Download Option 5 - Apps With Curriculum

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Latin syntax wikipedia, lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia, lookup

Spanish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Polish grammar wikipedia, lookup

Chinese grammar wikipedia, lookup

English clause syntax wikipedia, lookup

Esperanto grammar wikipedia, lookup

French grammar wikipedia, lookup

English grammar wikipedia, lookup

Equative wikipedia, lookup

Sloppy identity wikipedia, lookup

Relative clause wikipedia, lookup

Romanian grammar wikipedia, lookup

Comma wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
by
A Smarty
Activity
Cyndie Sebourn
&
Sascyn Publishing, Inc.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Sentence Options:
Compound and Complex
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Independent Clause
• An Independent Clause contains a Subject, a
Verb, and a Complete Thought.
• Think about the word “independent.” If you
are independent, you do not need anyone
else’s help.
• A clause that is independent can stand alone;
it does not need help from any other
sentences.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
•
•
•
•
Brush of Truth rocks!
Subject? Brush of Truth
Verb? Rocks
Complete Thought (does it make sense?) –
Absolutely!
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Compound Sentence: Option 1
• A compound sentence consists of at least two
independent clauses.
• Option 1 joins two independent clauses with a
comma and a coordinating conjunction (Your
Smarty Britches FANO: for, and, nor, but, or,
yet, so).
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• The sun is beginning to slide into the horizon,
and the evening feels warm.
• Clause #1: The sun is beginning to slide into
the horizon
• Clause #2: the evening feels warm
• Important: They are divided by a comma and
a coordinating conjunction! ,and
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Compound Sentence: Option 2
• Option 2 joins two Independent Clauses with
a semicolon. Do not capitalize after the
semicolon unless the word is a proper noun or
pronoun!
• It is so easy to change an Option 1 sentence to
an Option 2 sentence!
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• The sun is beginning to slide into the horizon,
and the evening feels warm. (Option 1)
• The sun is beginning to slide into the horizon;
the evening feels warm. (Option 2)
• Remove the comma and coordinating
conjunction and replace it with a semicolon.
• Remember not to capitalize the first word
after the semicolon unless it is a proper noun
pronoun!
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Compound Sentence: Option 3
• Option 3 joins two Independent Clauses with
a semicolon, a conjunctive (connective)
adverb, and a comma.
• Connective Adverbs: however, instead,
nevertheless, meanwhile, consequently,
therefore, furthermore, …
•
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• It is also easy to change an Option 1 or Option 2
sentence to an Option 3 sentence.
• The sun is beginning to slide into the horizon, and
the evening feels warm. (Option 1)
• The sun is beginning to slide into the horizon; the
evening feels warm. (Option 2)
• The sun is beginning to slide into the horizon;
consequently, the evening feels warm. (Option 3)
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Smarty Practice
• You are about to turn and jump back in the
surf, but something catches your eye. (Option
1)
• Change this to an Option 2 sentence.
• Change this to an Option 3 sentence.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Dependent Clause
• A Dependent Clause has a Subject and a Verb,
but it does not have a complete thought; it
doesn’t make sense by itself.
• Think about the word “dependent.” If you are
dependent upon others, you need their help.
• A Dependent Clause needs help from or is
dependent upon an Independent Clause.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• Dependent Clauses can also be called
Subordinate Clauses.
• Dependent Clauses create a complex
sentence.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Complex Sentence: Option 4
Adverb Dependent Clause
• Adverb Dependent Clauses begin with
subordinating conjunctions.
• Subordinating Conjunctions: since, because,
when, while, if, although, where, until, …
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• Option 4 sentences begin with an Adverb Dependent
Clause; this introductory clause is followed by a
comma.
• As you turn it over in your hands, your fingers feel a
slight indent. (Option 4)
• As you turn it over in your hands is dependent; it does
not make sense alone. It needs the Independent
Clause: your fingers feel a slight indent.
• Remember that a comma follows the introductory
Dependent Clause.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Complex Sentence: Option 5
Adverb Dependent Clause
• Again, Adverb Dependent Clauses begin with
subordinating conjunctions.
• Option 5 is opposite from Option 4 because
this sentence ends with the Dependent
Clause.
• Since it ends with the Dependent Clause,
there is no comma!
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• As you turn it over in your hands, your fingers
feel a slight indent. (Option 4)
• Your fingers feel a slight indent as you turn it
over in your hands. (Option 5)
• Just flip an Option 4 sentence’s clauses and
remove the comma, and you will have an
Option 5 sentence!
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Smarty Practice
• Change the following Option 4 sentences to
Option 5 sentences; remember there is no
comma when you flip the clauses!
• Because you have bravely volunteered to help
find the opal ring, you will be protected by The
Kingdom of the Deep.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• As your light grazes the headstones, you begin
to see the names carved in the rugged gray
surfaces.
• When it reaches its pincers up first, you act.
• Before you can protest, Hawaiian shirt has
bent over and scooped up the box.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Complex Sentence: Option 6
Adjective Clause
• Adjective Clauses are also Dependent Clauses that
describe something else in the sentence.
• Adjective Clauses begin with one of the following
relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom, whose.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• An Adjective Clause can be essential (needed
for the sentence to make sense) or
nonessential (not needed for the sentence to
make sense.
• If the adjective clause is essential, there will
not be commas around it.
• If the adjective clause is nonessential, there
will be commas around it.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
That and Which
• The Relative Pronoun “That” always begins an
Essential Adjective Clause, and it does not
have commas surrounding it.
• The Relative Pronoun “Which” always begins a
nonessential Adjective Clause, and it has
commas surrounding it.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Smarty Practice
• The little reddish-brown lump that is the
Queen edges over to The Brush and wraps her
form around it. Essential – needed!
• When you are hungry, you use the brush to
draw up a pizza, which you eat contentedly
while sitting cross-legged on the ocean floor.
Nonessential – not needed!
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Who, Whom, and Whose
• “Who,” “Whom,” and “Whose” can be essential or
nonessential, depending on whether or not the sentence
needs them to make sense.
• “Now you will join the others, who made their way before
you.” There is a comma before “who,” so the author meant
for it to be nonessential – not needed for the sentence to
make sense!
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Smarty Practice
• The story that Julie Landry Laviolette wrote is an
exciting choose your adventure story! Essential
or Nonessential?
• The story, which happens to be my favorite, has
many different endings. Essential or
Nonessential?
• The boy who is the smartest is also my cousin.
Essential or Nonessential?
• “Now you will join the others, who made their
way before you.” Essential or Nonessential?
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Noun Clauses: Option 7
• Remember that a Clause must have a subject and
a verb! If it is Independent, it makes sense by
itself. If it is Dependent, it does not make sense
by itself and needs help from an Independent
Clause!
• Noun Clauses perform the same functions in
sentences that nouns do: subject, direct object,
indirect object, predicate nominative/predicate
adjective, and object of the preposition.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Noun Clauses: Option 7
Starter Words
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
how
if
that
what
whatever
when
where
whether
which
who
whoever
whom
whomever
whose
why
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Noun Clause Functions
• Which ending we choose is not important. Subject
• You see what looks like a tiny lunch counter at a dollsized diner. Direct Object (who or what?)
• Please give whoever wants it the book. Indirect
Object (to whom?)
• It seems that the legend has been true after all.
Predicate Nominative (follows linking verbs)
• “But you must be careful of whom you trust in The
Kingdom of the Deep.” Object of the Prep
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Smarty Practice
• Whoever wants to read this book can.
• The author gave whoever wanted it a free
book.
• Studying hard is how I made good grades.
• You tell me what you think of the book.
• Listen carefully to what the characters say.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
Compound-Complex Sentences
Option 8
• A compound-complex sentence is simply
combining an Option 1, 3, or 3 sentence with
an Option 4, 5, 6, or 7 sentence.
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.
• Julie wrote the book, and Cyndie wrote the
lesson plans; when they were finished, they
were exhausted. CD/CX Option 8
• Julie wrote the book, and Cyndie wrote the
lesson plans (Option 1)
• when they were finished, they were
exhausted (Option 4)
This Smarty Activity is the intellectual
property of Cyndie Sebourn and Sascyn
Publishing, Inc.