Download Other Charts and Information You Need to Know in - Parkway C-2

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Latin syntax wikipedia, lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia, lookup

Spanish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Georgian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Polish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Turkish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Serbo-Croatian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Yiddish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Italian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Portuguese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ancient Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Modern Hebrew grammar wikipedia, lookup

Kannada grammar wikipedia, lookup

Udmurt grammar wikipedia, lookup

Esperanto grammar wikipedia, lookup

Old English grammar wikipedia, lookup

Swedish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Lithuanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Russian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ukrainian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Inflection wikipedia, lookup

Old Norse morphology wikipedia, lookup

Sanskrit grammar wikipedia, lookup

Scottish Gaelic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia, lookup

Comparison (grammar) wikipedia, lookup

French grammar wikipedia, lookup

Ojibwe grammar wikipedia, lookup

Zulu grammar wikipedia, lookup

Old Irish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Japanese grammar wikipedia, lookup

Modern Greek grammar wikipedia, lookup

Grammatical number wikipedia, lookup

Arabic grammar wikipedia, lookup

Literary Welsh morphology wikipedia, lookup

Romanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Romanian nouns wikipedia, lookup

Latvian declension wikipedia, lookup

Archaic Dutch declension wikipedia, lookup

Lithuanian declension wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Additional Verb Forms
NB!
1. The following patterns all hinge heavily upon the infinitive form (the second principal
part, which ends in –re)
2. When a word is presented in three forms separated by commas, these are “principal
parts.” They are not options; instead, they are guides we use to make any form of the
verb (of which there are hundreds), adjective (of which there are many), or noun (of
which there are a healthy number).
a. Verbs are presented in their first-person singular present [active indicative] form
“I verb, I am verbing, I do verb”; followed by their [present active] infinitive “to
verb”; then their first-person singular perfect [active indicative] form “I verbed, I
have verbed, I did verb.”
b. Adjectives are given in their nominative singular forms: masculine, feminine, and
neuter.
c. Nouns are presented in their nominative singular and genitive singular forms.
1st conjugation: -are (e.g. colloco, collocare, collocavi)
2nd conjugation: -ēre (e.g. habeo, habēre, habui)
3rd conjugation: -ere (e.g. pono, ponere, posui)
*3rd-io conjugation: -io [1st principal part], -ere (e.g. accipio, accipere, accepi)
4th conjugation: -ire (e.g. audio, audire, audivi
*The 3rd-io conjugation is a sneaky little bastard. Glancing at his principal parts, we notice that
his first principal part looks more like a 4th conjugation verb, while his infinitive (second
principal part) looks more like a 3rd conjugation verb. Thus, he occasionally acts more like he’s
in the 4th conjugation, and at other times more like he’s in the 3rd conjugation. We just have to
watch out for him.
Imperatives
1. The positive singular imperative is regularly formed by dropping the –re from the verb’s
infinitive, or second principal part.
a. Four exceptions are the verbs dico, dicere, dixi; duco, ducere, duxi; facio, facere,
feci; and ferro, ferre, tuli; shown here in the positive singular and positive plural:
i. dic! dicite! (Say/Speak!)
ii. duc! ducite! (Lead!)
iii. fac! facite! (Do/Make!)
iv. fer! ferte! (Bring!)
2. The positive plural imperative is regularly formed by adding –te to the positive singular
imperative (the infinitive less –re).
a. In the 3rd conjugation (including the 3rd-io), the final –e is changed to an –i before
the –te can be added, as in the following:
i. pono, ponere, posui: poneponite! (Put/Place!)
3. The negative singular imperative is a two word expression, which begins with “noli” and
is followed by the infinitive (second principal part) of a verb. noli itself is technically an
infinitive in its own right, which literally means “be unwilling!” This can help us
remember to use the infinitive, as it means “be unwilling to ______!” Remember,
however, that although our first goal is literality, our second goal is not to sound
awkward, so that we could pluck a student from Mrs. Park’s Calculus class, and she
would understand what we were saying. Therefore, it is preferable to translate the
negative imperative as “don’t _____!”
4. The negative plural imperative is very similar to the singular, with the only change being
that nolite, a plural, precedes the infinitive, rather than noli, the singular.
Imperative Chart
Positive
Positive Plural
Negative
Negative Plural
Singular
Singular
collocate!
noli collocare!
nolite collocare!
1st Conjugation colloca!
nd
habete!
noli habēre!
nolite habēre!
2 Conjugation habe!
ponite!
noli ponere!
nolite ponere!
3rd Conjugation pone!
rd
accipite!
noli accipere!
nolite accipere!
(includes 3 -io) accipe!
audite!
noli audire!
nolite audire!
4th Conjugation audi!
1.
2.
3.
4.
Present Active Participles (PAPs)
The name helps us interpret the PAP: “present” means that the action is happening right
now (or at the same time as the main verb in a sentence); “active” means that whatever
noun (most commonly a person) is being described by the PAP is performing the action;
and “participle” means that it is a verbal adjective, or an adjective built from a verb.
a. We translate the PAP as an adjective ending in –ing: I saw the boy running
through the field.
i. The PAP is one word only: “is running” is present tense, and “are/were
running” is the imperfect tense. Both of these are incorrect translations.
ii. The PAP is not a noun: “I like running” or “running is good exercise”
are incorrect translations.
Present active participles are not terribly tricky. For 1st, 2nd, and 3rd conjugation
(excluding 3rd-io) verbs, we start with the positive singular imperative (the infinitive
minus –re). Adding –ns gives us the nominative singular form in all three genders:
a. collocarecolloca+nscollocans, collocans, collocans
b. habērehabe+nshabens, habens, habens
c. ponerepone+nsponens, ponens, ponens
rd
3 -io and 4th conjugation are not too much different. The only trick here is that they (for
some reason) get the double-vowel –ie before their –ns.
a. accipereaccipie+nsaccipiens, accipiens, accipiens
b. audireaudie+nsaudiens, audiens, audiens
Present active participles look very similar to 3rd declension adjectives, which in turn look
very similar to 3rd declension nouns. The nuances are shown on the next page.
PAP Chart
Only the nominative singulars are shown here.
collocans, collocans, collocans
1st conjugation
nd
habens, habens, habens
2 conjugation
ponens, ponens, ponens
3rd conjugation
rd
accipiens, accipiens, accipiens
3 -io conjugation
audiens, audiens, audiens
4th conjugation
Adjectives
1. We have two families of adjectives: 1st/2nd declension adjectives, and 3rd declension
adjectives.
a. 1st/2nd declension adjectives looks EXACTLY LIKE 1st and 2nd declension nouns.
Seriously, there are no exceptions. The absence of exceptions is such that it
would be silly to include a chart. They are given in the nominative singular form
in the masculine, feminine, and neuter forms, e.g. magnus, magna, magnum.
b. The 3rd declension adjectives look very similar to 3rd declension nouns, but there
are some notable differences; PAPs fall somewhere in the middle of 3rd
declension nouns and 3rd declension adjectives, so the differences will be shown.
They are given in the nominative singular form in the masculine, feminine, and
neuter forms. Remember that the nominative singular form of a 3rd declension
noun is unpredictable; so, too, is the nominative singular form of a 3rd declension
adjective unpredictable (sometimes all three genders looks the same, sometimes
the neuter is the odd one out, and sometimes—albeit rare—all three are different).
Occasionally, too, there is a stem-change for declined forms, and we will usually
get the genitive form to help with this, e.g. neglegens, neglegens, neglegens, gen.
sing: neglegentis.
2. Adjectives modify nouns. They must agree in case, number, and gender.
a. There is a bit of a shortcut in some instances. If three factors are true, we can
accurately predict the ending for a 1st/2nd declension adjective:
i. If the noun is in the 1st OR 2nd declension, and
ii. If the noun is of the “expected” gender for its declension (i.e. a 1st
declension feminine or a 2nd declension masculine/neuter; not those 1st
declension masculine professions like nauta, poeta, agricola, nor those 2nd
declension feminine trees like quercus), and
iii. If the adjective is of the 1st/2nd declension variety
∴ The noun and adjective will have the same ending, e.g. puella pulchra, servus
bonus.
b. Rule-breakers vir, faber, puer and the like will muck this up in the nominative
singular, but otherwise they play fair.
c. This is also usually the case in the 3rd declension, but because the 3rd declension
adjective endings and the 3rd declension noun endings are not identical, it’s better
to go through the steps of determining case, number, and gender, lest we be led
astray.
3rd Declension Noun Endings
Singular
Plural
???
-es/-a [neuter]
Nominative
-is
-um
Genitive
-i
-ibus
Dative
-em/??? [neuter]
-es/-a [neuter]
Accusative
-e
-ibus
Ablative
PAP Endings
Singular
Plural
-ns
-nt|es/-nt|ia [neuter]
Nominative
-nt|is
-nt|ium
Genitive
-nt|i
-nt|ibus
Dative
-nt|em/-ns [neuter]
-nt|es/-nt|ia [neuter]
Accusative
-nt|e
-nt|ibus
Ablative
In the PAP forms, the –nt is present in all forms (except of course, the nominative singulars, and
the accusative singular neuter); what comes after the | is the actual case ending. Notice the three
places where there is a departure from the regular 3rd declension noun endings: for the
nominative/accusative plural neuters, the ending is –ia, rather than the expected –a; also, the
genitive plural becomes –ium, rather than –um.
3rd Declension Adjective Endings
Singular
Plural
???
-es/-ia [neuter]
Nominative
-is
-ium
Genitive
-i
-ibus
Dative
-em/??? [neuter]
-es/-ia [neuter]
Accusative
-i
-ibus
Ablative
rd
Notice here that there are the same three departures from the 3 declension nouns borne by the
PAP as well as an additional one: the ablative singular is –i, like the dative, rather than the
expected –e.
Demonstratives
1.
The word “demonstrative” derives from demonstro, demonstrare, demonstravi
(Stage 18), “to show, to point out.” And that is exactly what these do: they “point out” a
specific noun. While they can be stand-alone pronouns, we have always seen these as
adjectives, and will continue to do so. Unlike other adjectives, which usually follow
nouns, demonstratives are almost always placed before nouns. Some of their forms look
a little bit like those of 1st/2nd declension adjectives (which are identical to those of 1st and
2nd declension nouns), but they’re often weird.
hic, haec, hoc (singular: this; plural: these)
Singular
Plural
hic
haec
hoc
hi
hae
haec
Nominative
huius
huius
huius
horum
harum
horum
Genitive
huic
huic
huic
his
his
his
Dative
hunc
hanc
hoc
hos
has
haec
Accusative
hoc
hac
hoc
his
his
his
Ablative
ille, illa, illud (singular: that; plural: those)
Singular
Plural
ille
illa
illud
illi
illae
illa
Nominative
illius
illius
illius
illorum
illarum
illorum
Genitive
illi
illi
illi
illis
illis
illis
Dative
illum
illam
illud
illos
illas
illa
Accusative
illo
illa
illo
illis
illis
illis
Ablative