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Transcript
The Bones of Limbs
SHANDONG UNIVERSITY
Liu Zhiyu
Bones of upper limb
Composition:
 Should girdle
 Clavicle
 Scapula
 Bones of free upper limb
 Arm: humerus
 Forearm



Radius
Ulna
Bones of hand



Carpal bones
Metacarpal bones
Phalanges of fingers
Clavicle


“S” shaped, medial 2/3
convex forward and
lateral 1/3 convex
backward
Sternal end medially
and acromial end
laterally
Scapula
Three borders



Superior: coracoid process
scapular notch
Lateral (axillary) border
Medial (vertebral) border
Three angles



Superior: opposite to the 2nd rib
Inferior: opposite to the 7th rib or 7th intercostals space
Lateral: glenoid cavity
supra- and infraglenoid tubercles
Two surfaces


Anterior surface concave:
subscapular fossa
Posterior surface:



spine of scapula
acromion
supra- and infraspinous fossae
Humerus
Upper end:








Head of humerus
Anatomical neck
Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle
Crest of greater tubercle
Crest of lesser tubercle
Intertubercular groove
Surgical neck
Humerus
Shaft:
 Deltoid
tuberosity (on
lateral surface)
 Groove
for radial
nerve (on posterior
surface)
Humerus
Lower end:

Lateral epicondyle

Medial epicondyle

Capitulum

Trochlea

Coranoid fossa (anteriorly)

Radial fossa (anteriorly)

Olecranon fossa (posteriorly)

Sulcus for ulnar nerve
Radius
Upper end:




head of radius
neck of radius
radial tuberosity
articular circumference
Shaft:

interosseous border
Lower end:



styloid process (laterally)
ulnar notch (medially)
carpal articular surface (inferiorly)
Ulnar
Upper end:





Olecranon
coronoid process
trochlear notch
radial notch
ulnar tubersity
Lower end


styloid process
head of ulna
Anteroposterior radiograph of the forearm of
a girl aged 11
Colles’ fracture


Normally, the radial styloid
process projects further
distally than the ulnar
styloid process.
Consequently, when
fracture within the distal 2
cm of the radius (Colles’
fracture) occurs, this
relationship is reversed
because of shortening of
the radius.
Carpal bones
Proximal row ― (lateral to medial)




Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetral
Pisiform
Distal row ― (lateral to medial)




Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate
Carpal bones
H.
C.
Td.
Tm.
Tq.
P.
L.
scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
S.
Metacarpal bones

Numbered one to five from
thumb to little finger

Structure of each



base (proximally)
Shaft
head (distally)
Phalanges of fingers


Consist of 14 ―two for first
digit (thumb) and three for
each of other four digits
Structure of each




base (proximally)
Shaft
trochlea of phalanx (distally)
tuberosity of distal phalanx
Bones of Lower Limb
Composition:
 Pelvic girdle: hip bone
 Bones of free lower limb:

Thigh



Leg



Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
Foot



Tarsal bones
Metatarsal bones
Phalanges of toes
Hip bone
Consisting of three fused
bones



Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
Acetabulum




Formed by bodies of ilium,
ischium and pubis
Lunate surface
Acetabular fossa
Acetabular notch
Ilium
Body of ilium
Ala of ilium












Iliac crest
Anterior superior iliac spine
Anterior inferior iliac spine
Tubercle of iliac crest
Posterior superior iliac spine
Posterior inferior iliac spine
Greater sciatic notch
Gluteal surface
Iliac fossa
Arcuate line
Auricular surface
Iliac tuberosity

An imaginary line joining
the highest point on the
iliac crests over the fourth
lumbar spine.
Ischium





Body of ischium
Ischial spine
Lesser sciatic notch
Ramus of ischium
ischial tuberosity
Pubis

Body of pubis


Superior ramus of pubis





Iliopubic eminence
pecten of pubis
pubic tubercle
pubic crest
symphysial surface
Inferior ramus of pubis

Obturator foramen
Femur
Upper end







Femoral head
Fovea of femoral head
Neck of femur
Greater trochanter
Lesser trochanter
Intertrochanteric line
Intertrochanteric crest
Fracture of the femoral neck
Femur
Shaft:




Linea aspera
Gluteal tuberosity
Pectineal line
Popliteal surface
Femur
Lower end:







Medial condyle
Lateral condyle
Medial epicondyle
Lateral epicondyle
Adductor tubercle
Intercondylar fossa
Patellar surface
Tibia
Upper end:




Medial and lateral condyles
Intercondylar eminence
fibular articular surface
tuberosity of tibia
Shaft


Interosseous border
Soleal line
Lower end:


Fibular notch
Medial malleolus
Fibula
Upper end:


fibular head
neck of fibula
Shaft:

interosseous border
Lower end:

lateral malleolus
Patella

triangular sesamoid bone
Tarsal bones
Consist of seven short bones arranged in three
row
Posterior row


talus
calcaneus
Intermediate row

navicular bone
Anterior row




Medial cuneiform
Intermediate cuneiform
lateral cuneiform
cuboid bone
Metatarsal bones


Consist of five elongated bones,
numbered one to five medial to
lateral
Structure of each ―base (proximally),
shaft, and head (distally) in each
Phalanges of toes
Consist of 14―two for first toe
(hallux) and three for each of
other four toes
※Surface landmarks:




trochlea of talus
calcaneal tuberosity
tuberosity of navicular bone
tuberosity of fifth metatarsal
bone