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Name: _________________________________ Chapter 7: The Skeleton AXIAL SKELETON Skull 1. Using the key choices, identify the bones by the following descriptions. Enter the appropriate term or letter in the answer blanks. Key Choices A. Ethmoid B. Frontal C. Hyoid E. Mandible I. Palatines L. Temporals F. Maxillae J. Parietals M. Vomer G. Nasals K. Sphenoid N. Zygomatic D. Lacrimals H. Occipital ________________________ 1. Forehead bone ________________________ 2. Cheekbone ________________________ 3. Lower jaw ________________________ 4. Bridge of the nose ________________________ 5. Posterior part of hard palate ________________________ 6. Much of the lateral and superior cranium ________________________ 7. Most posterior part of cranium ________________________ 8. Single, irregular, bat-­‐shaped bone, forming part of the cranial floor ________________________ 9. Tiny bones, bearing tear ducts ________________________ 10. Anterior part of hard palate ________________________ 11. Superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections ________________________ 12. Site of mastoid process ________________________14. Site of styloid process 1 ________________________ 15. ________________________ 16. Four bones, containing paranasal sinuses ________________________ 17. ________________________ 18. ________________________ 19. Its condyles articulate with the atlas ________________________ 20. Foramen magnum contained here ________________________ 21. Middle ear found here ________________________ 22. Site of external acoustic meatus 2. The figures below show lateral, frontal views of the skull. Label the bones and markings using the list below. If you find the bone in both views, label both views. Frontal Parietal Mandible Maxilla Sphenoid Zygomatic Nasal Ethmoid Palatine Lacrimal Temporal Occipital Vomer Coronal Suture Mastoid Process Styloid Process Lambdoid Suture Zygomatic Process External Auditory Meatus Squamous Suture Tempromandibular Joint 2 3. Then briefly answer the following questions concerning the sinuses. 1. What are sinuses? 2. What purpose do they serve in the skull? 3. Why are they so susceptible to infection? 3 4. The following statements provide distinguishing characteristics of the vertebrae composing the vertebral column. Using the key choices, identify each described structure or region by inserting the appropriate term(s) or letter(s) in the spaces provided. Key Choices A. Atlas D. Coccyx F. Sacrum B. Axis E. Lumbar vertebra G. Thoracic vertebra C. Cervical vertebra—typical ________________________ 1. Type of vertebra(e) containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain ________________________ 2. Its den provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra ________________________ 3. Transverse processes have facets for articulation with ribs; spinous process points sharply downward ________________________ 4. Composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally ________________________ 5. Massive vertebrae; weight sustaining ________________________ 6. Tailbone; vestigial fused vertebrae ________________________ 7. Supports the head; allows the rocking motion of the occipital condyles ________________________ 8. Seven components; unfused ________________________ 9. Twelve components; unfused 4 5. Figure 5-­‐5, A-­‐C shows superior views of three types of vertebrae. In the spaces provided below each vertebra, indicate in which region of the spinal column it would be found. In addition, specifically identify Figure 5-­‐5A. Where indicated by leader lines, identify the vertebral body, spinous and transverse processes, superior articular processes, and vertebral foramen. A. _____________________________________ C. ____________________________________ B. _____________________________________ D. ____________________________________ 5 6. Figure 5-­‐6 is a lateral view of the vertebral column. Identify each numbered region of the column by listing the numbered answer blanks the region name first and then the specific vertebrae involved (for example, sacral region. S# to S#). Also identify the modified vertebrae indicated by numbers C1 and C2 in Figure 5-­‐6. Figure 5-­‐6 6 Bony Thorax 7. Complete the following statements referring to the bony thorax by inserting your responses in the answer blanks. ________________________ 1. The organs protected by the thoracic cage include the _(1)_ and the _(2)_. Ribs 1 through 7 are ________________________ 2. called _(3)_ ribs, whereas ribs 8 through 12 are called _(4)_ ribs. Ribs 11 and 12 are also called ________________________ 3. _(5)_ ribs. All ribs articulate posteriorly with the _(6)_, and most connect anteriorly to the _(7)_, ________________________ 4. either directly or indirectly. ________________________ 5. The general shape of the thoracic cage is _(8)_. ________________________ 6. ________________________ 7. ________________________ 8. 8. Figure 5-­‐7 is an anterior view of the bony thorax. Label the following: True Ribs False Ribs Sternum Body Maniubrum Xyphoid Process Figure 5-­‐7 7 APPENDICULAR SKELETON Several bones forming part of the upper limb and/or shoulder girdle are shown in Figure 5-­‐8 to 5-­‐11. Follow the specific directions for each figure. 9. Identify the bone in Figure 5-­‐8. Insert your answer in the blank below the illustration. Label the 4 Structures listed below. A. Spine B. Glenoid cavity C. Coracoid process D. Acromion _____________________________________________________ Figure 5-­‐8 8 10. Identify the bones in Figure 5-­‐9 by labeling bone 1, bone 2 (left) and 3 (right). Using the following terms, complete the illustration by labeling all bone markings below. A. Trochlear D. Capitulum H. Coronoid process B. Trochlea E. Deltoid tuberosity I. Olecranon process C. Radial tuberosity F. Head (three) J. Greater tubercle G. Styloid process K. Lesser tubercle Figure 5-­‐9 1. _________________________________ 2. _____________________________________ 3. _____________________________________ 9 11. Figure 5-­‐10 is a diagram of the hand. Using the terms below label the structures in the diagram. A. Carpals B. Metacarpals C. Phalanges Figure 5-­‐10 12. Compare the pectoral and pelvic girdles by choosing descriptive terms from the key choices. Insert the appropriate key letters in the answer blanks. Key Choices A. Flexibility D. Shallow socket for limb attachment B. Massive E. Deep, secure socket for limb attachment C. Lightweight F. Weight bearing Pectoral: _________, _________, _________ Pelvic: ________, ________, ________ 10 13. Using the key choices, identify the bone names or markings according to the descriptions that follow. Insert the appropriate term or letter in the answer blanks. Key Choices A. Acromion B. Capitulum C. Carpals D. Clavicle F. Coronoid fossa K. Olecranon fossa P. Scalpula G. Deltoid tuberosity L. Olecranon process Q. Sternum H. Glenoid cavity M. Phalanges I. Humerus R. Styloid process N. Radial tuberosity S. Trochlea E. Coracoid process J. Metacarpal O. Radius T. Ulna ________________________ 1. Raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches ________________________ 2. Arm bone ________________________ 3. ________________________ 4. Bones of the shoulder girdle ________________________ 5. ________________________ 6. Forearm bones ________________________ 7. Point where scapula and clavicle connect ________________________ 8. Shoulder girdle bone that had no attachment to the axial skeleton ________________________ 9. Shoulder girdle bon that articulates anteriorly with the sternum ________________________10. Socket in the scapula for the arm bone ________________________ 11. Process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment ________________________ 12. Commonly called the collarbone ________________________ 13. Distal medial process of the humerus; joins the ulna ________________________ 14.Medial bone of the forearm in anatomical position ________________________ 15. Rounded knob on the humerus that articulates with the radius 11 ________________________ 16. Anterior depression; superior to the trochlea; receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed ________________________ 17. Forearm bone involved in formation of elbow joint ________________________ 18. ________________________ 19. Bones that articulate with the clavicle ________________________ 20. Bones of the wrist ________________________ 21. Bones of the fingers ________________________ 22. Heads of these bones form the knuckles 14. Figure 5-­‐11 is a diagram of the articulated pelvis. Identify the bones and bone markings listed below. A. Coxal bone B. Pubic symphysis C. Sacrum D. Acetabulum E. Pubic Bone F. Pubic Arch G. Iliac Crest H. Ishium I. Coccyx J. Illium K. Pubic Arch List three ways in which the female pelvis differs from the male pelvis. 12 15. Circle the term that does not belong in each of the following groupings. 1. Tibia Ulna Fibula Femur 2. Skull Rib cage Vertebral Column Pelvis 3. Ischium Scapula Ilium Pubis 4. Mandible Frontal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone 5. Calcaneus Tarsals Carpals Talus 16. Using key choices identify the bone names and markings, according to the descriptions that follow. Insert the appropriate key term(s) or letter(s) in the answer blanks. Key Choices A. Acetabulum B. Calcaneus C. Femur D. Fibula I. Ilium J. Ischial tuberosity R. Pubic symphysis K. Ischium S. Pubis L. Lateral malleolus T. Sacroiliac joint M. Lesser sciatic notch U. Talus N. Medial malleolus V. Tarsals E. Gluteal tuberosity Q. Patella F. Greater sciatic notch G. Greater and lesser trochanters O. Metatarsals H. Iliac crest P. Obturator foramen W. Tibia X. Tibial tuberosity ________________________ 1. Fuse to form the coxal bone (hip bone) ________________________ 2. Receives the weight of the body when sitting ________________________ 3. Point where the coxal bone join anteriorly ________________________ 4. Upper margin of iliac bones ________________________ 5. Deep socket in the hip bone that receives the head of the thigh bone ________________________ 6. Point where axial skeleton attaches to the pelvic girdle ________________________ 7. Longest bone in the body, articulates with the coxal bone 13 ________________________ 8. Lateral bone of the leg ________________________ 9. Medial bone of the leg ________________________ 10. Bones forming the knee joint ________________________ 11. Point where the patellar ligament attaches ________________________ 12. Kneecap ________________________ 13. Shinbone ________________________ 14. Distal process on medial tibial surface ________________________ 15. Process forming the outer ankle ________________________ 16. Heel bone ________________________ 17. Bones of the ankle ________________________ 18. Bones forming the instep of the foot ________________________ 19. Opening in a coxal bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami ________________________ 20. Sites of muscle attachment on the proximal end of the femur ________________________ 21. Tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia 17. If the following statement is true, insert T in the answer blank. If the statement is false, correct the underlined term by inserting the correct term in the blank. ________________________ 1. The pectoral girdle is formed by the articulation of the hip bones and the sacrum. ________________________ 2. Bone present in both the hand and the foot are carpals. ________________________ 3. The tough, fibrous connective tissue covering of a bone is the periosteum. ________________________ 4. The point of fusion of the three bones forming a coxal bone is the glenoid cavity. 14 ________________________ 5. The large nerve that must be avoided when giving injections into the buttock muscles is the femoral nerve. ________________________ 6. The long bones of a fetus are constructed of hyaline cartilage. ________________________ 7. Bones that provide the most protection to the abdominal viscera are the ribs. ________________________ 8. The largest foramen in the skull is the foramen magnum. ________________________ 9. The intercondylar fossa, greater trochanter, and tibial tuberosity are all bone markings of the humerus. 18. The bones of the thigh and the leg are shown in Figure 5-­‐12. Identify each and put your answers in the blanks labeled 1, 2 (left), and 3 (right). Complete the illustration by inserting the terms indicating bone markings at the ends of the appropriate leader lines in the figure. A. Femur E. Tibia I. Fibula B. Head of femur F. Anterior border of tibia C. Intercondylar eminence G. Lesser trochanter D. Tibial tuberosity J. Head of fibula K. Medial malleolus H. Greater trochanter L. Lateral malleolus 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 1. __________________________ 15 19. Figure 5-­‐13 is a diagram of the articulated skeleton. Identify all bones or groups of bones by writing the terms. . 24. __________________________________ 25. __________________________________ 26. __________________________________ 27. __________________________________ 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ 3. ____________________________________ 4. ____________________________________ 5. ____________________________________ 6. ____________________________________ 7. ____________________________________ 8. ____________________________________ 9. ____________________________________ 10. __________________________________ 11. __________________________________ 12. __________________________________ 13. __________________________________ 14. __________________________________ 15. __________________________________ 16. __________________________________ 17. __________________________________ 18. __________________________________ 19. __________________________________ 20. __________________________________ 21. __________________________________ 22. __________________________________ 23. __________________________________ 16