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Hole’s Human Anatomy
and Physiology
Twelfth Edition
Shier w Butler w Lewis
Chapter
7
Skeletal System
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1
7.1: Introduction
• Human skeleton initially cartilages and fibrous membranes
• Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant cartilage
• By age 25 the skeleton is completely hardened growth
ceases
• 206 bones make up the adult skeleton (20% of body mass)
• 80 bones of the axial skeleton
• 126 bones of the appendicular skeleton
2
7.2: Bone Structure
• Bones of the skeletal system vary greatly in size and
shape
• There is similarity in structure, development, and
function
3
Support, Protection,
and Movement
• Support, Movement & Protection
• Gives shape to head, etc.
• Supports body’s weight
• Protects lungs, etc.
• Bones and muscles interact
• When limbs or body parts move
4
Bone Classification
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
• Bone Classification:
• Long Bones
• Short Bones
• Sesamoid Bones
• Flat Bones
• Irregular Bones
(b)
(c)
• Wormian Bones
(d)
5
(a)
(e)
Parts of a Long Bone
• Epiphysis
• Distal
• Proximal
• Diaphysis
• Metaphysis
• Compact bone
• Spongy bone
• Articular cartilage
• Periosteum
• Endosteum
• Medullary cavity
• Trabeculae
• Bone marrow
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Epiphyseal plates
Articular cartilage
Proximal
epiphysis
Spongy bone
Space containing
red marrow
Endosteum
Compact bone
Medullary cavity
Yellow marrow
Diaphysis
Periosteum
Distal
epiphysis
• Red marrow and yellow marrow
Femur
6
Microscopic Structure
• Bone cells are called osteocytes
• Osteocytes transport nutrients and wastes
• The extracellular matrix of bone is largely collagen and
inorganic salts
• Collagen gives bone resilience
• Inorganic salts make bone hard
7
Compact Bone
• Osteon
aka Haversian System
• Central canal
• Perforating canal aka
Volkmann’s canal
• Osteocytes
• Lamellae
• Lacunae
• Bone matrix
• Canaliculi
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Osteon
Central canal
containing blood
vessels and nerves
Endosteum
Periosteum
Nerve
Blood
vessels
Pores
Central
canal
Perforating
canal
Compact
bone
Nerve
Blood
vessels
Nerve
Trabeculae
Bone matrix
Canaliculus
Osteocyte
Lacuna
(space)
8
Spongy Bone
• Spongy bone is aka cancellous bone
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Spongy
bone
Compact
bone
(a)
Remnant of
epiphyseal plate
Spongy bone
Compact bone
(b)
(c)
Spongy
bone
Compact
bone
a: © Ed Reschke; b,c: Courtesy of John W. Hole, Jr.
9
7.3: Bone Development
and Growth
• Parts of the skeletal system begin to develop during the
first few weeks of prenatal development
• Bones replace existing connective tissue in one of two
ways:
• As intramembranous bones
• As endchondral bones
10
Intramembranous Bones
• Intramembranous Bones
• These bones originate within sheetlike layers of
connective tissues
• They are the broad, flat bones
• Skull bones (except mandible)
• Are known as intramembranous bones
11
Endochondral Bones
• Endochondral Bones
• Bones begin as hyaline cartilage
• Form models for future bones
• These are most bones of the skeleton
• Are known as endochondral bones
12
Endochondral Ossification
• Hyaline cartilage model
• Primary ossification center
• Secondary ossification centers
• Epiphyseal plate
• Osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Cartilaginous
model
Developing
periosteum
Remnants of
epiphyseal
plates
Secondary
ossification
center
Compact bone
developing
Spongy
bone
Epiphyseal
plates
Blood
vessel
Calcified
cartilage
(a)
(b)
Medullary
cavity
(c)
Medullary
cavity
Compact
bone
Medullary
cavity
Remnant of
epiphyseal
plate
Epiphyseal
plate
Primary
ossification
center
Secondary
ossification
center
(d)
Articular
cartilage
Spongy
bone
Articular
cartilage
(e)
(f)
13
Animation:
Bone Growth in Width
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14
Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
• First layer of cells
Bone tissue
of epiphysis
• Closest to the end of
epiphysis
• Resting cells
• Anchors epiphyseal plate
to epiphysis
1 Zone of
resting
cartilage
2 Zone of
proliferating
cartilage
3 Zone of
hypertrophic
cartilage
• Second layer of cells
4 Zone of
calcified
cartilage
• Many rows of young
cells
• Undergoing mitosis
Ossified
bone of
diaphysis
(a)
(b)
b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
15
Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
• Third layer of cells
Bone tissue
of epiphysis
• Older cells
• Left behind when new
cells appear
• Cells enlarging and
becoming calcified
1 Zone of
resting
cartilage
2 Zone of
proliferating
cartilage
3 Zone of
hypertrophic
cartilage
• Fourth layer of cells
4 Zone of
calcified
cartilage
• Thin
• Dead cells
• Calcified
extracellular matrix
Ossified
bone of
diaphysis
(a)
(b)
b: © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer
16
Homeostasis of Bone Tissue
• Bone Resorption – action of osteoclasts and parathyroid
hormone aka parathormone aka PTH
• Bone Deposition – action of osteoblasts and calcitonin
• Occurs by direction of the thyroid and parathyroid glands
•Figure 7.13 page 205
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Developing
medullary
cavity
Osteoclast
17
© Biophoto Associates/Photo Researchers, Inc.
Factors Affecting Bone
Development, Growth and Repair
• Deficiency of Vitamin A – retards bone development
• Deficiency of Vitamin C – results in fragile bones
• Deficiency of Vitamin D – rickets, osteomalacia
• Insufficient Growth Hormone – dwarfism
• Excessive Growth Hormone – gigantism, acromegaly
• Insufficient Thyroid Hormone – delays bone growth
• Sex Hormones – promote bone formation; stimulate ossification
of epiphyseal plates
• Physical Stress – stimulates bone growth
18
7.1 Clinical Application
Fractures
Page 202
19
Blood Cell Formation
• Blood Cell Formation
• Also known as hematopoiesis
• Occurs in the red bone marrow
20
Inorganic Salt Storage
• Inorganic Salt Storage
• Calcium
• Phosphate
• Magnesium
• Sodium
• Potassium
21
7.2 Clinical Application
Osteopenia and Osteoporosis:
Preventing “Fragility Fractures”
Page 204
22