with management of their mataitai. 200 Sea cucumber at auricularia stage, 12‐16 days old, size= 800‐980 mircometers “Renovations” at NIWA, Mahanga Bay!!!! 201 Neill Barr has brought a new range of skills to the job of senior hatchery technician and is responsible for the management and day to day running of the Mahanga Bay facility. This has been most evident in the continuing renovation of the building infrastructure to meet upgraded levels of compliance, and health and safety standards. Neill is a registered electrician and also has a PhD in Marine and Environmental Science with a main focus on seaweed ecophysiology. Through his science background Neill has also become involved in a MSI funded project monitoring the ecological recovery of the seaweed bloom affected Avon‐Heathcote Estuary in Christchurch after the diversion of the city’s wastewater effluent discharge from the estuary in March 2010. However this study has also evolved in its original scope as a direct result of the series of earthquakes that hit Christchurch and is now yielding many interesting results demonstrating how seaweed indicators can be used to reflect changes in both nitrogen loading and nitrogen source in marine receiving environments. Neill has also been involved in recent experimental evaluation of the potential effects of future changes in seawater pH and temperature on growth and survival of calcareous rhodolith seaweeds. Sarah Allen continues to maintain the Mahanga Bay algal culture collection which supports various NIWA research programmes as well as supplying external clients. She is the operator of the Mahanga Bay Containment facility which involves overseeing any import or export of potentially risky goods. She has also recently been made safety officer for the Marine Ecology group’s Containment facility at Greta Point. She has been involved in the sea cucumber larval rearing this year both as support, and was responsible for supplying large quantities of microalgae as a first food for hungry sea cucumber larvae. She is currently supporting several research programmes including the effects of ocean acidification on marine shellfish and developing husbandry techniques for captive deep sea corals. Jonathan Wright is largely responsible for managing resident hapuku at Mahanga Bay. This role includes the maintenance of all sea‐cage and tank based fish in the facility. Information gathered on growth rates, food conversion rates and disease are important data that feed into an overarching investigation into the suitability of hapuku aquaculture in a sea‐cage environment. He recently completed an experiment investigating the use of various alkalinity chemicals (to control pH) on the growth rates of paua. This work supplements a previous investigation into pH control by physical degassing methods, and falls under the umbrella of recirculating aquaculture systems for paua. Johnny also continues to provide technical support for general hatchery maintenance and for the renovation and upgrading of facilities. Kevin Green has been assisting researchers with technical support and husbandry for many of the projects based at Mahanga Bay, especially paua family and broodstock development. Other species he has assisted with include sea cucumber juveniles, hapuku and flat oysters. He has completed the framework for a respiration chamber, as well as a settlement chamber, which has been used in respiration trials with hapuku. He is also currently involved at the initiation of ocean acidification trials with flat oysters. In addition he has started a Boatmaster’s course and hopes to complete it soon, enabling him to skipper small craft for NIWA. 202 Chris Canham has been at Mahanga bay for almost two years. He has been maintaining the Arkal & Media filters for the incoming seawater, servicing and reconditioning the small Onga pumps that deliver the seawater to various marine species tanks, as well as on‐going electrical appliance testing. He has been gaining experience towards the Electrical EST Registration, & engaged in general yard maintenance, small engineering projects & the upkeep of the autoclave, incubators and UV steriflo units. 203 National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research Ltd ‐
Nelson Stephen Brown completed his PhD thesis ‘Ecology and enhancement of the flat oyster (Ostrea chilensis) in central New Zealand’, co‐authored a paper on dispersal of oyster larvae in Tasman Bay, and has also been involved in various commercial jobs and research bids. Megan Carter has continued to be involved with the Biosecurity Port Surveillance program. She has completed field work and sample processing for a variety of research projects and marine farm monitoring, and has been assisting Niki Davey with her recreational fishing survey. Russell Cole worked on habitat associations of reef fishes, assisted with assessments of marine farms, investigated the characteristics of zero‐inflated models for count data, carried out a southern blue whiting stock assessment, and investigated echinoid feeding fronts. Niki Davey has been co‐ordinating one section of the National Amateur fishing survey. She has also been continuing Holothuroidea systematics working specifically on the Ross Sea collection and reviewing two previously unidentified families from New Zealand. She has also been at sea as either a biologist or the CTD technician. She continues to help out with Port Surveys when time permits. Ken Grange, Regional Manager, continues to keep his interest fiords research alive as a member of the Fiordland Marine Guardians and through consultancy projects with the Department of Conservation and Environment Southland. Marine farm environmental impact assessments, monitoring, and site selections also allow him to earn revenue for NIWA, which is more than balanced by the increasing demands on overhead tasks such as staff and operational management, and client liaison. Stuart Hanchet is a Principal Scientist and International Fisheries Programme Leader. His main focus continues to be on Antarctic fisheries, southern blue whiting, and ecosystem approaches to fishing. During the past year he led the project dealing with the analysis of data collected during the 2008 NZ IPY‐CAML voyage to the Ross Sea, Antarctica which is now largely completed. He also routinely leads and manages a variety of Antarctic fisheries, inshore, and middle depths projects. He continues to be actively involved in CCAMLR (Convention of the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources) and attended several meetings on ecosystem modelling and fish stock assessment as a New Zealand delegate during the year. Sean Handley has been involved with determining the effects of fishing in Tasman and Golden Bay benthos, effects of finfish farms on functional groups, surveying seabirds fish and marine mammals in Nelson Bays, blue cod BUV survey in Fiordland, and dabbling in 204 stable isotope research. In his spare time he is Group Manager of the ecology and aquaculture group. Rob Merrilees has worked on port surveys and trawl surveys, as well as maintaining his hydrology workload. Don Morrisey continues to run a programme of surveillance for target marine pest species at high‐risk locations around the country, on behalf of MAF and has been involved in other biosecurity work involving disease management and hull fouling. Another research interest is the benthic impacts of marine farms. Mike Page has been working on a manuscript on Fiordland and Stewart Island ascidians describing at least 5 new species. He is also compiling an e‐handbook on identification of ascidians common to ports and harbours, to be published as PDF s on NIWA’s website. Steve Parker works mainly on Antarctic fisheries, focusing on tagging studies and reproductive biology of toothfish (Dissostichus spp.). He also works on developing management approaches to protect low productivity deep sea species from the effects of fishing. These are mainly bycatch species such as deepwater sharks, corals, and sponges. Kieran Scott left NIWA this year, but our hydrologists continue to interact with him in his new job at Tasman District Council. Michael Stevenson led the tenth in the series of inshore trawl surveys in Tasman and Golden Bays and along the west coast of the South Island in March‐April 2011. Sampling of tarakihi from the commercial catch continued through until October. Trevor Willis worked on many things, and then left for England. We wish him all the best in his endeavours, and hope to see him again occasionally. 205 The New Zealand Rock Lobster Industry Council (NZRLIC) The NZ RLIC is the principal contractor to the Ministry of Primary Industries (MPI) for the provision of stock monitoring and stock assessment research for rock lobster fisheries. The company shareholders comprise the regional commercial stakeholder organisations (CSOs) for each of the nine rock lobster fishery management areas within the New Zealand Quota Management System (QMS). The NZ RLIC also coordinates and facilitates the delivery of a range of industry‐generated and industry‐funded research services in support of CSO initiatives. The NZ RLIC has an extensive array of contractual relationships with skilled service providers in New Zealand and overseas which enables delivery of the research services provided under contract to MPI. The main objectives of the principal contract are determined annually by a research planning process overseen by MPI. The core objectives are consistent with a medium term research plan for lobster fisheries developed by the National Rock Lobster Management Group (NRLMG), a multi‐sector cooperative user group providing rock lobster fisheries advice to the Minister for Primary Industries. Stock Monitoring The current stock monitoring work programme comprises • observer catch sampling in four management areas and voluntary vessel logbook programmes in three management areas to collect length frequency and other biological data, and • a tag release and recapture programme to measure growth of lobsters for use in a length‐based population model. Observers completed 120 samples days in 2011/12 and measured 43,600 lobsters, recording details of size, sex, maturity, location, depth and condition. The vessel logbook programme has over 60 participant commercial fishermen delivering similar information from 3,600 fishing events, 13,000 potlifts, and 71,000 lobsters. In all, 1,559 lobsters were tagged and released in 2011/12 and recaptures were reported from all management areas covered by the tagging programme. Since the 1994/95 season over 150,000 lobsters have been tagged and released around the New Zealand coastline and more than 23,600 recapture reports have been entered to the research data base. Stock Assessment The stock assessment science team* is principally engaged in: 206 •
Calculating standardised CPUE from all management areas in several different formats and reporting on the operation of current management procedures (decision rules) •
Estimating biomass and sustainable yields for nominated rock lobster stocks • Evaluating new management procedures for rock lobster fisheries. In 2011, the stock assessment team did a full stock assessment for CRA 4 and developed a new management procedure. This work used a length‐based Bayesian model, and included statistical exploration of the signal in puerulus settlement data. Management procedures informed the TAC/TACC decisions for 2012‐13 for the Gisborne, Wellington/Hawkes Bay, Canterbury‐Marlborough, Otago and Southern rock lobster fisheries in April 2011. The team also did exploratory work on the optimal way to standardise CPUE, explored the use of simple (surplus‐production) models as operating models for developing management procedures in data‐limited stocks and explored the cost/benefit ratio for fishery‐independent surveys. In 2012, stock assessments will be done for the Otago and Southern fisheries using the multi‐stock model, which estimates some parameters in common and some stock‐
specifically, and includes estimates of movements from Otago. *Paul Breen Fisheries stock assessment; Marine mammal population dynamics; temperate reef ecology; crustacean and molluscan biology Vivian Haist Fisheries stock assessment; fisheries modelling, survey design Marine Pomarède Fisheries stock assessment; fisheries modelling, survey design Paul Starr Fisheries stock assessment; fisheries data management; design of fisheries data collection programmes. 207 The 2012 rock lobster stock assessment science team: from L‐R Marine Pomarède, Paul Starr, Daryl Sykes (NZ RLIC), Vivian Haist, Paul Breen. Photo: Fiona McKay In addition to the services contracted from the NZ RLIC, MPI also contracts a separate lobster settlement monitoring project from NIWA which represents the longest time series of biological data for any New Zealand fisheries. A puerulus taken from collectors. Photo: S.Anderson. The NZ RLIC also provides guidance to and maintains oversight of a number of elective research programmes initiated by CSOs. In 2011/12 these included supplementary tag and release, puerulus collection and fine scale spatial mapping of fishing grounds in two management areas. The NZ RLIC continues to invest in the development of electronic data collection technology. The ERNIE system developed by the NZ RLIC in partnership with Lat 37 Ltd 208 and R White Woods is now routinely used for most observer catch sampling and all tag and release work. The CRA 2 Rock Lobster Management Company has successfully trialled electronic logbooks which enable commercial fishermen to record fine scale catch and effort data in real time and to date has funded the installation of the units in 15 vessels; and a new electronic logbook programme developed by the CRA 5 Rock Lobster Industry Association (CRAMAC 5) will be operating from April 2012. CRA 5 fishermen measuring and recording catches from sample pots. Photo: NZ RLIC 209 Northland Regional Council Northland Regional Council continues its coastal State of the Environment monitoring. This programme consists of estuarine ecological monitoring, and monitoring of hard and soft‐shore coastal ecosystems. Water quality monitoring Monitoring includes bimonthly water quality sampling in Whangarei harbour and Bay of Islands (16 sites each harbour), and monthly monitoring of the Kaipara harbour (9 sites) in conjunction with Auckland Council (Figure 1). Whangarei Water Quality Sites Sediment and biological sampling Sediment and biological sampling, as described by the Estuarine Monitoring Protocol (EMP) for regional councils was undertaken in Ruakaka estuary (2 sites), Whangarei harbour (4 sites), Kerikeri Inlet (3 sites), Whangaroa (2 sites), and Kaipara harbour (2 sites). Each site is tested for 5 sediment replicates and 10 biological replicates. Current sediment accumulation rates are recorded quarterly at each of these sites. Two sediment plates are assessed at each site; lower and higher tidal reaches of the established EMP site. 210 Percentage of water samples collected from Whängärei Harbour within guideline values in 2010‐
2011. Marine Biosecurity The Northland Regional Council is involved in marine pest management since mid 2011. Being in its first year of operation several new initiatives are underway to prevent marine pests entering northland and finding methods to control those that have already arrived. The top six nasties are part of the exclusion organisms list: These include the Asian Clam, Caulerpa Seaweed, Chinese Mitten Crab, European Shore Crab, Mediterranean Fanworm and the Northern Pacific Seastar. Please note that the Mediterranean has recently been located in Whangarei Harbour attached to vessels and is in the process of being removed. Additional suppression organisms are listed under the Regional Pest Management Strategy (RPMS), these include the Asian Paddle Crab which seems to be in a range expansion phase within the Whanageri Harbour. Didemnum sea squirt, Eudistoma sea squirt, Styela sea squirt and Undaria seaweed. There are 12 risk assessment marine pests which are of potential concern to the region, with little known about there potential risks. One example is Pyura stolonifera praeputialis, the species is of concern in the far north as it out competes green lip mussels for space and could negatively impact spat density, an increase incursion risk can occur when spat is transported to mussel farms. There are also concerns that Pyura could inadvertently spread to marine farms outside the far north region. Few tools are available for its control, a recent MAF trial concluded that hand removal using paint scrapers is successful but needs to be ongoing to prevent re‐invasion. Community pest control areas A community pest control area for marine pests is in discussion with local Iwi. Furthermore, a new fisheries management plan by Te Hiku O Te Iki Fisheries Forum is being drafted to include a marine pest performance target. 211 Regional framework for marine pests Northland Regional Council is developing a regional framework for marine pest surveillance with key industry groups and stakeholders which builds on existing programmes of work with MPI (MAF) and the National Marine High Risk Site Surveillance programme (MHRSS). NIWA completed a document titled “Scoping and development of a regional surveillance plan for marine pests in Northland” to aid in the planning process. Using this document, additional surveillance programmes are being developed in conjunction with local industry liaison groups, these include vessel/hull surveys and sites deemed as high value which are not covered under the (MHRSS), these include Kaipara Harbour, Whangaroa Harbour, Bay of Island and Tutukaka. 212 Marlborough District Council Every summer 18 beaches are monitored weekly during the summer months and assessed against MfE’s bathing water standards. Coastal bathing water quality in 2011 showed an improvement in water quality, as defined using MfE’s beach grading system, at two sites. Microbial source tracking was carried out at two sites in the Sounds. One site showed that bacterial contamination at the beach was from cattle and other ruminants located in the nearby catchments. The source of bacteria at the other site was unknown but possibly originated from birdlife in the vicinity. Water quality monitoring in the Queen Charlotte Sound began in July 2011. Five sites located from the inner to the outer sounds are monitored monthly for nutrients, chlorophyll ‘a’, turbidity, salinity, pH and a number of other parameters. Samples are taken at near surface (approx 1m below the surface) and at depth (up to 40m). A sample is also taken where algal species are identified and counted. The purpose of the monitoring is to provide some much needed baseline data of water quality in the Sounds, which can then be used to assess effects from land and coastal activities and also to monitor conditions which may be conducive to algal blooms. The data will also allow robust hydrodynamic models to be built and validated. Coastal monitoring in the Queen Charlotte Sound Habitat mapping has been carried out for the Okiwa Bay and Ngakuta Bay estuaries in the Queen Charlotte Sound. This was made possible from aerial photographs captured during December 2011 to January 2011. The maps will allow for future changes in estuarine conditions to be recorded. It is intended that the mapping will be followed up with sediment and macrofaunal sampling in 2012. 213 In September 2011 the Council released a report on the Ecologically significant marine sites in Marlborough, New Zealand. The report was prepared by the Council in conjunction with the Department of Conservation. Authored by Rob Davidson, Clinton Duffy, Peter Gaze, Andrew Baxter, Sam DuFresne, Channel Courtney and Peter Hamill the report outlines known information on areas with conservation, scientific or ecological value and describes the values of significant marine sites that support rare, unique or special features. The report can be found on the Marlborough District Councils web site‐Significant‐Marine‐
Sites.aspx 214 University of Auckland Biological Sciences: Chemistry: School of Environment: Marine Science: Statistics: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Professor Kendall Clements and his students continued research on the biology of triplefins and herbivorous fishes. Dr Rochelle Constantine continued her research into the biology of marine mammals in northern New Zealand. Dr Brendon Dunphy continues his work on ecophysiology and larval dispersal of marine invertebrates, with the effects of climate change on molluscs also being investigated via collaboration with members of the Cawthron Institute. Dr Shane Lavery (joint appointment with Marine Science) focusses on the application of molecular techniques to the understanding of theoretical and applied issues in ecology, evolution and biodiversity of marine fauna. Associate‐Professor Mary Sewell’s research continues in a wide variety of areas of marine invertebrate reproduction with research on Antarctic meroplankton, maternal investment in echinoderm eggs, reproduction in local species, and the impacts of climate change. Dr Mike Taylor’s group continues to study the microorganisms associated with marine host organisms such as sponges. A range of molecular and "traditional" (cultivation‐
based) techniques are employed to address questions relating to symbiont diversity, abundance and biogeography. New collaborations within NZ and overseas have allowed us to collect and analyse marine sponges from around the world and compare the microbial communities within them. CHEMISTRY Associate‐Professor Brent Copp continued studies investigating bioactive compounds isolated from New Zealand marine invertebrates. MARINE SCIENCE Associate‐Professor Mark Costello published papers that review and estimate how many marine species exist in Europe and how many of all species exist on Earth. He continued as Chair of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) Steering Committee, President of the International Association of Biological Oceanography (IABO) and member of the Executive Committee of the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR). He hosted a workshop on Advancing global biodiversity databases in Auckland, and convened sessions on the discovery of marine biodiversity at the World Conference on Marine Biodiversity 215 (Aberdeen) and Pacific Science Congress (Kuala Lumpur). Dr Neill Herbert continued his research on fish physiology and behaviour with particular application to aquaculture (e.g. growth performance) and environmental stressors (e.g. hypoxia). Associate‐Professor Andrew Jeffs (joint appointment with Biological Sciences) continued with research into lobster biology and aquaculture, as well as aspects of aquaculture of sea cucumbers, Greenshell mussels, paua and larval ecology of crabs, lobsters and fishes. Professor John Montgomery (joint appointment with Biological Sciences): In the past year we have progressed our interests in bioacoustics, flow sensing and fish behaviour. Dan Bassett published 3 papers from his PhD, on nocturnal feeding and lateral line function in reef fishes. Tim Sippel published some of his marlin results from his PhD in PLOS One. The collaboration with Craig Radford, Andrew Jeffs and Chris Tindle produced some nice modelling and experimental validation showing reef act as an extended sound sources, increasing the predicted range at which reef noise may be heard by fish larvae. Dr Alwyn Rees continued his research on nitrogen metabolism in marine algae. Dr Richard Taylor works on seaweed‐grazer interactions on subtidal rocky reefs, with a particular interest in the role of small crustaceans. STATISTICS Associate‐Professor Russell Millar continued his research in the areas of Bayesian inference, fisheries modeling, biodiversity, and biometry. RESEARCH FELLOWS Dr Natacha Aguilar Sound use for orientation by marine fauna: an ecosystem approach considering anthropogenic noise. Dr Agnes LePort Detecting spillover of snapper from marine reserves. Dr Xueiqang Lu Spiking sediments with heavy metals for use in ecological field experiments. Dr Craig Radford Are marine ecosystems structured by sounds? Dr Susanne Schmitt Sponge‐microbe interactions. Dr Nick Shears Rocky reef ecology. Dr Kazutaka Yanase Role of lateral line detection of boundary layer flow in fish swimmming efficiency. 216 University of Canterbury Prof. Bill Davison continues his involvement in Antarctic research and will be heading south for the 2011 season. Current New Zealand projects include FRST funded research on exercise and behaviour of snapper, vision in snapper, smoltification in salmon, respiratory physiology of sand divers and thermal physiology of black cod and thornfish. Dr Chris Glover is a Senior Lecturer in Animal Physiology, whose main interests in marine biology include: ionic and osmotic homeostasis in euryhaline animals; salinity‐
dependence of metal and organic pollutant toxicity; epithelial nutrient transport mechanisms; and impacts of environmental hypoxia on physiology of marine animals. Dr Sharyn Goldstien is a Lecturer in Marine Ecology and Evolution at the University of Canterbury. Sharyn uses molecular and biological data to investigate spatial connectivity of populations. The main focus of this work is on the role of dispersal and mating strategies in the expansion of native populations and transport of non‐indigenous species. Current projects in her lab include: Reproduction and phylogeography of the native ascidian Pyura pachydermatina (Jason Suwandy and Nikki Bleyendaal), spatial ecology and demography of deep sea snapper in the Pacific (Tuikolongohau Halafihi), and survival of biofouling species (Kate Schimanksi). Assoc. Prof. Colin McLay is an Adjunct Associate Professor in Biological Sciences. Current research at the Edward Percival Research Lab is on “the use of the enlarged major cheliped by Heterozius rotundifrons males: arm‐wrestling for gentlemen?” and “Calcification of gonopore opercula in Hemigrapsus sexdentatus females when they reach maturity”. The visit of Satoshi Wada, Hokkaido University, and two post‐grads in February, initiated work on the role of sexual selection in Pagurus spp hermit crabs. Cooperative Research Projects with carcinologists in Argentina and Singapore are “Reproductive biology of Neohelice granulata” with Maria Paz Sal Moyano, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes, Argentina and with Ngan Kee Ng and Peter Ng, National University of Singapore: “Revision of New Zealand species in the genus Hemigrapsus Dana, 1851”. Another on‐going cooperative project concerns the invasion of the coastal waters of Holland by Hemigrapsus takanoi, from Japan, and the decline of the native Carcinus maenas. Colin is also doing editorial work with Crustacean Research, Journal of Crustacean Biology, Crustaceana, Marine Biology, Journal of Comparative Zoology (Zoologischer Anzeiger) and Zootaxa. Assoc. Prof. Islay Marsden is continuing research on estuarine ecology, the physiological ecology of crustacean, bivalve aquaculture and ocean acidification effects. This research includes a comparison of the effects of temperature, salinity and aerial exposure on the growth and energetics of cockles and tuatuas. She is also working on the ecotoxicology of marine organisms from soft sediments and the effects of toxic algal blooms and trace metal contaminants on bivalve populations. She collaborates with others on projects involving restoration of salt marshes, sea grass beds and the effects of people and vehicles on surf beach shellfish beds. Since September 2010 she has been working on the effects of earthquake disturbances on seagrass and mudflat communities. She also working on the 217 effects of the earthquakes on bird feeding and roosting behaviour of estuarine birds with Ass Prof. Jim Briskie. Dr Esme Robinson is a FRST Post‐doctoral fellow working with Plant and Food Research and the University of Canterbury. Esme is continuing to investigate the visual physiology of commercially important fish species, with a particular focus on snapper (Pagrus auratus) and dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This work is part of a larger project, run by Plant and Food Research (Nelson), which aims to develop new trawl net technologies. MARINE ECOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP During 2011, staff and students of the Marine Ecology Research Group have been involved in monitoring and research following two major events in New Zealand: the RENA oil spill in the Bay of Plenty and the Feb and June 2011 earthquakes in Christchurch. Surveys to determine the long term impacts of the RENA oil spill are ongoing and two PhD students, one MSc student and staff are examining how the earthquakes are affecting the functioning of the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary. Within MERG, (Marine Ecology Research Group) there are four continuing programmes, headed by Professor David Schiel. Three of these are funded by the (now transformed) Foundation for Research, Science and Technology: 1) the rocky reef programme of the Coasts and Oceans OBI, in conjunction with the coastal programme of NIWA, 2) Recovery from eutrophication of a degraded estuary, in conjunction with the coastal dynamics group of NIWA 3) restoration of fish habitats, in the Aquatic Rehabilitation programme, in conjunction with the freshwater ecology group of NIWA. The other is a Marsden‐funded programme entitled “Above the boundary layer: scale‐dependent bio‐physical interactions in the dispersive phase of benthic marine algal propagules in turbulent coastal waters”, done in conjunction with the Hydrodynamics group of NIWA. Prof. David Schiel continues to oversee all research projects and contracts, supervises numerous post‐graduate students, and is co‐PI in all grants, while maintaining a full teaching load in marine ecosystems, coastal processes, and aquaculture. His own primary research involves effective and sustainable use of coastal and estuarine resources based on improved definition of their ecological services, ecological forecasting to define limits of resilience, species deletions and disturbances, and their effects on diversity and function. He is currently working on comparisons of diversity responses across ecosystems, and analysis of physical forcing on marine community structure around the coast of NZ. He has also continued his work with Prof Mike Foster of Moss Landing Marine Labs, USA, on long‐term trends in the dynamics of giant kelp forests. He plays an active role in all of the research programmes. Dr Mike Hickford (Research Associate) works within the Marine Ecology Research Group and is co‐PI on the MSI‐funded Aquatic Rehabilitation project. Mike has continued his work on improving the management of critical, stage‐specific, coastal habitats of native fish, and providing new management tools for sustainable use of the whitebait resource. He has had considerable success developing artificial spawning habitats for inanga (Galaxias maculatus) that can be used to enhance longer term rehabilitation efforts. Mike 218 works closely with end‐users, particularly the Department of Conservation, Environment Canterbury and the Christchurch City Council, to develop and apply rehabilitation techniques and management strategies. Inanga (whitebait) eggs within a straw bale at Gough’s Bay. The straw bales are used by Dr Mike Hickford to promote higher egg production in streams with degraded riparian vegetation. Photo: Mike Hickford Tommaso Alestra sampling intertidal communities at Wairepo Flats, Kaikoura. Paul South continues his work in running the field programmes in nearshore processes. He continues to be a stalwart in the rocky shore programme but also oversees the work done in the Avon Heathcote Estuary. He continues to be responsible for doing the regular, long‐term diversity surveys and implementing and monitoring field experiments at many coastal sites of the South Island and recently become a co‐investigator with Prof David Schiel in examining the long term impacts on the rocky and sandy shores of Bay of Plenty following the RENA oil spill in Oct 2011. 219 Stacie Lilley has been assisting Prof David Schiel and the students of the Marine Ecology Research Group with field work and data analysis. She helps out in the field with Paul South on long term monitoring and student field experiments and has worked prodigiously in getting databases up and running for large field experiments and works with Paul South, Prof David Schiel in examining the effects of the RENA oil spill on Bay of Plenty rocky and sandy ecosystems. Numerous student assistants have helped with various research projects during the year, including Summer Scholarship holders Glyn Stephens, Josh van Lier and Sarah Redlich. Genny Schiel and Allison Brownlee have been central in their work in the field and lab assisting Prof Schiel and students with their research. PhD students Sue Adkins is completing her research investigating sustainability and restoration of Canterbury shellfish beds (with Assoc. Prof Marsden and John Pirker). Tommaso Alestra Drivers of diversity, functional relationships of canopy‐structured communities. Tommaso spent 2011 doing a variety of field and lab experiments to look at the effects of multiple stressors on the diversity and productivity of intertidal assemblages. His supervisor is David Schiel. Stephen Brown Oyster enhancement. Stephen completed his PhD in examining the enhancement of oyster beds in Tasman Bay. He works full‐time at NIWA in Nelson and was supervised by Prof David Schiel. Davon Callander Heat shock responses of invertebrate to changing coastal climate. Davon spent the first part of 2011 completing her lab analysis of experiments examining the genetic responses of invertebrates to environmental stress. For the latter part of 2011 she was beginning the write up of her thesis at Oregon State University with her co‐supervisor Prof Bruce Menge. Rathishri Chandurvelan Ph.D. student evaluating the effects of cadmium in near‐coastal environments on native biota using a biomarker approach (Supervisors Chris Glover, Islay Marsden, Sally Gaw). Sarah Coxon: Exercise physiology of snapper (with Prof. Davison) Kristin Scheuer arrived from Germany mid 2011 to begin her PhD studies examining the role of macroalgae in the rehabilitation and recovery of the eutrophied Avon Heathcote Estuary. Kristin has been working on the long term dataset initiated by Neill Barr from NIWA examining nutrient sources for macroalgae within the estuary. Jen Skilton Role of bioturbators in estuarine rehabilitation and recovery. Jen continues her PhD work on the role of bioturbators in recovery of sediment health in the Avon‐
220 Heathcote Estuary, following the redirection of the cities treated wastewater and the earthquakes of 2011. Jen is supervised by David Schiel and John Zeldis (NIWA). Tristan Stringer is developing a harpacticoid copepod bioassay for monitoring estuarine sediment toxicity (Supervisors Louis Tremblay (Cawthron Institute), Vaughan Keesing (Boffa Miskell), Chris Glover). Gareth Taylor is investigating management options for the protection of shellfish resources along the Canterbury coastline (with Assoc. Prof Marsden) Mauricio Urbina is examining respiratory and ionoregulatory physiology of inanga (Galaxias maculatus) (Supervisors Chris Glover, Malcolm Forster). Masters students Charlotte Austin: thermal physiology of Antarctic fish (with Prof. Davison). Dean Harliwich is investigating octopus behaviour, particularly with respect to predator/prey cues via video playback (Supervisors Ximena Nelson, Chris Glover). Jessica Hill began her MSc research project in November 2011. Jess is working with Mike Hickford and the Aquatic Rehabilitation project to measure spawning migrations of inanga (Galaxias maculatus). Jess is using mark‐recapture techniques to track mature adults and gathering important population parameters for this key‐component of the whitebait catch. Shevelle Hutt spent 2011 examining the role of microalgae in the rehabilitation of the Avon Heathcote Estuary and the effects the earthquake had on the distribution and abundance of microalgae. Shevelle is supervised by Prof David Schiel and John Zeldis from NIWA. Jacqui Lee investigating the cellular mechanisms of salinity acclimation in the gills of inanga (Galaxias maculatus) (Supervisors Chris Glover, David Collings). Kusitino Mudunaivalu is studying shellfish resource management using examples from reserve and non reserve areas at Kaikoura and Canterbury (with Assoc. Prof Marsden) Hayden McFarland is investigating the effects of contaminants on trophic relationships of estuarine fish (with Assoc. Prof Marsden) Ashley Rabel: physiology of sand divers (with Prof. Davison) Emma Sommerville: smoltification and transportation physiology of salmon (with Prof. Davison). Juzah Zammit‐Ross is investigating bird behaviour associated with feeding and roosting in Canterbury estuaries (with Assoc. Prof Marsden) 221 The Edward Percival Field Station continues to be managed by Jack Van Berkel. In 2011 the Edward Percival Field Station hosted numerous University of Canterbury graduate and undergraduate field courses ranging from Intertidal Ecology to Coastal Geography. A significant number of Universities, schools and colleges use the field station as a base for coastal geography, biology and tourism studies as is reflected on the bookings list at: During 2011 Tommaso Alestra, Davon Callander, Ophelie Sagnol, Manuel Fernandes, Jenipher Cate, and Dean Harliwich all spent significant periods of time at the Kaikoura field station enabling them to conduct both field and lab experiments as part of their postgraduate research. The report documenting users throughout the 2011 year can be viewed at: The field station continues to attract a lot of overseas visitors including Dr. Tim Markowitz, Dr. Bernd Würsig, Dr. Jonathan Gordon, Dr. Christoph Richter, Dr Laureline Meynier, Prof Noel James, Dr Yvonne Bone, and associated students. Visiting NZ academics included Dr. Laura Boren and PhD students from other NZ universities. Research conducted by the Marine Ecology Research Group continued with Paul South, Stacie Lilley and assistants working on Professor David Schiel’s quarterly sampling and monitoring programme. 222 Tommaso Alestra and Paul South sampling the intertidal low shore at Lottin Point, East Cape. Jen Skilton (right) and helper sampling infauna and sediment layers with a deep core in the Avon‐
Heathcote Estuary following the 2011 earthquakes. “Safety is no accident!” 223 University of Canterbury ‐ Coastal Studies Group The Coastal Studies Group comprises a team of academic staff, affiliated consultants and adjuncts, and postgraduate students researching multidisciplinary understandings of coastal environments, including studies focussed on interactions between geomorphology, ecology, climate, and hydrodynamics; and resource and hazard management challenges. This team delivers a coastal curriculum consisting of core undergraduate and postgraduate coastal studies courses as well as related components in other courses and postgraduate thesis studies. • Dr Deirdre Hart lectures in coastal studies and researches high‐energy temperate and tropical coastal environments. Current research projects in New Zealand include investigations into ‘Christchurch’s Coastal Quakes’, and mixed sand and gravel lagoon dynamics while international projects include mudflat, tidal and algal bloom studies in southern Korea, and coastal management issues internationally. Deirdre is currently chair of the New Zealand Coastal Society. • Dr Christopher Gomez lectures in Earth‐System Sciences with an emphasis on high‐energy hazards in temperate and tropical environments. Present research investigates the geo‐spatial and modelling aspects of the tsunami in North Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011) and how volcanic eruptions can be considered as ‘coastal eruptions’ as well. Research along New Zealand coasts concentrate around the development of two electromagnetic methods (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility and Ground Penetrating Radar) and micro‐biomarkers for the characterization of tsunami deposits. • Professor Patrick Wassmer visited the Department of Geography Group during March and April 2012. Patrick is from Strasbourg University and the Sorbonne University LGP laboratory (France) and he is a specialist in sedimentology looking at the sedimentary signatures of tsunami, paleotsunami and their disappearance through bio‐chemical weathering. He has been conducting those investigation in New Zealand and tropical/sub‐tropical islands. • Justin Harrison (MSc UC), Field and Equipment Technician, actively provides technical and field support to coastal research and consultancy projects and contributes to undergraduate and graduate coastal teaching in the areas of sediment and water quality analysis, survey techniques and other field/laboratory methods. • Nicholas Key, Workshop Technician and Boat Master, actively provides field and workshop support to coastal research and consultancy projects and contributes to undergraduate and graduate coastal teaching on sediment analysis. 224 •
Paul Bealing, Geospatial Technician, actively provides field support to coastal research and consultancy projects and contributes to undergraduate and graduate coastal field work and research. Dr Martin Single, Senior Adjunct Fellow, continues to make teaching and supervision contributions in the areas of coastal processes and management while working on lake shore management and consulting on coastal processes and management. Justin Cope (MSc UC, PGDip NatRes Lincoln) is Senior Coastal and Fluvial Scientist at Environment Canterbury and Adjunct Fellow of the Department of Geography. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD • Zahid (PhD completed 2011) ‐ The influence of Asian monsoon variability on precipitation patterns over the Maldives. • Arash Eisazadeh Moghaddam (PhD project 2010‐) – Pocket beach hydrodynamic environments. • Gareth Taylor (PhD project 2010‐2012) ‐ Management of sand beaches for the protection of shellfish resources. • Claire Kain (PhD project 2011‐) ‐ Characterising paleotsunami: applying new analytical methods to obtain wave direction and flow velocity data from prehistoric tsunami sediments in New Zealand • Jennifer Dubois (PhD submitted 2012) ‐ The plausibility of a submarine landslide generated tsunami at Kaikoura Canyon. Masters • Josh Radford (MSc submitted 2012) ‐ Shelf‐to‐canyon sedimentation in the Hokitika‐Cook submarine canyon complex, central Westland, New Zealand. • Michael Steenson (MSc project 2011‐2012) ‐ Community engagement in coastal planning and management. • Sarah McSweeney (Honours completed 2011) Opihi River mouth closure and migration changes following construction of the Opuha Dam. • Dana Mulvany (MSc project 2012‐2013) – Coastal lagoons as indicators of catchment change: Hurunui rivermouth lagoon case study. • Emma Kelland (MSc project 2012‐2013) – Christchurch’s coastal earthquake effects. 225 Honours • Ashton Eaves (Honours project 2012) –Banks Peninsula mudflat states and dynamics, pre and post quakes. • Saskai Ball (Honours project 2012) ‐ Rakaia Rivermouth closure: understanding a rare event in the context of coastal and catchment processes. 226 University of Otago – Department of Marine Science Associate Professor Mike Barker has broad research interests in the reproduction and larval development of marine invertebrates and a particular interest in the culture of species used in aquaculture. Research projects in 2011 include reproduction and population structure in the fissiparous asteroid Allostichaster polyplax and respiration rates in echinoderms under the physiological stress of reduced pH and lowered salinity. Associate Professor Steve Dawson's research focuses on the conservation biology, ecology and bioacoustics of marine mammals. With Associate Professor Liz Slooten (Zoology Dept), he co‐ordinates long‐term research programmes on Hector's dolphins and bottlenose dolphins. The work on Hector's dolphins focuses on their conservation biology and ecology, and on assessing the effectiveness of protected areas. The bottlenose dolphin work is focused on trends in abundance and habitat utilisation in Doubtful Sound and Dusky Sound, in an effort to understand why the Doubtful Sound dolphins are declining. He collaborates internationally on issues in survey design, bycatch reduction, and acoustics. Dr Chris Hepburn's research seeks greater understanding of mechanisms that underpin the functioning of nearshore marine ecosystems for application in more effective management of fisheries, aquaculture and the environment. Current research focuses on how coastal ecosystems will change in the future as a result of anthropogenic forcers (exotic species, ocean acidification, eutrophication), providing stock and habitat information to support the management of customary fisheries (Mātaitai and Taiāpure) and in the development of integrated aquaculture approaches to maximise productivity and limit environmental impacts of aquaculture. A key aspect of this work is developing important linkages between researchers and the communities reliant on coastal ecosystems and providing science in a way that is accessible for use in processes surrounding the Resource Management and Fisheries Acts. Dr Miles Lamare’s research interests are in marine ecology, population biology, marine invertebrate biology, photobiology of marine species, and the ecology and physiology of marine invertebrate larval stages. This research includes an interest in Antarctic marine invertebrates and how their physiology differs from temperate and tropical species, and understanding how climate change (ocean acidification, changes in sea temperature and increases in UV‐B over the Antarctic) will affect marine invertebrate larval stages from polar regions. Associate Professor Keith Probert’s research mainly concerns the ecology of marine sediments, including the structure and function of benthic assemblages. He has continued collaborative work with colleagues at NIWA, including further studies on bathyal meio‐ and macrobenthos in relation to benthic‐pelagic coupling. Studies in conjunction with research students have mainly focused on biology and ecology of coastal species and habitats, environmental effects of human disturbances on coastal systems, and biodiversity of shelf and deep‐sea benthos. 227 Top: Masters student, Ellen Miller (right) and Candida Savage (left), Department of Marine Science, University of Otago, establishing coral explants of Acropora formosa and Pocillopora damicornis for a reciprocal transplant experiment in the Fiji Islands. Bottom: Experimental flow‐through system established at the School of Marine Studies, University of the South Pacific, Fiji, to study the effect of elevated nutrient availability on the coral, Porites cylindrica. The experiment was conducted by Masters student, Ellen Miller (left) and Candida Savage (right) of the Department of Marine Science, University of Otago. 228 Dr Candida Savage has research interests in marine ecology, with a particular focus on understanding how humans have changed ecosystem structure and functioning in temperate and tropical coastal habitats. Her research involves studies on how nutrient enrichment has impacted the ecology and biogeochemistry of estuaries and nearshore habitats. Candida collaborates with Simon Thrush and colleagues at NIWA, Conrad Pilditch (Waikato University) and Agnes Karlson (visiting research fellow) on aspects of estuarine ecology, nutrient enrichment and cycling. She has ongoing collaboration with Thomas Bianchi (Texas A&M University) on the use of biomarkers to assess organic matter cycling and historical changes in primary productivity in Fiordland and Mead Allison (University of Texas) to establish sedimentation rates in New Zealand’s fjords. Recent research has extended to the tropical Pacific to investigate how nutrient enrichment affects coral reef ecosystems in terms of benthic community structure, nutrient assimilation in endosymbionts and photosynthetic performance of corals. Close‐up of a Porites cylindrica colony used in a laboratory experiment to investigate the influence of nutrient enrichment on coral physiology. The coral colonies were kindly donated by Victor Bonito and the community‐based Votua Village coral gardening project, Korolevu, Fiji. Photo by Candida Savage. Associate Professor Abigail Smith continues her research into shelf carbonate sediments with particular reference to carbonate mineralogy and calcification. A major project focuses on in situ measurements of carbonate dissolution at the sediment‐seawater interface. She investigates skeletal carbonate geochemistry and its relevance to changes in seawater chemistry, ocean acidification, and paleoenvironment, as well as carbonate production and growth by cool‐water invertebrates. Abby teaches and supervises students working on topics in carbonate sedimentology, temperate reefs, and coastal management. Abby is currently Treasurer of the International Bryozoology Association and Chair of the Otago Conservation Board. Dr Ross Vennell continues his research in physical coastal oceanography. He is working with graduate students focusing on secondary flow in tidal channels and near headlands, 229 as well as estuarine flow. Along with a PhD student he is doing theoretical work on the generation of long period waves generated by storms cross the shelf and coast. He is also developing simple theoretical models to answer the question of how the power production of tidal turbine farms increases as turbine numbers grow. A PhD student is developing complex numerical models to answer this same question. Professor Gary Wilson’s interests lie broadly in Marine Geology and Geophysics and he maintains laboratory facilities at Otago for physical properties and paleomagnetism of sediment cores. Current research programmes focus on determining Cenozoic to recent global environmental change recorded in marine sediments. Work on climate and ocean change focuses on Antarctica as part of the broader multinational ANDRILL programme and the Subantarctic, Fiordland and southern New Zealand supported by the University’s Research Vessel Polaris II and through collaboration with NIWA. He is the University point of contact for the International Ocean Drilling Programme, the Joint Antarctic Research Institute, the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering and the Otago, Auckland and Wellington univesities joint platform for advanced teaching and postgradaute research in marine sciences. He is also collaborating with GNS Science and Victoria University on land based research initiatives around climate and ocean science. Associate Professor Steve Wing is an empirical marine ecologist with a research emphasis on understanding food web structure and metapopulation dynamics within coastal marine communities. Together these processes underpin persistence and stability of biological communities making their study directly relevant to conservation and management of marine resources. His research group focuses on biogeochemical cycling in the New Zealand fjords, sub‐Antarctic Islands and Antarctica to resolve how diversity of basal organic matter sources and changes to food web structure through species loss influence productivity and resource use by higher trophic level groups such as rock lobsters, reef fish, marine mammals and sea birds. These studies are supported by environmental chemistry techniques including stable isotope analysis, trace element analysis and compound specific isotopic analysis of fatty acid biomarkers. Studies are also carried out on population structure and metapopulation dynamics of fish and invertebrates in these environments employing both trace elemental analysis of fish otoliths and skeletal material of crustaceans. Results from these studies have been used to support management decision making in Fiordland leading to the Fiordland Marine Management Act, and he has an active programme monitoring biological and physical changes across Fiordland in the new network of marine reserves and marine protected areas. Outside of Fiordland Steve has active research projects in Antarctica, the sub‐
Antarctic islands, and in coastal Otago linked with Māori customary management of fisheries. Dr Daniel Leduc is conducting a 3‐year FRST‐funded postdoctoral research project due to be finished in December 2012, and is currently based at NIWA Wellington. Daniel is investigating the relationship between environmental parameters and nematode diversity in deep‐sea habitats of New Zealand and beyond. He is also conducting manipulative experiments testing the effect of physical disturbance on deep‐sea benthic diversity and function. More research is also being conducted on the taxonomy of marine nematodes from the Chatham Rise, Challenger Plateau, and Kaikoura Canyon. Collaborators: Keith 230 Probert, Otago University; Scott Nodder and Ashley Rowden, NIWA; Conrad Pilditch, Waikato University; Ann Vanreusel, Ghent University. A species of Metadasynemella collected from the Chatham Rise crest at 400 m water depth inside the phosphorite nodule area where this nematode is reasonably common. The specimen, a male, measures about 700 microns in length. Photo by Daniel Leduc. Dr Will Rayment is in the third year of a FRST‐funded postdoctoral fellowship studying recovery and recolonisation by New Zealand southern right whales. Thus far Will has led two multidisciplinary winter expeditions to the Auckland Islands gathering photo‐ID and species‐habitat data. The photo‐ID data have been used to develop mark‐recapture models to estimate demographic parameters of right whales and the results have been presented at conferences in New Zealand and the USA. The species‐habitat data are being used to generate predictions of habitats around the NZ mainland likely to be recolonised by an expanding right whale population. A third expedition is planned for winter 2012. The Department has two Honorary or Adjunct academic staff: Dr Katrin Berkenbusch (benthic ecology) and Dr Chris Lalas (pinniped biology). Dr Jean McKinnon as Teaching Fellow assists in particular with the undergraduate programme. General staff on main campus are Daryl Coup (computer support), Chris Fitzpatrick (Departmental Administrator), Muriel Brisard‐Smith (PA to Professor Wilson), and Lynn Paterson (reception and secretarial support). Paul Meredith coordinates field activities in remote locations including Fiordland. Bill Dickson, the Vessel Master, operates RV Polaris II, with Phil Heseltine as crewperson. 231 PORTOBELLO MARINE LABORATORY Bev Dickson, Laboratory Manager, co‐ordinates the day‐to‐day activities of the Laboratory, including allocation of space and resources and ensuring activities at the Laboratory are compliant with statutory regulations. Dr Katrin Berkenbusch stepped in as a Scientific officer for seven months to undertake the duties of the Laboratory Manager while Bev was on leave. Bob Dagg, Scientific Officer/Physical Marine Technical Specialist, is responsible for co‐ordinating vessels and equipment bookings and managing the collection of data from vessels and field activities. Yangtian (Albie) Zhou, Laboratory Technician, attends to operations in the communal laboratories including chemical ordering, chemical inventory and HSNO regulations. Albie fulfills a second role as the Resident Night Supervisor, ensuring continuous operation of the seawater system and maintains security of the site after hours. René van Baalen, Field Technician/Skipper, oversees local field activities including small boat operations, skippering the Beryl Brewin and diving operations of the Department. Dave Wilson, Workshop Technician, undertakes construction and repairs of research equipment and maintains the seawater system. Reuben Pooley joined the Marine Laboratory staff in March and, in his role as Aquatic Systems Technician, is responsible for setting up experimental systems, holding tanks and maintaining algal stock cultures and algal culturing facilities. NEW ZEALAND MARINE STUDIES CENTRE As the public face of the Department of Marine Science, the New Zealand Marine Studies Centre (NZMSC), incorporating the Westpac Aquarium, is open to the public daily and is committed to fostering understanding and appreciation of New Zealand’s unique marine environment and responsibility towards its conservation through community engagement and education. Sally Carson is the Programme Director of the NZMSC and Tessa Mills is the Manager. The NZMSC runs several community programmes: • School programmes for early childhood to senior secondary school students • Gifted and Talented multi‐day programmes for students from southern secondary and primary schools • Off‐site programmes for schools in the Nelson/Marlborough/Tasman district • Educational resources and professional development for teachers • Traveling exhibits and workshops for special interest groups • Westpac Aquarium ‐ live displays, interactive exhibits and knowledgeable staff. In 2011, activities of the NZMSC reached over 31,084 people comprising: • 18,327 casual visitors to the NZMSC and Aquarium (36% Dunedin residents, 37% other NZ residents, 27% international visitors) • 6450 school students and teachers attending curriculum‐linked educational programmes at the NZMSC from over 102 schools • 2485 people participating in group marine experiences, tours and workshops at the NZMSC 232 •
3720 school students and teachers from 53 schools as part of the outreach programmes in Nelson / Marlborough / Tasman district. 102 people attending offsite programmes in the Otago region •
The schools programmes are lead by Steve Cutler and Victoria Rosin and supported through a Ministry of Education LEOTC contract and programme fees. A survey of 280 primary and secondary teachers from 166 schools identified the major strengths of the NZMSC programmes as access to expert knowledge in science, live marine animals and access to natural habitats, and the hands‐on nature of the programme. Also identified as significant at secondary level were support for secondary‐tertiary transition and professional development for teachers. The Centre maintained its Enviro‐Gold status in the Qualmark tourism standards in 2011. Curator, Adelle O’Neil, maintains a large diversity of southern NZ species on display in the Aquarium and a visit from a fish health expert , Dr Mark Geach, has led to improved fish health practices. The Aquarium and the associated special events encouraged over 80 media articles and advertisements about the facilities and programmes during 2011. Community events were run during each school holiday period and thousands of people attended events run in conjunction with Seaweek, Conservation Week, Port Chalmers Seafood Festival and other local festivals and event. Unfortunately the Touch the Sea Aquarium in Mapua burned down in September, leaving our Nelson educator, Richard de Hamel, without a home base. Despite this set back, the education programme has continued with use of the Steadfast Sailing Boat, Picton Aquarium, Mistletoe Bay Education Centre, local shorelines and joint programmes are underway with Cawthron Institute and Nelson/Marlborough Institute of Technology. Lorraine Drew is now the secretary for the entire Portobello site and Shantelle Jackson has joined the staff as receptionist for the site. The NZMSC hosted numerous volunteers throughout the year. VISITORS Dr Daniel Baker, Dr Anthony Hickey, Fathima Iftikar and Julia McDonald, University of Auckland: thermal limits of cardiac and mitochondrial function in the banded wrasse Notolabrus fucicola. Associate Professor M M Daly and Paul Gregory Larson, Ohio State University: research on Epiactis species. Dr Mark Geach, Veterinary Director, ZOOLIFE® Inc: fish health. Dr Agnes Karlson, Stockholm University, Sweden: biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in benthic ecosystems. Dr Felix Mark and Anneli Strobel, Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany: acclimatory capacities of the nototheniid Notothenia angustata. 233 Dr Andrea Waeschenbach, Natural History Museum, London: bryozoan genetics. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Philippa Agnew: Foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and population growth in an increasing population of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) at Oamaru, New Zealand. Khalid Mohammed Abdallah Alqaisi: Identification and isolation of steroidogenic enzymes and steroid receptors in New Zealand starfish species. Cerys Bailey: Estuarine circulation physics. Nicola Beer: Conservation of marine resources in Fiordland. Claire Cohen: Dynamics of the Otago Harbour ebb‐tidal jet and its associated dipole. Joanna Cooper: Investigating water mass mixing across the Subtropical Front using seismic oceanography Christopher Cornwall: Effects of macroalagae as ecosystem engineers and implications for ocean acidification. Victor Cubillos Monras: Effect of UV‐R on New Zealand intertidal species. Gemma Dickson: Marine decomposition and bacterial succession as a forensic indicator of postmortem submersion interval Tim Divett: Arrays of tidal‐stream electricity turbines in turbulent tidal flow. Pamela Fernandez Subiabre: Physiological parameters related to incorporation of nitrate and carbon fixation in Macrocystis pyrifera kelp and other seaweeds with economic interest, under different environmental conditions Bethany Fox: The climate of New Zealand during the late Oligocene and early Miocene Kendall Gadomski: Effects of reduced ocean pH on sea urchin development from fertilization through early adult stages. Stefan Goerlitz: Ecology and biology of Abarenicola affinis. Shaun Henderson: Population declines of the Doubtful Sound bottlenose dolphins. Fiona Higgins: Biology of the midget octopus Octopus huttoni. Uwe Kaulfuss: Lithofacies succession of maar crater deposits in the Middlemarch area, Otago, New Zealand Kathryn Lister: Oxidative stress in Antarctic and non‐Antarcic marine invertebrates 234 Nathan McNally: Survival, recruitment and breeding behaviour of male Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hooken, at Enderby Island, Auckland Islands Elanor Miller: Hector’s dolphin diet and habitat selection. Moina Muller: Anatomical‐biomolecular study of Hector's dolphin. Sourav Paul: Ecophysiology of estuarine mysids. Danilo Pecorino: Population biology of the New Zealand sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii. Craig Purdie: The freezing of land‐fast ice during the Antarctic winter. Natalie Robinson: Seasonal variation in ocean density stratification beneath Antarctic sea ice. David Rundgren: Population ecology of bottlenose dolphins in Fiordland. Peter Russell: Secondary circulation generated by headlands. Susanne Schuller: Mechanisms controlling sedimentation and preservation of phytoplankton from the water column into the sediment in Fiordland. Olga Shatova: Food web structure and function of sub‐Antarctic Island systems. Robert Smith: Meanders, plumes and mixing in the subtropical front. Tiffany Stephens: Consumptive and non‐consumptive roles of apex consumers and relation to food web connectivity strength. Rocio Suarez Jimenez,: Ecology of the invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Severin Theibaut: Formation and development of large headland eddies. Trudi Webster: Southern right whale acoustics, repertoire, behaviour and the effects of noise pollution. Anna Wood: Habitat complexity and biodiversity of frame‐building bryozoans. MSc Matthew Baird: Physiological and metabolic comparisons between the temperate brachiopod Liothyrella neozelanica and the Antarctic brachiopod Liothyrella uva. Hamish Bowman: Flow dynamics over the Doubtful Sound entrance sill. Megan Bosch: Effects of temperature‐induced viscosity changes on current generation in sea urchin larvae. 235 Brough, Tom: Bottlenose dolphins – Doubtful Sound. Christine Davis: Bugula flabellata: life as a marine fouler. Rochelle Dewdney: Biological effects of UV radiation on marine macroalgae of the southern New Zealand region. Tasman Gillies: Physiology of reproduction in the blackfoot pāua Haliotis iris Gaya Gnanalingam: Reproductive potential of paua, Haliotis iris and models for sustainable customary harvesting. Maria Gonzalez Bernat: Ocean acidification and its potential effects on the early life‐
history of non‐calcifying and calcifying echinoderm (Echinodermata) larvae. Marta Guerra Bobo: Conservation of bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound. Rory Kyle: Identifying the role of predatory starfish in coastal paua fisheries. Michelle Liddy: Visualization of a photolyase expression pattern in sea urchin larvae. Robert Major: The development and trial of a method for surveying deep rock wall communities in Doubtful Sound using a Remote Operated Vechicle (ROV). Patricia Mockett: Connectivity among sand flounder (Rhombosolea plebeia) and lemon sole (Pelotretis flavilatus) populations in Otago and Foveaux Strait, New Zealand. Marc Riedi: Carbonate production and solubility of southern New Zealand serpulids Gaylene Somerville: Population modeling and fisheries management of blackfoot pāua Peri Subritzky: Identifying juvenile black‐footed paua (Haliotis iris) nursery habitat and associated ecology. 236 Victoria University of Wellington School of Biological Sciences: Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory: THE SCHOOL OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND VICTORIA UNIVERSITY COASTAL ECOLOGY LABORATORY In 2010, the Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory (VUCEL) continued to support the research activities of ~35 postgraduate students, resident and visiting academic researchers, and several field courses. DR. JAMES J. BELL The work of my group falls within 3 inter‐related areas; marine conservation (particularly Marine Protected Area ecology, invasive species ecology, and habitat degradation), population connectivity and sponge ecology. I am particularly interested in examining the effectives of MPAs, designing suitable monitoring and mapping programmes, socio‐
economic impacts of MPAs, designing MPA networks and trophic interactions within MPAs. My connectivity work utilises population genetics to understand linkages between populations and to determine how far larvae travel and identify larval sources; this work feeds directly into my work on marine conservation. Finally, our work on sponges is concerned with understanding temporal and spatial variability in sponge assemblages and their functional roles in marine systems. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Abigail Powell The effect of environmental degradation and climate change of coral‐sponge interactions Ingrid Knapp The ecology sponges at Palmyra Atoll. Urusla Rosar Economic impacts of marine reserve designation Daniela Diaz Effectiveness of Marine Reserves in NZ Tim Jones Designing accurate and effective means of monitoring marine ecosystems. Cesar Cardenas Interactions between sponges and algae. 237 Lauren Fletcher Larval dispersal ecology of ascidians Simona Boschetti Coral recruitment and connectivity Recently completed students: MSc Luke Thomas Populations genetics of Jasus edwardsii PhD Pelayo Salinas Connectivity in coastal marine ecosystems Alejandra Perea Blasquez Functional diversity of subtidal ecosystems. Jade Berman Inter‐ocean variability in sponge assemblages Celine Reisser Speciation, connectivity and self‐recruitment among mollusc populations from isolated Oceanic Islands Tyler Eddy Marine Reserves as Conservation and management tools [James also co‐supervised: Heather Constable, Danielle Hannan and Catarine Silvia with Dr. Pete Ritchie, Dr. Joe Zuccarello and Prof. Jonathan Gardener; Sandra Doherty, Celine Reisser, Jamie Tam and Danelle Lekan with Prof. Jonathan Gardner.] ASSOC. PROF. SIMON DAVY In 2011, A/Prof. Simon Davy continued his research on cnidarian‐dinoflagellate symbiosis and coral reef ecology, as well as sponge physiology and ecology. Simon continued his Marsden‐funded research on the role of antioxidants and other photo‐protective mechanisms in coral bleaching physiology, with the assistance of postdoctoral fellow Dr. Paul Fisher and collaborators Prof. Ove Hoegh‐Guldberg, Dr. Sophie Dove (both University of Queensland) and Dr. Bill Leggat (James Cook University). Simon also collaborated with Prof. Virginia Weis (Oregon State University), Prof. Denis Allemand (Centre Scientifique de Monaco), Dr. Willie Wilson (Bigelow Marine Lab), Dr. Greta Aeby (University of Hawaii) and Dr. Rosanne Quinnell (University of Sydney). He participated in 238 an international workshop on the biology and conservation of deep‐sea corals, at the invitation of Dr. Di Tracey (NIWA), and organised, and edited the conference proceedings for, a major mini‐symposium on the functional biology of corals for the upcoming 12th International Coral Reef Symposium. VISITORS Dr. Xavier Pochon, who has recently moved from the University of Hawaii to the Cawthron Institute, visited in early 2012 to discuss potential collaborative projects. Dr. Candida Savage (Otago University) visited in early 2012 to collaborate on project that is investigating the interactions between nutrient stress and coral bleaching susceptibility. POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS Dr. Paul Fisher, funded by a Marsden grant, continued to study the role of antioxidants in determining the susceptibility of reef corals to thermal bleaching. Dr. Camille Paxton, funded by NSF and based at Oregon State University, is studying the cell‐death pathways involved in coral bleaching. She will visit VUW for 2 months in mid‐
2012. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Dan Logan Dan continued his research, funded by a VUW Scholarship, on host‐symbiont recognition in cnidarian‐dinoflagellate symbiosis. Emily Dicks Emily continued her research, funded by a Commonwealth Scholarship, on the evasion of host immune responses by symbiotic algae. Dorota Starzak Dorota continued her PhD, funded by a VUW Scholarship, on the dynamics and physiology of coral bleaching recovery, and proteomic analysis of the host‐symbiont membrane interface. Anne Wietheger Anne continued her PhD, funded by a VUW Scholarship, on the role of antioxidants in coral bleaching resistance. Mareike Sudek Mareike continued her PhD, funded by a VUW Scholarship, on coral disease in the Central Pacific. She is currently visiting the University of Hawaii for several months where she is working alongside her co‐supervisor Dr. Greta Aeby. 239 Scott Lawrence Scott continued his PhD, funded by a TEC Top Achiever Doctoral Scholarship, on the characterisation of coral viruses. Scott spent 4 months at the Bigelow Lab in Maine, where he worked with his co‐supervisor Dr. Willie Wilson. Sonia Rowley Sonia continued her PhD, funded by a VUW PhD Scholarship, on the ecology of Indo‐
Pacific gorgonians. Sonia spent time conducting fieldwork in Indonesia and visit the lab of her co‐supervisor Prof. Les Watling at the University of Hawaii. Thomas Hawkins Tom continued his PhD, funded by a Commonwealth Scholarship, on the role of nitric oxide as a cellular signal in coral bleaching. Tom spent 6 weeks on Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef in early 2012. Thomas Krueger Thomas continued his PhD, funded by a Marsden grant, on the role of antioxidants in coral bleaching susceptibility. Thomas spent 6 weeks on Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef in early 2012. He also visited the lab of Dr. Bill Leggat at James Cook University, to develop novel methods for the study of antioxidant genes in corals. Stefanie Pontasch Stefanie continued her PhD, funded by a Marsden grant, on photo‐protective mechanisms in corals of Lord Howe Island. Stefanie completed 4 research visits to Lord Howe Island and attended a photo‐physiology workshop in Mexico in 2011/early 2012. Emma Gibbin Emma continued her PhD, funded by a Commonwealth Scholarship, on the impacts of acidosis on the photo‐physiology of symbiotic dinoflagellates. Shaun Wilkinson Shaun continued his PhD, funded by a Vice Chancellor’s Strategic Research Scholarship, on bleaching susceptibility in high latitude corals. He completed three field trip to Lord Howe Island in 2011/early 2012. Katie Hillyer Katie recently began her PhD, funded by a VUW PhD Scholarship, on metabolite fluxes in cnidarian‐dinoflagellate symbiosis. [Simon co‐supervises the VUW PhD students Meghana Rajanahally with Dr. Ken Ryan (Antarctic sea—ice algae), and Alejandra Perea Blasquez (recently completed), Jade Berman (recently completed) and Cesar Cardenas with Dr. James Bell (the physiology and ecology of sponges). Simon also co‐supervises the University of Queensland PhD student Matthew Nitschke and University of Auckland PhD student Sonny Lee]. 240 MSc Michael Cowlin Mike completed his MSc on the role of symbiotic algae in the osmoregulation of symbiotic cnidarians. William Arlidge Will completed his MSc on the diversity and community structure of coral viruses. In addition, Will spent much of the year travelling the world on a Rolex dive scholarship. Jennifer Howe Jennifer continued her MSc, funded by a VUW Graduate Scholarship, on biogeography and physiology of NZ’s symbiotic dinoflagellates. Sophie Hill Sophie began her MSc, funded by a VUW Graduate Scholarship, on metabolite fluxes in cnidarian‐dinoflagellate symbiosis. Sophie will be co‐supervised by Dr. Xavier Pochon of the Cawthron Institute. Benjamin Bradley Ben began his MSc, funded by a VUW Graduate Scholarship, on the interplay between nutrient supply and coral bleaching susceptibility; this will be a collaborative project with Dr. Candida Savage of Otago University. DR. NICOLE PHILLIPS Dr. Phillips continued her research on the population and community ecology of benthic marine organisms with a particular focus on the ecology of reproduction and early life‐
history stages of marine invertebrates. Research in 2011 focused on a collaboration with Dr. Amy Moran (Clemson University, USA) on oxygen physiology in benthic intertidal egg masses and effects of environmental stressors on embryos and larvae. In 2011, Nicole also received a Teaching Excellence Award from VUW. POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW Dr. Sonja Miller Responses of paua and kina to sedimentation across different life‐history stages, funded by a FRST post‐doctoral fellowship POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Bionda Morelissen Ecological effects of the invasive macroalga Undaria pinnatifida and the role of nutrients in low intertidal algal communities 241 Sergio Carrasco Offspring size, offspring quality and lipids utilization during early life stages of whelks Mauricio Cifuentes Processes mediating succession in fouling communities Agnes Rouchon Effects of metals and other constituents of run‐off on early life stages of marine invertebrates MSc Laura Bunning Factors influencing growth in farmed Haliotis iris Jeannine Fischer Effects of environmental stressors on the development of molluscs with mixed developmental strategies [Nicole also supervises Fernanda Piraud with Ken Ryan] ASSOC. PROF. KEN RYAN The focus of my recent research has been on growth and productivity of Antarctic marine algae and bacteria in response to changing environmental conditions. These studies have involved the use of high‐tech oxygen microelectrodes and PAM fluorometers, to measure in situ the primary productivity of sea ice algae that grow on the underside of Antarctic sea ice. Our team is also interested in the presence of novel bacteria in sea ice that utilize light to fuel cellular processes. A recent success has been the first demonstration of bacteria with the proteorhodopsin gene in sea ice samples. Recently completed PhD students Eileen Koh 2011 Phototrophic bacteria in Antarctic sea ice Rebecca Cowie 2011 Microbial diversity in Antarctic sea ice bacteria. Current PhD Meghana Rajanhally Physiological studies on Antarctic sea ice algae Lisa Bryant Amphipod phylogenetics in the Ross Sea 242 Fernanda Piraud Effects of UVB on an invasive seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida Francesca Vermeulen The role of silica and carbon in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice algal metabolism Christine Bylenga The effects of ocean acidification on Antarctic molluscs Current MSc David Barr Physiological studies on phototrophic bacteria in Antarctic sea ice. Ken also co supervises Thomas Hawkins with Simon Davy, and has other students in non‐
marine disciplines. ASSOC. PROF. JEFF SHIMA In 2011, Dr Jeff Shima continued in his role as the Director of the Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory. Jeff also continued his active research programmes focused on (1) dispersal and connectivity in reef fish metapopulations (funded by a Marsden grant), and (2) the effects of vermetid gastropods on coral reef ecosystems (funded by the US National Science Foundation).. VISITORS Dr Stephen Swearer (University of Melbourne) visited the Victoria University Coastal Ecology Laboratory (VUCEL) in 2011 to collaborate on a Marsden funded research project with Jeff Shima. POSTDOCTORAL FELLOWS Dr Shane Geange Continued a FRST‐funded postdoctoral fellowship to examine the potential effects of commercial harvest of Macrocystis on rocky reef communities. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Philipp Neubauer Completed his thesis on natal “environmental fingerprints” recorded within the otoliths of the common triplefin, Forsterygion lapillum Paul Mensink Continued his thesis research on the effects of macroalgae on the population dynamics of the common triplefin, Forsterygion lapillum. 243 Keith Michael Began his thesis research on the drivers of fisheries production in Foveaux Strait oysters. MSc Jenny Oliver Continued her thesis research on the ecology and behaviour of Notolabrus celidotus. ASSOC. PROF. JOE ZUCCARELLO Dr. Zuccarello continued his research on the molecular evolution of algae. Principal projects were: Population genetics of NZ seaweeds; phylogenetics of algae world‐wide; asexuality in algae. POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS PhD Narongrit Muangmai: Speciation in the red alga Bostrychia MSc Laura Sanchez: Phylogeography of Bpostrychia tenella complex Sayani Ghosh: Expression of alginate synthesis genes Maran Preuss: New Red Algal parasites of New Zealand 244 Waikato Regional Council Coastal monitoring and investigations Waikato Regional Council continued its Regional Estuary Monitoring Programme (REMP). The April 2011 sampling completed ten years of monitoring benthic macrofauna and sediment properties in Raglan Harbour and the southern Firth of Thames. The analysis of the ten year dataset is currently underway and results will be published in a trend report. In June 2011 Waikato Regional Council completed a 12 months investigation of the water quality in Whitianga Harbour. Water quality was assessed every two months as well as after large rain events. On average the ecological health of Whitianga Harbour was primarily excellent (56%) but particularly high nitrate concentrations resulted in an unsatisfactory ecological health status of 14% (average of all parameters and sampling events). Water quality for swimming was excellent 66%, satisfactory 29% and unsatisfactory 5% of the time. Faecal coliform concentrations revealed that water quality for shellfish gathering was unsatisfactory during more than three quarters of sampling events. The programme of mapping and reporting on the extent and quality of estuarine vegetation in the Region’s estuaries (extent of coastal habitats monitoring) continued in 2011 with the completion of surveys on the West Coast including Raglan, Aotea and Port Waikato. Three‐monthly beach erosion profiling around the Coromandel east coast continued. Bathymetric survey of nearshore Whangamata to improve the DTM (Digital Terrain Model) for council’s Whangamata numerical hydrodynamic model have been completed. The 2D model is being calibrated and investigations into sediment transport mechanisms on intertidal flats and mangrove areas have been carried out. Monitoring surveys of surf break (ebb tidal delta) are ongoing. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models have been set up for Tairua Harbour to investigate sediment and contaminant transport within the estuary, including implications of the marina development on estuarine hydrodynamics. Ongoing collaboration progressed with NIWA to develop the Appletree Transect, Firth of Thames, as a long term research site dedicated to investigating the physical dynamics affecting mangrove forest expansion and sedimentation in the southern Firth of Thames. Work completed in 2011 includes ongoing GPS subsidence monitoring, SET measurements, installation of instrument packages measuring climate, hydrological, and biological parameters within the forest, plus construction of access improvements to the site. Tsunami inundation modelling of vulnerable communities located on the Coromandel east coast continued. Modelling for Tairua‐Pauanui and Whangamata planned over the 245 next 12 ‐18 months will use NOAA’s MOST and ComMIT software. This will provide input into Civil Defence emergency and land use planning strategies. Aquaculture The Government’s 2011 aquaculture reforms amended the Waikato Regional Coastal Plan, allowing applications to be made to farm a wider range of species, including finfish. Since 2007 Waikato Regional Council has investigated potential environmental effects of finfish farming in the Waikato region. In order to obtain more information on potential marine biosecurity risks, Waikato Regional Council commissioned Cawthron Institute in 2011 to prepare a report on the marine biosecurity risks from finfish aquaculture development in the Waikato region. Waikato Regional Council has commenced working on an aquaculture monitoring strategy to ensure that the environmental effects of future finfish farms will be well managed. Marine management model Waikato Regional Council has commenced the development of a Marine Management Model for the entire eastern Waikato coastal marine area (covering the Firth of Thames, Hauraki Gulf and Coromandel east coast) that, once completed, will provide for a wide range of model applications designed to address specific resource management aspects. The Marine Management Model and all its components will be made available to the public. The basis of the Marine Management Model is a three‐dimensional (3D) numerical hydrodynamic model. The development and validation of the hydrodynamic model is the main focus of Stage One of the model development. The Stage One model development has been commissioned to Cawthron Institute and MetOcean Solutions and is planned to be completed by late 2012. Validation within Stage One will focus on the Waikato region from the southern Firth of Thames to the top of the Coromandel Peninsula. Stage One of the Marine Management Model includes a model simulating environmental effects of marine farms (aquaculture effects model), which will support the effective environmental management of aquaculture in the Waikato region. The model will simulate the deposition of mussel and finfish farm waste on the seafloor (farm footprints), the dispersal of parasites, diseases, nitrogen and therapeutants released at the farm sites. The Marine Management Model will be of interest to other organisations and individuals working in the coastal marine area. Waikato Regional Council are interested in hearing from prospective partners and users of the model. Waikato Regional Council coastal team Catherine Beard _‐ Coastal Wetland Ecologist Hilke Giles – Coastal Scientist Nathan Singleton ‐ Coastal Ecology Environmental Officer Vernon Pickett – Coastal Earth Scientist 246 Recent Publications 247 Cawthron Institute Note: Cawthron produces many client reports across a year. For space reasons these have not been itemised in this list. Allen C, Doehring K et al. (2011). Ōhau Loop Phase 1: Existing status and recommendations for improvement. Manaaki Taha Moana Research Report No. 5. Cawthron Report No. 2041. Nelson. Cahill, P., Heasman, K., Jeffs, A., & Mountfort, D. (2011). The development of an antifoulant for use in bivalve aquaculture based on the inhibition of metamorphosis in ascidian larvae by selected allelochemicals. Journal of Shellfish Research, 30(2), 490‐490. Cornelisen CD, P Gillespie, M Kirs, R Young, R Forrest, P Barter, B Knight, VJ Harwood. (2011). Motueka river plume facilitates transport of ruminant faecal contaminants into shellfish growing waters, Tasman Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 45:477‐495 Cornelisen, C. D., Gillespie, P. A., Kirs, M., Young, R. G., Forrest, R. W., Barter, P. J., et al. (2011). Motueka River plume facilitates transport of ruminant faecal contaminants into shellfish growing waters, Tasman Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 45(3), 477‐495. Fenemor AD, Phillips C, Allen WJ, Young RG,Harmsworth GR, Bowden WB, Basher L, Gillespie PA, Kilvington M, Davies‐Colley RJ, Dymond J, Cole A, Lauder G, Davie T, Smith RA, Markham S, Deans NA, Atkinson M, Collins A (2011) Integrated catchment management interweaving social process and science knowledge. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 313 ‐ 331. Fletcher LM and Forrest BM (2011) Induced spawning and culture techniques for the invasive ascidian Didemnum vexillum (Kott, 2002). Aquatic Invasions 6: 457‐464. Gillespie PA, Forrest RW, Knight BR, Cornelisen CC, Young RG (2011b) Variation in nutrient loading from the Motueka River into Tasman Bay, New Zealand, 2005 ‐ 2009: implications for the river plume ecosystem. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 497 ‐ 512. Gillespie PA, Forrest RW, Peake BM, Basher LR, Clement DM, Dunmore R, Hicks DM (2011a) Spatial delineation of the depositional footprint of the Motueka River outwelling plume in Tasman Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand. Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 45: 455 ‐ 475. Heasman K, Keeley N et al. (2012). Factors Affecting Populations of Toheroa (Paphies ventricosa): A Literature Review. Manaaki Taha Moana Research Report No. 10. Cawthron Report No. 1997. Nelson. 248 Hellyer, S. D., Selwood, A. I., Rhodes, L., & Kerr, D. S. (2011). Marine algal pinnatoxins E and F cause neuromuscular block in an in vitro hemidiaphragm preparation. Toxicon, 58(8), 693‐699. Hopkins GA, Forrest BM, Jiang W, Gardner JPA (2011) Successful eradication of a non‐
indigenous marine bivalve from a subtidal soft sediment environment. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 424‐431. Hopkins GA, Forrest BM, Piola RF, Gardner JPA (2011) Factors affecting survivorship of defouled communities and the effect of fragmentation on establishment success. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 396: 233‐243. MacKenzie, L. A., Smith, K. F., Rhodes, L. L., Brown, A., Langi, V., Edgar, M., et al. (2011). Mortalities of sea‐cage salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) due to a bloom of Pseudochattonella verruculosa (Dictyochophyceae) in Queen Charlotte Sound, New Zealand. Harmful Algae, 11, 45‐53. Rhodes, L., Smith, K., Selwood, A., McNabb, P., Molenaar, S., Munday, R., et al. (2011). Production of pinnatoxins E, F and G by scrippsielloid dinoflagellates isolated from Franklin Harbour, South Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 45(4), 703‐709. Rhodes, L., Smith, K., Selwood, A., McNabb, P., Munday, R., Suda, S., et al. (2011). Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum identified as the causative organism of pinnatoxins in Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Phycologia, 50(6), 624‐628. Rius, M., Heasman, K. G., & McQuaid, C. D. (2011). Long‐term coexistence of non‐
indigenous species in aquaculture facilities. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(11), 2395‐2403. Smith, K. F., Rhodes, L. L., Suda, S., & Selwood, A. I. (2011). A dinoflagellate producer of pinnatoxin G, isolated from sub‐tropical Japanese waters. Harmful Algae, 10(6), 702‐705. Department of Conservation See also the website listings at > Publications > Science and Technical. Bell E.A., Sim J.L., Torres L., Schaffer S. 2011a At sea distribution of the black petrels (Procellaria parkinsoni) on Great Barrier Island (Aotea Island), 2009/10: Part 1 – Environmental variables. Research report for Department of Conservation, Wellington. Available for download from 249 Bell E.A., Sim J.L., Scofield P., Francis C. 2011b Population parameters of the black petrels (Procellaria parkinsoni) on Great Barrier Island (Aotea Island), 2009/10. Research report for Department of Conservation, Wellington. Available for download from Chilvers B.L., Amey J.M., Huckstadt L.A., Costa D.P. 2011 Partitioning of breeding area foraging locations in New Zealand sea lions. Polar Biology 34:565–574 Freeman D., Cooper S., Funnell G., Neale D. 2011 Nearshore benthic community structure at the Bounty and Antipodes Islands, Subantarctic New Zealand. Polar Biology 34:1485–
1499. Freeman D.J., Creese R.G. 2011 Predation as a driver of gastropod distribution in north‐
eastern New Zealand kelp forests. Marine and Freshwater Research 62: 471‐479. Goad D., Ramm K., Debski I. 2011 Development of mitigation strategies for inshore demersal longline fisheries in New Zealand: progress report. ? Report to ACAP Fourth Meeting of the Seabird Bycatch Working Group, Guayaquil, Ecuador, 22 – 24 August 2011. Available for download from Haggitt T., Shears N. 2011 Long Bay‐Okura Marine Reserve Reef fish and lobster baseline survey. 18pp. Hillock K.A., Rohan M. 2011 Intertidal benthic habitats of Kawhia and Aotea Harbours. DOC Research and Development Series 327. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 44p. Pierre J., Abraham E., Richard Y. 2011 Concluding six years of research on seabird bycatch reduction through modified discharge management regimes: Is batch discharge better than ad‐hoc discharge from trawl vessels? Report to ACAP Fourth Meeting of the Seabird Bycatch Working Group, Guayaquil, Ecuador, 22 – 24 August 2011. Available for download from Ramm K. 2012 Conservation Services Programme observer report: 01 July 2009 to 30 June 2010. Final research report. Department of Conservation, Wellington. Available for download from‐and‐
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19. Hickford MJH, Schiel DR (2011) Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish. Plos One 6. Hickford MJH, Schiel DR (2011) Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life‐history pathway. Oecologia 166:131‐140. McLay, C. L., F. Hinnendael, F., Lavery, S., Riquelone‐Buqueno, R. (2011). Morphological and molecular comparison of Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Milne Edwards, 1837) (Brachyura: 288 Varunidae) from New Zealand and Chile: was Miss Rathbun right? Journal of Crustacean Biology 31(4): 582‐589. McLay, C. L., Lopez‐Greco, L. S. (2011). A hypothesis about the origin of sperm storage in the Eubrachyura, the effects of seminal receptacle structure on mating strategies and the evolution of crab diversity: how did a race to be first become a race to be last? Zoologischer Anzeiger 250(4): 378‐406. Rilov G, Schiel DR (2011) Community regulation: the relative importance of recruitment and predation intensity of an intertidal community dominant in a seascape context. Plos One 6. Robinson, E., Jerrett, AR., Black, SE, Davison, W. (2011). Visual acuity of snapper Pagrus auratus: effect of size and spectral composition. J. Fish Biol. 79, 1883‐1894. Robinson, E., Egginton, S., Davison, W. (2011). Warm induced bradycardia and cold‐
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227. doi: 10.3354/meps09407 Berkenbusch, K., Probert, P. K., & Nodder, S. D. (2011). Comparative biomass of sediment benthos across a depth transect, Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 425, 79‐90. doi: 10.3354/meps09014 290 Brewin, P. E., Probert, P. K., & Barker, M. F. (2011). Relative influence of processes structuring fjord deep‐water macrofaunal communities across multiple spatial scales. Marine Ecology Browne, T., Lalas, C., Mattern, T., & van Heezik, Y. (2011). Chick starvation in yellow‐eyed penguins: Evidence for poor diet quality and selective provisioning of chicks from conventional diet analysis and stable isotopes. Austral Ecology, 36(1), 99‐108. doi: 10.1111/j.1442‐9993.2010.02125.x Cornwall, C. E., Hepburn, C. D., Pritchard, D., Currie, K. I., McGraw, C. M., Hunter, K. A., & Hurd, C. L. (2011). Carbon‐use strategies in macroalgae: Differential responses to lowered pH and implications for ocean acidification. Journal of Phycology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/j.1529‐8817.2011.01085.x Currey, R. J. C., Dawson, S. M., Schneider, K., Lusseau, D., Boisseau, O. J., Haase, P. A., & Slooten, E. (2011). Inferring causal factors for a declining population of bottlenose dolphins via temporal symmetry capture—recapture modeling. Marine Mammal Science, 27(3), 554‐566. doi: 10.1111/j.1748‐7692.2010.00417.x Elliott, R. G., Dawson, S. M., & Henderson, S. (2011). Acoustic monitoring of habitat use by bottlenose dolphins in Doubtful Sound, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 45(4), 637‐649. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2011.570351 Fletcher, D., Lebreton, J.‐D., Marescot, L., Schaub, M., Gimenez, O., Dawson, S., & Slooten, E. (2011). Bias in estimation of adult survival and asymptotic population growth rate caused by undetected capture heterogeneity. Methods in Ecology & Evolution. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/j.2041‐210X.2011.00137.x Garden, C. J., Craw, D., Waters, J. M., & Smith, A. (2011). Rafting rocks reveal marine biological dispersal: A case study using clasts from beach‐cast macroalgal holdfasts. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 95(4), 388‐394. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.10.008 Garden, C. J., & Smith, A. M. (2011). The role of kelp in sediment transport: Observations from southeast New Zealand. Marine Geology, 281, 35‐42. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2011.01.006 Growcott, A., Miller, B., Sirguey, P., Slooten, E., & Dawson, S. (2011). Measuring body length of male sperm whales from their clicks: The relationship between inter‐pulse intervals and photogrammetrically measured lengths. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 130(1), 568‐573. doi: 10.1121/1.3578455 Guerra‐Bobo, M., & Brough, T. E. (2011). Neighbour density, body size and anti‐predator hiding time in the New Zealand mud‐crab Austrohelice crassa. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 91(3), 691‐694. doi: 10.1017/S0025315410001049 291 Hepburn, C. D., Pritchard, D. W., Cornwall, C. E., McLeod, R. J., Beardall, J., Raven, J. A., & Hurd, C. L. (2011). Diversity of carbon use strategies in a kelp forest community: Implications for a high CO2 ocean. Global Change Biology, 17(7), 2488‐2497. doi: 10.1111/j.1365‐2486.2011.02411.x Higgins, F. A., Bates, A. E., & Lamare, M. D. (2011). Heat tolerance, behavioural temperature selection and temperature‐dependent respiration in larval Octopus huttoni. Journal of Thermal Biology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jtherbio.2011.11.004 Hurd, C. L., Cornwall, C. E., Currie, K., Hepburn, C. D., McGraw, C. M., Hunter, K. A., & Boyd, P. W. (2011). Metabolically induced pH fluctuations by some coastal calcifiers exceed projected 22nd century ocean acidification: A mechanism for differential susceptibility? Global Change Biology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1111/j.1365‐
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8817.2011.00966.x Morisaka, T., Karczmarski, L., Akamatsu, T., Sakai, M., Dawson, S., & Thornton, M. (2011). Echolocation signals of Heaviside's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus heavisidii). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 129(1), 449‐457. doi: 10.1121/1.3519401 Neteler, M., Bowman, M. H., Landa, M., & Metz, M. (2011). GRASS GIS: A multi‐purpose open source GIS. Environmental Modelling & Software. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.11.014 Paavo, B., Jonker, R., Thrush, S., & Probert, P. K. (2011). Macrofaunal community patterns of adjacent coastal sediments with wave‐reflecting or wave‐dissipating characteristics. Journal of Coastal Research, 27(3), 515‐528. doi: 10.2112/jcoastres‐d‐10‐00001.1 Petrone, L., Easingwood, R., Barker, M. F., & McQuillan, A. J. (2011). In situ ATR‐IR spectroscopic and electron microscopic analyses of settlement secretions of Undaria pinnatifida kelp spores. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 8(56), 410‐422. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2010.0316 Rayment, W., Clement, D., Dawson, S., Slooten, E., & Secchi, E. (2011). Distribution of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) off the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand, with implications for the management of bycatch. Marine Mammal Science, 27(2), 398‐420. doi: 10.1111/j.1748‐7692.2010.00407.x Rayment, W., Dawson, S., Scali, S., & Slooten, L. (2011). Listening for a needle in a haystack: Passive acoustic detection of dolphins at very low densities. Endangered Species Research, 14, 149‐156. doi: 10.3354/esr00356 293 Richards, D. K., Hurd, C. L., Pritchard, D. W., Wing, S. R., & Hepburn, C. D. (2011). Photosynthetic response of monospecific macroalgal stands to density. Aquatic Biology, 13(1), 41‐49. doi: 10.3354/ab00349 Schüller, S. E., & Savage, C. (2011). Spatial distribution of diatom and pigment sedimentary records in surface sediments in Doubtful Sound, Fiordland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 45(4), 591‐608. doi: 10.1080/00288330.2011.561865 Smith, A. M., Kregting, L., Fern, S., & Fraser, C. I. (2011). Sedimentology of a wreck: The Rainbow Warrior revisited. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(11), 2412‐2419. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.08.028 Stevens, C. L., Smith, M. J., Grant, B., Stewart, C. L., & Divett, T. (2011). Tidal energy resource complexity in a large strait: The Karori Rip, Cook Strait. Continental Shelf Research. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2011.11.012 Stokes, M. D., Leichter, J. J., Wing, S., & Frew, R. (2011). Temperature variability and algal isotopic heterogeneity on a Floridian coral reef. Marine Ecology, 32(3), 364‐379. doi: 10.1111/j.1439‐0485.2011.00469.x Studer, A., Lamare, M. D., & Poulin, R. (2011). Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the transmission process of an intertidal trematode parasite. Parasitology. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011002174 Thiebaut, S., & Vennell, R. (2011). Resonance of long waves generated by storms obliquely crossing shelf topography in a rotating ocean. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 682, 261‐288. doi: 10.1017/jfm.2011.221 Vennell, R. (2011). Tuning tidal turbines in‐concert to maximise farm efficiency. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 671, 587‐604. doi: 10.1017/S0022112010006191 Vennell, R. (2011). Estimating the power potential of tidal currents and the impact of power extraction on flow speeds. Renewable Energy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2011.05.011 Wing, S. R. (2011). Population networks with sources and sinks along productivity gradients in the Fiordland Marine Area, New Zealand: A case study on the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus. In J. Liu, V. Hull, A. T. Morzillo, & J. A. Wiens (Eds.), Sources, sinks and sustainability (pp. 382‐398). Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511842399.020 Wing, S. R., & Leichter, J. J. (2011). Variation in environmental conditions in a subtidal prey refuge: Effects of salinity stress, food availability and predation on mussels in a fjord system. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 422, 201‐210. doi: 10.3354/meps08911 294 Wing, S. R., McLeod, R. J., Leichter, J. J., Frew, R. D., & Lamare, M. D. (2011). Sea ice microbial production supports Ross Sea benthic communities: Influence of a small but stable subsidy. Ecology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1890/11‐0996.1 Victoria University of Wellington Aeby, G.S., Williams, G.J., Franklin, E.C., Haapkyla, J., Harvell, C.D., Neale, S., Page, C.A., Raymundo, L., Vargas‐Angel, B, Willis, B.L., Work, T.M & Davy, S.K. (2011). Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo‐Pacific. PLoS One 6(2): e16887. Geange, S.W., S. Pledger, K.C. Burns and J.S. Shima. (2011) A unified analysis of niche overlap incorporating data of different types. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 2:175‐
184. Geange S.W., A.M. Connell, P.J. Lester, M.R. Dunn and K.C. Burns. (2011) Fish distributions along depth gradients of a sea mountain range conform to the mid‐domain effect. Ecography DOI: 10.1111/j.1600‐0587.2011.07231.x Hodge F., Buchanan J. & Zuccarello G.C. (2011). Variation in morphological traits over a wave‐exposure gradient in one but not in another species of the brown alga Carpophyllum (Fucales). Algae 26: 243‐251. Koh, EY, Phua W, Ryan KG (2011) Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in Antarctic sea ice. Environmental Microbiology Reports 3(6), 710–716 Knapp, I., Godwin, L.S., Smith, J.E., Williams, G., Bell, J.J. (2011) Records of selected non‐
indigenous marine species at Palmyra Atoll in the U.S. Line Islands. Marine Biodiversity Records. DOI: 10.1017/S175526721100007. Martin A, Anderson MJ, Thorn C, Davy SK, Ryan KG (2011) Response of sea ice microbial communities to environmental change: an in situ reciprocal translocation experiment in the Antarctic. MEPS. 424, 25‐37. Miller, S.J., J.S. Shima, and N.E. Phillips (2011) Effects of microhabitat availability on estimates of density of a reef fish: implications for assessments of marine protected areas. Hydrobiologia 685: 173‐190. Morar, S.R., Bury, S.J., Wilkinson, S.P. & Davy, S.K. (2011) Sedimentary nitrogen uptake and assimilation in the temperate zooxanthellate sea anemone Anthopleura aureoradiata. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 399: 110‐119. Osenberg, C.W., J.S. Shima, S.L. Miller, and A.C. Stier (2011) Assessing effects of marine protected areas: confounding in space and possible solutions. In Marine Protected Areas: Effects, networks and monitoring – A multidisciplinary approach, J. Claudet. Ed. Cambridge University Press ‐ Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation Series. 295 Reisser, CMO, Bell, JJ, Wood, AR, Gardner JPA. (2011) Connectivity, small islands and large distances: The Cellana strigilis limpet complex in the Southern Ocean. Molecular Ecology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365‐294X.2011.05185.x Ryan KG, Tay, M‐L., Martin, A., Davy, S.K. (2011) Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis of Antarctic bottom‐ice algae: responses to light and salinity stress. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 399, 156‐161. Salinas‐de‐León P, Bel JJ. (2011) Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite for the New Zealand endemic brown periwinkle Austrolittorina cincta (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833). Molecular Ecology Resources 11 (6):1124‐1126. Salinas de León, P., Costales Carrera, A., Zeljkovic, S., Smith, D.J., Bell, J.J. (2011) Scleractinian recruitment patterns in the Wakatobi National Marine Park, Indonesia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2011.02.016 Schmitt, S., Tsai, P., Bell, J., Fromont J., Ilan, M., Lindquist, N., Perez, T., Rodrigo, A., Schupp, P., Vacelet J., Webster, N., Hentschel, U.,Taylor, M. (2011) Assessing the complex sponge microbiota ‐ core, variable and species‐specific bacterial communities in marine sponges. The ISME Journal. doi:10.1038/ismej.2011.116 Smith, A and J.S. Shima. (2011) Variation in the effects of larval history on juvenile performance of a temperate reef fish . Austral Ecology 36:830‐838. Thomas, L., Bell J.J. (2011). Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the red rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Hutton 1875). Conservation Genetics Resources: 10.1007/s12686‐011‐9537‐x. Williams, G.J., Knapp, I.S., Aeby, G.S. & Davy, S.K. (2011) Spatial and temporal patterns of scleractinian coral, soft coral, and zoanthid disease on a remote, near‐pristine coral reef (Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 94: 89‐100. Williams, G.J., Knapp, I.S., Maragos, J.E. & Davy, S.K. (2011) Proximate environmental drivers of coral communities at Palmyra Atoll: establishing baselines prior to removing a WWII military causeway. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 1842‐1851. Williams, G.J., Work, T.M., Aeby, G.S. & Davy, S.K. (2011) Gross and microscopic morphology of lesions in Cnidaria from Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 106: 165‐173. 296 Reports and Popular Articles 297 Auckland Council All Auckland Council reports can be downloaded from our webpage:
lpublicationsandresearch/Pages/default.aspx Cawthron Institute Sinner, J, Clark D et al. (2011). Health of Te Awanui Tauranga Harbour. Manaaki Taha Moana Research Report No. 1. Cawthron Report No. 1969. Nelson. Moores JP, Semadeni_Davies A, Green M, Gadd J, Harper S, Batstone CJ. (2011), Conceptualising a spatial decision support system to evaluate the impacts of urban development on water bodies in New Zealand, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Urban Drainage, September 11 to 16, 2011 ‐ Porto Alegre, Brazil. Department Of Conservation see the website listings at > Publications > Science and Technical. The Ocean Guardian Newsletter. a bi‐monthly publication a newsletter dedicated to the latest protected species information relevant to trawl and longline fishing methods. available at :‐and‐coastal/marine‐conservation‐
services/the‐ocean‐guardian‐newsletter/ Environment Canterbury Bolton‐Ritchie, L. (2011). Healthy Estuary and Rivers of the City. Water quality for contact recreation. Summary report on data collected over the summer of 2010‐2011. Environment Canterbury Report No.R11/68. Bolton‐Ritchie, L. (2011). Healthy Estuary and Rivers of the City. Water quality of the Avon‐Heathcote Estaury/Ihutai. Summary report on data collected in 2010. Environment Canterbury Report No:R11/70. Bolton‐Ritchie, L. (2011). Healthy Estuary and Rivers of the City. The sediments and biota of the Avon‐Heathcote Estuary/Ihutai and tidal reaches of the Avon and Heathcote rivers. Summary report on data collected in 2010. Environment Canterbury Report No: R11/66 298 NIWA, (2011). Sumner Head Sea Level Station: Annual report for 2010. Unpublished client report prepared for Environment Canterbury. NIWA, (2011). Timaru Sea Level Station: Annual report for 2010. Unpublished client report prepared for Environment Canterbury. NIWA, (2011). Steep Head directional wave buoy annual report for Jan 2010 to Dec 2010. NIWA client report. Geomarine Research Hayward, B.W. (2011) Cornwallis sea cave provides clues tom past coastal geography. Geocene 6: 1‐2. Hayward, B.W. (2011) Rate of cliff retreat, Muriwai. Geocene 6: 5. Hayward, B.W., Murdoch, G., Maitland, G. (2011) Volcanoes of Auckland: The Essential Guide. Auckland University Press, 234 pp. Greater Wellington Regional Council Morar, S., Warr, S. (2011). On the Beaches 2010/11: Annual recreational water quality monitoring report for the Wellington region. Greater Wellington Regional Council, Publication No. GW/EMI‐G‐11/88. Robertson, B., Stevens, L. (2011). Waikanae Estuary: Fine scale monitoring 2010/11. Report prepared for Greater Wellington Regional Council. Wriggle Ltd. Robertson, B., Stevens, L. (2011). Hutt Estuary: Fine scale monitoring 2010/11. Report prepared for Greater Wellington Regional Council. Wriggle Ltd. Stevens, L., Robertson, B. (2011). Hutt River Estuary: Intertidal Macroalgal Monitoring 2010/11. Report prepared for Greater Wellington Regional Council. Wriggle Limited. Stevens, L., Robertson, B. (2011). Porirua Harbour: Intertidal Macroalgal Monitoring 2010/11. Report prepared for Greater Wellington Regional Council. Wriggle Limited. Stevens, L., Robertson, B. (2011). Porirua Harbour: Intertidal Sediment Monitoring 2010/11. Report prepared for Greater Wellington Regional Council. Wriggle Limited. Stevens, L., Robertson, B. (2011). Whareama Estuary: Intertidal Sediment Monitoring 2010/11. Report prepared for Greater Wellington Regional Council. Wriggle Ltd. Stevens, L., Robertson, B. (2011). Waikanae Estuary: Intertidal Macroalgal Monitoring 2010/11. Report prepared for Greater Wellington Regional Council. Wriggle Limited. 299 Massey University (Auckland and Palmerston North) THESES: McKenzie, F. (2011). The foraging ecology of Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Unpublished MSc Thesis. Roe, W. (2011). Head trauma in NZ sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri). Unpublished PhD Thesis. REPORTS Anderson MJ. (2011). Assessment of the Adequacy of the Sampling Design used to Quantify Effects of Disposal of Dredging Materials on Subtidal Benthic Fauna in Pine Harbour. Consultancy Report prepared for Boffa‐Miskell. Dwyer S & Stockin KA. (2011). Assessing the distribution, density and habitat use of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Internal report to the Department of Conservation, Auckland Conservancy, New Zealand. 31p. Gaborit‐Haverkort T & Stockin KA. (2011). East Coast Bay of Plenty Conservancy: Marine Mammal Review. Technical Report Series No.4, East Coast Bay of Plenty Conservancy, Department of Conservation, New Zealand. 99p. Mackenzie ML, Donovan CR & Pawley MD. (2011). Detecting changes in relative animal abundance using Strangford Narrows visual observations. DMP Statistical Solutions UK Ltd. Report to Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Ltd. Martinez E & Stockin KA. (2011). Report on the usefulness of information collected from marine mammal permittees. Internal report to the Department of Conservation, Canterbury Conservancy, New Zealand. 39p. Meissner AM & Stockin KA. (2011). Impacts of commercial tourism activities on bottlenose and common dolphin populations in East Coast Bay of Plenty waters. Internal report to the Department of Conservation, East Coast Bay of Plenty Conservancy, New Zealand. 29p. Pawley MDM. (2011). The distribution and abundance of pipis and cockles in the Northland, Auckland and Bay of Plenty regions, 2010. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2011/24. ISSN 1175‐1584 (print) ISSN 1179‐5352 (online). CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Anderson MJ. (2011). Effects of heterogeneity of dispersions on multivariate distance‐
based permutation tests. New Zealand Statistical Association Conference, University of Auckland, New Zealand. 300 Anderson MJ. (2011). What the heck is beta diversity anyway? 9th International Temperate Reefs Symposium, University of Plymouth and the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth, U.K. Beatson E, Stockin KA & O'Shea S. (2011). Two recent mass strandings of long‐finned pilot whales on the New Zealand coast. The 19thBiennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa, Florida, USA. Dwyer SL & Stockin KA. (2011). First density estimate for common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Cadiz, Spain. Filby N, Bossley M & Stockin KA. (2011). Behaviour of free‐ranging common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Cadiz, Spain. Filby N, Bossley M & Stockin KA. (2011). Behaviour of free‐ranging common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. Proceedings of the Australian Marine Sciences Association, Fremantle, Australia. Filby N, Bossley M & Stockin KA. (2011). First photo‐identification of short‐beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) in Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. The 19thBiennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa, Florida, USA. Jordan FFJ, Martinez E & Stockin KA. (2011). Factors affecting the occurrence and demographics of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Cadiz, Spain. Kolb JB, Rainey PB, Barraclough RK, Evans CW & Brunton DH. (2011). Short Circuit Co‐
Evolution by the Perfect Parasite? Antifreeze Glycoproteins of Fish Leeches in Antarctica. The annual Antarctica New Zealand conference, Hamilton, New Zealand. Machovsky Capuska GE, Howland HC, Raubenheimer D, Hauber M & Katzir G. (2011). Corneal power and underwater accommodation in Australia gannets (Morus serrator). Gordon Research Conference, Easton, Massachusetts, USA. Martinez E, Orams MB & Stockin KA. (2011). Effects of vessel interactions on the behaviour of Hector’s dolphins in Akaroa Harbour, Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society, Cadiz, Spain. Merriman MG, Stockin KA, Machovsky Capuska GE & Raubenheimer D. (2011). Prey composition of common dolphins in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand: Comparison with forage species in the Bay of Biscay. The 19thBiennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa, Florida, USA. 301 Murphy, S., Perrott, M., McVee, J., Roe, W. & Stockin, K.A. (2011b). 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