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Transcript
PLANT NOTES
Part 1
Plant Diversity
• Plants are members of the Kingdom
______.
• They are classified as eukaryotic
organisms that have cell walls made
of cellulose & carry out
photosynthesis using the green
pigment ______.
Plant Diversity
• Plants are members of the Kingdom
Plantae.
• They are classified as eukaryotic
organisms that have cell walls made
of cellulose & carry out
photosynthesis using the green
pigment ______.
Plant Diversity
• Plants are members of the Kingdom
Plantae.
• They are classified as eukaryotic
organisms that have cell walls made
of cellulose & carry out
photosynthesis using the green
pigment chlorophyll.
Plant Diversity
• Members of Kingdom
Plantae include trees,
shrubs, grasses,
mosses & ferns.
• Most plants are
autotrophic, however
there are a few
______ that live on &
feed off of decaying
matter.
Plant Diversity
• Members of Kingdom
Plantae include trees,
shrubs, grasses,
mosses & ferns.
• Most plants are
autotrophic, however
there are a few
parasites that live on
& feed off of
decaying matter.
What Plants Need to Survive
• ______ – they use energy from the sun
to carry out photosynthesis.
• ______ & minerals – are necessary for
plants to perform photosynthesis and
are absorbed from the soil.
What Plants Need to Survive
• Sunlight – they use energy from the
sun to carry out photosynthesis.
• ______ & minerals – are necessary for
plants to perform photosynthesis and
are absorbed from the soil.
What Plants Need to Survive
• Sunlight – they use energy from the
sun to carry out photosynthesis.
• Water & minerals – are necessary for
plants to perform photosynthesis and
are absorbed from the soil.
What Plants Need to Survive
• ______ exchange – plants require oxygen
to support cellular respiration and carbon
dioxide to carry out photosynthesis.
• Movement of water & ______ – plants
take in water & nutrients from the soil
through their roots to the rest of the plant.
What Plants Need to Survive
• Gas exchange – plants require oxygen to
support cellular respiration and carbon
dioxide to carry out photosynthesis.
• Movement of water & ______ – plants
take in water & nutrients from the soil
through their roots to the rest of the plant.
What Plants Need to Survive
• Gas exchange – plants require oxygen to
support cellular respiration and carbon
dioxide to carry out photosynthesis.
• Movement of water & nutrients – plants
take in water & nutrients from the soil
through their roots to the rest of the plant.
The Origin of Plants
• When plants first appeared on Earth, they
changed its’ existence.
• With the emergence of plants, new
ecosystems appeared and organic matter
began to form ___.
The Origin of Plants
• When plants first appeared on Earth, they
changed its’ existence.
• With the emergence of plants, new
ecosystems appeared and organic matter
began to form soil.
The Origin of Plants
• Plants had to evolve structures that
allowed them to acquire, transport and
conserve water in order to successfully
exist in their new habitat.
• Most scientists agree that the first plants
evolved from an organism that is similar
to green _____, which you should recall is
a plant-like protist.
The Origin of Plants
• Plants had to evolve structures that
allowed them to acquire, transport and
conserve water in order to successfully
exist in their new habitat.
• Most scientists agree that the first plants
evolved from an organism that is similar
to green algae, which you should recall is
a plant-like protist.
Plant Diversity
BRYOPHYTES:
• Include ______ plants
such as mosses,
liverworts and
hornworts.
• These are classified
as nonvascular & are
found in moist,
shaded areas.
Plant Diversity
BRYOPHYTES:
• Include low-growing
plants such as
mosses, liverworts
and hornworts.
• These are classified
as nonvascular & are
found in moist,
shaded areas.
Bryophytes
• Bryophytes depend on _____ for reproduction,
as most of them produce sperm that must swim
through water to reach eggs.
• Mosses (from Phylum Bryophyta) are the most
common bryophytes, which grow most
abundantly in areas with water like swamps,
_____, near streams and in rain forests.
Bryophytes
• Bryophytes depend on water for reproduction,
as most of them produce sperm that must swim
through water to reach eggs.
• Mosses (from Phylum Bryophyta) are the most
common bryophytes, which grow most
abundantly in areas with water like swamps,
_____, near streams and in rain forests.
Bryophytes
• Bryophytes depend on water for reproduction,
as most of them produce sperm that must swim
through water to reach eggs.
• Mosses (from Phylum Bryophyta) are the most
common bryophytes, which grow most
abundantly in areas with water like swamps,
bogs, near streams and in rain forests.
Bryophytes
• Because they aren’t vascular, mosses
don’t have true roots. Instead they have
_______, which are long, thin cells that
anchor them into the ground and absorb
water & minerals.
Bryophytes
• Because they aren’t vascular, mosses
don’t have true roots. Instead they have
rhizoids, which are long, thin cells that
anchor them into the ground and absorb
water & minerals.
Bryophytes
• Humans use a
particular moss from
the genus Sphagnum,
which we commonly
call ____ moss.
• When it dries it can be
cut from the ground
and burned, or it can
be used in gardening
due to its’ sponge-like
ability to hold water.
Bryophytes
• Humans use a
particular moss from
the genus Sphagnum,
which we commonly
call peat moss.
• When it dries it can be
cut from the ground
and burned, or it can
be used in gardening
due to its’ sponge-like
ability to hold water.
Seedless Vascular Plants
• Vascular plants have a specialized
__________ system with vascular tissue
for conducting water & nutrients.
• Vascular plants contain a xylem layer
(which transports water) and a phloem
layer (which transports food like nutrients
& carbohydrates).
Seedless Vascular Plants
• Vascular plants have a specialized
transport system with vascular tissue for
conducting water & nutrients.
• Vascular plants contain a xylem layer
(which transports water) and a phloem
layer (which transports food like nutrients
& carbohydrates).
Vascular Tissues
Seedless Vascular Plants
• Both xylem & phloem
can move fluids
through the plant body.
• All vascular plants
have _____, stems &
leaves.
• Seedless vascular
plants include club
mosses, horsetails &
_____.
Seedless Vascular Plants
• Both xylem & phloem
can move fluids
through the plant body.
• All vascular plants
have roots, stems &
leaves.
• Seedless vascular
plants include club
mosses, horsetails &
_____.
Seedless Vascular Plants
• Both xylem & phloem
can move fluids
through the plant body.
• All vascular plants
have roots, stems &
leaves.
• Seedless vascular
plants include club
mosses, horsetails &
ferns.
Seed Plants
• Plants that have the ability to form seeds
are the most dominant group of
photosynthetic organisms on land.
• The seed plants are divided into 2 groups:
____________ (cone-bearing plants)
____________ (flowering plants)
Seed Plants
• Plants that have the ability to form seeds
are the most dominant group of
photosynthetic organisms on land.
• The seed plants are divided into 2 groups:
Gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants)
___________ (flowering plants)
Seed Plants
• Plants that have the ability to form seeds
are the most dominant group of
photosynthetic organisms on land.
• The seed plants are divided into 2 groups:
Gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants)
Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Seed Plants
• One reason that seed
plants became so
successful is because
they don’t require water
for the fertilization of their
gametes.
• Because of this, seed
plants can live just about
anywhere.
Seed Plant Adaptations
• Some adaptations that allow seed plants
to reproduce without water include having
flowers or cones, the ability to transfer
sperm by ___________ and the protection
of embryos encased in _____.
• Cones are the seed-bearing structures in
gymnosperms, while flowers are the seedbearing structures in angiosperms.
Gymnosperm
Angiosperm
Seed Plant Adaptations
• Some adaptations that allow seed plants
to reproduce without water include having
flowers or cones, the ability to transfer
sperm by pollination and the protection of
embryos encased in ______.
• Cones are the seed-bearing structures in
gymnosperms, while flowers are the seedbearing structures in angiosperms.
Gymnosperm
Angiosperm
Seed Plant Adaptations
• Some adaptations that allow seed plants
to reproduce without water include having
flowers or cones, the ability to transfer
sperm by pollination and the protection of
embryos encased in seeds.
• Cones are the seed-bearing structures in
gymnosperms, while flowers are the seedbearing structures in angiosperms.
Gymnosperm
Angiosperm
Seed Plant Adaptations
• In seed plants, the entire male gamete
is contained in a tiny structure called a
pollen grain, which is carried to the
female parts of the flower by wind,
insects or small animals for pollination.
Seed Plant Adaptations
• A seed is an embryo of a
plant encased in a
protective covering &
surrounded by a food
supply.
• After fertilization, the
zygote becomes an
embryo & eventually a
plant.
Read chapter 23 and 24 and
be ready to take Plant Quiz I
and II next class
Part 2
Gymnosperms
• The most ancient surviving
seed plants are the
gymnosperms (“naked
seeds”).
• These include cycads,
gnetophytes, ginkgoes and
conifers, which are the most
common of the conebearing plants.
Gymnosperms
• Conifers thrive in a wide
variety of habitats and
have leaves that are long
and thin (like pine
needles) with thick, waxy
coverings because they
have adapted to dry
conditions in order to
conserve water.
Angiosperms
• Flowering plants originated on land about 135
million years ago & soon dominated plant life.
• Angiosperms (“enclosed seed”) developed
unique reproductive organs known as flowers,
which are an evolutionary advantage because
they attract pollinators like bees, butterflies
and birds, which in turn get food and then
transport the pollen to other flowers.
Angiosperms
• Flowers contain ovaries, which surround and
protect the seeds & give angiosperms their name.
• After pollination, the ovary develops into a fruit,
which protects the seed and aids in dispersal when
animals eat the fruit & then excrete the seeds far
away from the plants’ original location.
How Angiosperms are Classified:
Monocots v. Dicots
• Monocots and dicots are types of
angiosperms that are named for the
number of seed leaves (cotyledons) in
their plant embryo.
• Monocots have one seed leaf, while
dicots have two. (mono = 1, di = 2)
Characteristics of Monocots
Seeds
Single cotyledon
Leaves
Parallel veins
Flowers
Floral parts in multiples of 3
Stems
Vascular bundles scattered
throughout
Fibrous root system
Roots
Characteristics of Dicots
Seeds
Two cotyledons
Leaves
Branched (netted) veins
Flowers
Floral parts in multiples
of 4 or 5
Vascular bundles arranged
in a ring
Taproot system
Stems
Roots
Monocots v. Dicots
MONOCOTS:
Parallel venation
DICOTS:
Netted venation
Monocot or Dicot?
How you can tell:
• # petals?
5
• Venation?
Netted
Monocot or Dicot?
• How you can
tell:
• # petals?
6
• Venation?
Parallel
Monocot or Dicot?
• How you can tell:
• # petals?
N/A
• Venation?
Parallel
Monocot or Dicot?
• How you can
tell:
• # petals?
5
• Venation?
Netted
Woody v. Herbaceous Plants
• Woody plants are made primarily of cells
with thick cell walls that support the plant
body and include trees, shrubs and vines.
• Ex. Roses & grapes
Woody v. Herbaceous Plants
• Plant stems that are smooth and nonwoody are characterized as herbaceous
plants, which don’t produce wood as they
grow.
• Ex. Sunflowers
Three Types of Plants
If you’ve ever planted a garden, you know that
many flowering plants grow, flower and die in a
single year. Other types of plants continue to grow
from year to year.
There are 3 categories of plant life spans:
• Annuals
• Biennials
• Perennials
Annuals
• Complete their life cycle in 1 growing
season
Biennials
• Complete their life cycle in 2 growing
seasons
Perennials
• Live from one growing
season to another,
usually for many years.
• Ex. Trees & grass
Read chapter 23 and 24 and
be ready to take Plant Quiz I
and II next class
Part 3
Roots, Stems &
Leaves
Structure of Plants
•The structure of a plant contains
a shoot system and a root system.
Plant Tissue Systems
• Plants consist of 3 main tissue
systems:
Dermal tissue
Vascular tissue
Ground tissue
Plant Tissue Systems
DERMAL TISSUE:
• The outer
covering of a
plant
Plant Tissue Systems
VASCULAR
TISSUE:
• Forms the
transport systems
within the plant
• Includes xylem &
phloem
Plant Tissue Systems
GROUND
TISSUE:
• Cells that lie
between the
dermal and
vascular tissues.
Types & Functions
of Roots
•The root system includes those parts of the
plant below ground, such as the roots,
tubers, and rhizomes.
•Taproots are found mainly in dicots.
•Fibrous root systems are found mainly in
monocots.
•The function of all roots is to anchor the
plant in to the ground & absorb water and
Stem Structure &
Functions
Stem Structure &
Functions
In general, stems have 3 important
functions:
1.) to produce leaves, branches & flowers
2.) to hold the leaves upright towards
the sun
3.) to transport substances between roots
& leaves
Parts of a Stem
Types of Stems
Recall from your previous plant notes:
• Herbaceous – soft, green
• Woody – dark, rigid
Stem Arrangements
• The leaves on a plant have one of the
following 3 arrangements:
ALTERNATE
OPPOSITE
WHORLED
Stem Growth
• Primary growth of
a stem occurs
when there is an
increase in plant
growth from the
tips of the roots
and the shoots.
• In other words, the
plant grows in
height.
Stem Growth
• Secondary growth
of a stem occurs
when there is an
increase in the
width of a plant.
Modified Stems
• Many kinds of plants
have modified stems
that store food.
• Tubers, rhizomes, bulbs
and corms are all types
of modified stems that
can remain dormant
during cold or dry
periods until favorable
conditions return.
TUBER
ONION
IRIS
Leaves
• Leaves are the primary
photosynthetic organ of a plant
• The structure of a leaf is optimized for
absorbing light and carrying out
photosynthesis, as well as performing
transpiration (water loss) and gas
exchange by giving off O2 and taking
in CO2.
Leaves
• Leaves may differ greatly in shape,
arrangement, margin and venation, but the
structural features of most leaves are the
same.
Leaf Arrangements
Leaf Shapes
Leaf Margins
Leaf Venation
Anatomy of a Leaf
• The leaf provides food for the rest of the
plant through the process of
photosynthesis.
• The outermost layer of the leaf is the
epidermis, which is protected by the waxy
coating of the cuticle.
• Guard cells implanted in the epidermis
form pores, known as stomata, through
which water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
pass.
Leaf Structure &
Function
• Leaves depend on
stomata, which are
pore-like openings on
the underside of each
leaf that allow CO2
and O2 to diffuse into
& out of the leaf.
• Plants can regulate
the opening and
closing of their
stomata to balance
water loss with the
rates of
Leaf Structure &
Function
Lets see what you learned….
• REVIEW>>>REVIEW>>>REVIE
W
Types of leaves
• ______ = one entire blade
• ______= (divided leaf blade = leaflets)
– Palmately – leaflets come together at a
central point
– Pinnately – leaflets attach to the petiole in a
pattern resembling a feather
Types of leaves
• Simple = one entire blade
• _____= (divided leaf blade = leaflets)
– Palmately – leaflets come together at a
central point
– Pinnately – leaflets attach to the petiole in a
pattern resembling a feather
Types of leaves
• Simple = one entire blade
• Compound (divided leaf blade = leaflets)
– Palmately – leaflets come together at a
central point
– Pinnately – leaflets attach to the petiole in a
pattern resembling a feather
Leaf Margin
• _______
• ______________
• ______
Leaf Margin
• Smooth
• _____________
• ______
Leaf Margin
• Smooth
• Toothed (serrated)
• ______
Leaf Margin
• Smooth
• Toothed (serrated)
• Lobed
Leaf Venation
• ___________ – Monocots
• __________________ –Dicots
– Palmate venation
– Pinnate venation
Leaf Venation
• Parallel veins – Monocots
• __________________ –Dicots
– Palmate venation
– Pinnate venation
Leaf Venation
• Parallel veins – Monocots
• Netted (branched) veins –Dicots
– Palmate venation
– Pinnate venation
______Leaf
Simple Leaf
__________
Leaf
Compound
Leaf
Did you know???
Carnivorous
Leaves
• The 2 lobes of a Venus's-flytrap leaf form a deceptively safe
and attractive landing place for insects and other animals.
• Less than a second after this frog trips the trigger bristles on
the inside surface of the leaf, the lobes close enough to trap
him below interlocking spines.
• If sensory organs determine that the frog contains protein, the
leaf closes further and the plant's digestive enzymes start to
flow.
Part 4
Parts of a Flower
(A.K.A.
Pistil)
Structure & Function
of Flowers
• Flowers are the reproductive
organs of many angiosperms and
vary greatly in shape, color and
size.
• A typical flower has both male &
female gametes.
Structure & Function of Flowers
• Flowers typically are composed of
four types of specialized leaves:
pistil (carpel)
Listed from
inner most to
stamen
outer most
layer
petals
Sepals
Structure & Function of
Flowers
The outermost layer,
or whorl, of a flower
is called the sepals,
which in many plants
are green and closely
resemble regular
leaves.
Structure & Function of Flowers
• Petals are the
often brightly
colored structures
that are found just
inside the sepals
and are used to
attract pollinators
like insects and
birds.
Structure & Function of Flowers
• The male part of the
flower is called the
stamen, which
consists of the anther
and the filament. Stamen
• The anther of a flower
is where pollen is
located. Pollen is
basically plant sperm.
Structure & Function of Flowers
• The female part of a
flower is called the
carpel (or pistil),
which consists of 3
parts: the stigma, the
style and the ovary.
• The ovary contains
the female eggs that
pollen travel to after
landing on the stigma.
Structure & Function of Flowers
• After fertilization, the ovules develop into
seeds, while the ovary enlarges into the
fruit.
• If a flower has only one ovule, the
fruit will contain one seed, as in a peach.
• The fruit of a flower with many ovules,
such as a tomato, will have many seeds.
Flower Pollination and Fertilization
Pollen Grains
• A pollen grain contains a
sperm cell that fertilizes
an egg.
• If fertilization is
successful, a seed is
produced.
• The pollen grains of each
species are unique.
• The pollen grains shown
here are about 1000
times their actual size.
Plant Responses & Adaptations
• There are many ways that plants have
adapted to their various environments and
have developed to assist in their growth
and development.
• Plants have hormones, which are
chemical substances that control a plant’s
pattern of growth and development, as
well as its’ response to environmental
conditions.
Plant Responses & Adaptations
• Many plants lay dormant when
cold weather approaches and
turn off their photosynthetic
pathways until warmer weather
returns.
• Other plants have adapted to
living in aquatic environments,
extremely salty environments or
very dry environments.
Plant Responses & Adaptations
• Some plants that have
specialized structures for
obtaining nutrients
include carnivorous
Venus fly trap
plants and parasitic
plants.
• Many plants defend
themselves against
insect attack by making
compounds that ward off
potential predators.
Poison ivy
Plants As Food
• Many plants are used as food sources in
many countries.
• Cereals such as rice, wheat, and corn
are important sources of food.
• Cereals produce dry fruits calls grains,
which contain a single seed that is
paced with energy-rich endosperm.
Plants As Food
• Though wheat’s
primary use is to make
flour, it is also used in
brewing & distilling, for
livestock feed and
even as a coffee
substitute.
• Rice, corn & wheat
are the 3 most
important & widely
used cereal crops.
Legumes
• Legumes, such as beans and peas,
are important foods because they
provide essential amino acids that
grains lack.
Root crops
• Root crops, like potatoes & yams,
are a major source of calories.
• They are used to inexpensively fill
stomachs in poor countries
(cassava).
Other uses of Plants
While many plants are consumed primarily for
food, other plants are utilized for other reasons.
Wood
• Wood, an important plant resource, is
found in thousands of products, from
lumber used to build houses, to wood
that is ground into pulp to make
fabrics (rayon) and paper.
Other uses of Plants
• Besides rayon,
plants are also
used to make other
textiles like cotton,
rubber and latex.
Plants as
Medicine
• Plants are the sources of many
important medicines that are used
to treat diseases and other
ailments.
• Some examples: Aspirin, cancer
treatment drugs & cortisone.
Impact of Plants
• Though the first plants appeared on land only
about half a billion years ago, today they
account for, by far, the largest proportion of the
Earth's biomass.
• Plants provide life on Earth with oxygen and
shelter, as well as serving as the foundation of
the food web.
• Plants frequently determine the appearance of
other organisms that depend on them in a
variety of different habitats.
Impact of Plants
• Plants have laid the foundation that
provides power for industrial society.
• Plants have supplied sufficient
oxygen to the atmosphere to support
the evolution of higher animals.
Impact of Plants
• Plants have modified the terrain of the
Earth, making its’ surface habitable to
maintain many different life forms.
Impact of
Plants
• From towering redwood trees to
the microscopic duckweed plant,
Kingdom Plantae is an
extraordinarily diverse and longlived group that makes the life of
animals, fungi and other organisms
possible.
PLANT TEST COMING
SOON!! You will be tested
over what you have learned
about plants on:
Thursday 4/24