Download Atomic Structure Flow Chart Chemistry Cary Academy W.G. Rushin

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Transcript
Number of protons
(atomic number)
will not vary in
stable elements
and this serves to
“fingerprint” the
identity of the
element
Neutrons can vary
somewhat without
affecting the
properties of the
element, only the
mass – these are
ll d i t
Protons offer electrostatic
attractions to the negative
electrons – these forces
are what hold atoms and
ions together
“Nuclear changes”
occur here and involve
fusion (joining smaller
nuclei to make a bigger
one) and fission
(breaking a nucleus into
smaller ones)
Nucleus
(+ charge) Contains
protons (p+)
and neutrons
(n0) which
have a mass
of 1 amu
each
Determines the chemical
stability/reactivity of an atom
Nucleus contains:
~ 100% of the mass
~ 0% of the volume
therefore it is very dense
and determines the mass
number of the atom
Atom
Some elements have a ratio of
protons to neutrons in their
nucleus that is unstable –
these “radioactive” elements
will spontaneously give off
particles/rays as they decay
until they become an element
with a stable nucleus
These attractive
forces (“bonds”)
creates the potential
energy of chemicals
Atomic Structure Flow Chart
Chemistry
Cary Academy
Electron location,
energy, and activity
is only known by
models based on
mathematical
probability
Electron Cloud
(- charge) –
contains electrons
(e-) which have
essentially no
mass
This is where the action is
when atoms undergo
chemical change
“Sharing” of electrons
creates attractions
between electrons and
protons of two different
atoms called “covalent”
bonds
W.G. Rushin
Electron cloud
contains:
~ 0% of the
mass
~ 100% of the
volume
Electrons are
sometimes transferred
when atoms seek to
become more stable –
cations and anions are
formed
The attraction between
oppositely charged ions is
called “ionic” bonding