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When an atom gains or loses an electron it becomes a charged
particle called an ion.
When an atom loses an electron it has more protons therefore
becoming positively charged. When an atom gains an electron it has
more electrons therefore becoming negatively charged.
Sodium atom
11 protons
11 electrons
12 neutrons
0 overall charge
1 e - transers
Sodium ion
11 protons
10 electrons
12 neutrons
+ 1 charge
Draw the following atoms and ions: Mg, Li, Cl, O
Definition: Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have the
same atomic number but a different mass number.
They react in the same way due to having the same number of electrons
in their outer shell. However one isotope is heavier than the other.