Download Review guide for test 2 – Chapters 21, 22 and 23

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Transcript
Review guide for test 2 – Chapters 18, 19 and 20
Chapter 18 – The Heart
Words/terms to be defined:
Artery, vein, cardiac cycle, systole, diastole, deflection waves, cardiac cycle, quiescent
period, EDV, ESV, SV, ejection fraction, cardiac output, isovolumetric contraction
autonomic tone, atrial reflex, preload, afterload, contractility

Define the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary circuits;

Know the location of the heart

External structure of the heart (base and apex)

Heart histology – 3 layers of the heart wall and their composition

Know the internal structure and function of the heart chambers and valves

Know the main arteries and veins connected to/from the heart

Know the blood flow directions through the heart beginning with the blood’s
entrance to the heart from the vena cavae

Know the term "intrinsic conduction system"

Know the components of the conductive system, their location and function.

Describe the pathway of signal conduction through the heart

Ectopic pacemakers

Know the ECG pattern, the different deflection waves and their physiological
meaning

Know the physiology of the contractile cells in the cardiac muscle and the
difference between them and skeletal muscle cells

Know the phases of the cardiac cycle

Heart sounds and heart rate

Cardiodynamics (EDV, ESV, SV, CO, Preload/ Frank-Starling principle,
contractility, afterload)

Compare between the 2 components of the autonomic innervation of the heart and
their functions

Know the roles of the cardioacceleratory and the cardioinhibitory centers on heart
function

Factors affecting heart rate, stroke volume
Chapter 19 – Blood Vessels and Circulation
Words to be defined: peripheral resistance, circulatory pressure, pulse, pulse pressure,
systolic and diastolic pressures, capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP), Interstitial fluid
hydrostatic pressure (IHP), Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP), Interstitial fluid
colloid osmotic pressure (ICOP), net hydrostatic and osmotic pressures
Blood vessels structure

Distinguish among arteries, veins, and capillaries structure

What are the vasa vasorum and what is their function

Describe a typical capillary bed; what are continuous fenestrated and sinosuid
capillaries, where they can be found, what is the difference in their function
Factors affecting blood flow

Know the sources of peripheral resistance: length, diameter, viscosity

Know the 3 components of the circulatory pressure

Explain how arterial blood pressure is measured;

explain the significance of systolic pressure and diastolic pressure
Capillary exchange

Know the processes that move fluids across capillary walls: diffusion, filtration,
rabsorption
Venous pressure and venous return

Know the mechanisms that are responsible for returning venous blood to the heart
Cardiovascular regulation

Know the autoregulation mechanism of the CV system

Know the neural control of the CV system

Know the reflex control of the CV system (baroreceptors, chemoreceptors)

List and describe in general the functions of the major hormones that affect the
CV system

Know the CV system response to light and heavy exercise, hemorrhaging (short
and long term mechanisms).
Chapter 20 – The Lymphatic System
Lymphatic system organization and structure

Know the components of the lymphatic system

What are the functions of the lymphatic system?

Compare blood and lymphatic vessels and name the main lymphatic vessels

Describe the lymph flow in the lymphatic system and back to the CV system

Know the lymph organs, location, structure and function

Know the structure and function and location of lymph nodes