Emily Pannkuk EDUC Chapter 6 Quotes and Comments INTASC Standards: 1: Learner Development The teacher understands how learners grow and develop, recognizing that patterns of learning and development vary individually within and across the cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical areas, and designs and implements developmentally appropriate and challenging learning experiences. 6: Assessment The teacher understands and uses multiple methods of assessment to engage learners in their own growth, to monitor learner progress, and to guide the teacher’s and learner’s decision making. 1. “Behaviorism is a theory that explains learning in terms of observable behaviors and how they’re influenced by stimuli from the environment. It defines learning as a relatively enduring change in observable behavior that occurs as a result of experience (Schunk, 2004; B.F. Skinner, 1953).” Pg 164 2. Operant conditioning describes learning when there are responses as a result of consequences or events that occur following behaviors. Classical conditioning is involuntary reactions to an instinctive or reflexive response. These are very different and are different ways that kids will react to behaviors and ways you can look at their behavior. Pg164-167 3. There is positive and negative reinforcement. Positive rewards people for good behaviors and negative punishes people. Negative reinforcement is not good because people and children especially hate being punished and it can force them to act out even more. In the same way if you over praise a child with positive reinforcement it may make them slack off because they already know how great you think they are. 4. There are different kinds of punishment. However, never use detention. Don’t keep kids after school it embarrasses them and makes them angry. No one wants to stay after school. You don’t want to harm a developing child’s self esteem. Pg 172 5. “Social cognitive theory, a theory of learning that focuses on changes in behavior that result from observing others, emerged from work pioneered by Albert Bandura (1925-) (Bandura, 1986,1997,2001).” Pg.179 Social cognitive theory has its roots in behaviorism. Similar in three ways: agree that experience is an important cause of learning, include concepts of reinforcement and punishment in their explanations of learning, and agree that feedback is important in promoting learning. 6. As a teacher you should specify the behaviors you are going to reinforce so students and act and adapt accordingly and you should provide students clear feedback on their behavior. 7. “Cognitive modeling, the process of performing a demonstration combined with verbalizing the thinking behind the actions (Schunk,2004). Pg.182 Students can also learn by vicarious learninglearning through observing others actions. 8. “Self-regulation, the process of setting personal goals, combined with the motivation, thought processes, strategies, and behaviors that lead to reaching the goals (Simmerman & Schunk, 2001).” Pg.185 People learn through experiences and setting their own goals and making their own thoughts. You need to let the students learn through experience and form their own opinions.