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Date:_____________ Period:_____
Anatomy/Physiology Unit 6 – Overview
Schedule – March 13, 2008 through May 20, 2008; Unit Exam Tue 5/20/08; Semester Final May 29-30,2008
Unit 6. Physiology Key Standards (2nd Semester)
a. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the reproductive organ system.
(CCS 9a, 9b, 9e)
b. Students will identify how pathogens such as HIV invade the body and how the immune system uses
various mechanisms to defend and protect the body. (CCS 10a, 10b, 10c, 10e)
c. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the digestive organ system,
including the function of macromolecules and their synthesis from simple precursors. (CCS 1b. 1h.
4e. 4f, 9a, 9b, 9c)
d. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the nervous organ system. (CCS
9a, 9b, 9e)
e. Students will describe and explain the structures and functions of the cardiovascular organ system.
(CCS 9a, 9b, 9e)
Note: The abbreviation CCS stands for California Content Standards referenced below.
California Standards Physiology
9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of
the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment. As a
basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen
and nutrients and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.
b. Students know how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the
body and the body's interactions with the environment.
Students know how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in
the body.
d. Students know the functions of the nervous system and the role of neurons in transmitting
electrochemical impulses.
e. Students know the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation,
thought, and response.
10. Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease. As a basis for understanding the human
immune response:
a. Students know the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection.
b. Students know the role of antibodies in the body's response to infection.
Students know how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases.
d. Students know there are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to
their requirements for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses against bacterial and
viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.
e. Students know why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with
AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections by microorganisms that are usually benign.
* Students know the roles of phagocytes, B-lymphocytes, and T-lymphocytes in
the immune system
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Textbook Chapters
Chapter 32 Integumentary, Skeletal, and Muscular Systems (pg 934 - 959)
Chapter 33* Nervous System (pg 960 - 989)
Chapter 34* Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory System (pg 990 – 1017)
Chapter 35* Digestive and Endocrine Systems (pg 1018 – 1045)
Chapter 36* Human Reproduction and Development (pg 1046 - 1073).
Chapter 37* Immunology (pg 1074 – 1103)
Note: * indicates that the chapter will be studied in greater detail.
Class Website –;
Human Anatomy:
Tentative Schedule
Week 1: 3/17 - 2/21 – Unit 6 Quiz 1
Week 2: 3/24 - 3/28 Easter Break
Week 3: 3/31 - 4/4 – Unit 6 Quiz 2
Week 4: 4/7 - 4/11 – Unit 6 Quiz 3
Week 5: 4/14 - 4/18 – Unit 6 Quiz 4 CST Review
Week 6: 4/21 – 4/25 - CST Testing
Week 7: 4/28 – 5/2 – Unit 6 Quiz 5
Week 8: 5/5 – 5/9 – Unit 6 Review
Week 9: 5/12 – 5/16 – Unit 6 Exam
Week 10: 5/19 – 5/23 – Semester Final Review
Week 11: 5/26 – 5/30 – Semester Final
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
From the individual cell to the total organism, each functioning unit is organized according to
homeostasis, or how the body and its parts deal with changing demands while maintaining a constant
internal environment. In 1859 noted French physiologist Claude Bernard described the difference
between the internal environment of the cells and the external environment in which the organism
lives. Organisms are shielded from the variations of the external environment by the “constancy of
the internal milieu.” This “steady state” refers to the dynamic equilibrium achieved by the
integrated functioning of all the parts of the organism. American physiologist Walter Cannon called
this phenomenon homeostasis, which means “standing still.” All organ systems of the human body
contribute to homeostasis so that blood and tissue constituents and values stay within a normal
range. A supportive review of the major systems of the body and of the organ components of those
systems of information taught in grade five and grade seven.
The digestive system delivers nutrients (e.g., glucose) to the circulatory system. Oxygen
molecules move from the air to the alveoli of the lungs and then to the circulatory system. From
the circulatory system glucose and oxygen molecules move from the capillaries into the cells of the
body where cellular respiration occurs. During cellular respiration these molecules are oxidized into
carbon dioxide and water, and energy is trapped in the form of ATP. The gas exchange process is
reversed for the removal of carbon dioxide from its higher concentration in the cells to the
circulatory system and, finally, to its elimination by exhalation from the lungs.
The concentration of sugar in the blood is monitored, and students should know that sugar can be
stored or pulled from reserves (glycogen) in the liver and muscles to maintain a constant blood sugar
level. Amino acids contained in proteins can also serve as an energy source, but first the amino acids
must be deaminated, or chemically converted, in the liver, producing ammonia (a toxic product),
which is converted to water-soluble urea and excreted by the kidneys. Teachers should emphasize
that all these chemicals are transported by the circulatory system and the cells. Organs at the final
destination direct these chemicals to their exit from the circulatory system.
As the prime coordinators of the body’s activities, the nervous and endocrine systems must be
examined and their interactive roles clearly defined. An individual becomes aware of the
environment through the sense organs and other body receptors (e.g., by allowing for touch, taste,
and smell and by collecting information about temperature, light, and sound). The body reflexively
responds to external stimuli through a reflex arc. A reflex arc is the pathway along the central
nervous system where an impulse must travel to bring about a reflex; e.g., sneezing or coughing.
Review the sense organs, identify other body receptors that make humans aware of their
environment, and see ways in which the body reflexively responds to an external stimulus through a
reflex arc. Hormones work in conjunction with the nervous system, as shown, for ex-ample, in the
digestive system, where insulin released from the pancreas into the blood regulates the uptake of
glucose by muscle cells. The pituitary master gland produces growth hormone for controlling height.
Other pituitary hormones have specialized roles (e.g., follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and
luteinizing hormone [LH] control the gonads, thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] controls the
thyroid, and adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] regulates the formation of glucocorticoids by
the adrenal cortex). This master gland is itself controlled by the hypothalamus of the brain.
Feedback loops are the means through which the nervous system uses the endocrine system to
regulate body conditions. The presence or absence of hormones in blood brought to the brain by
the circulatory system will trigger an attempt to regulate conditions in the body. The hormone
leptin, is used to illustrate the relevance of feedback loops. Leptin is produced by fat cells as they
become filled with storage reserves. Leptin is carried by the blood to the brain, where it normally
acts to inhibit the appetite center, an example of negative feedback. When fat reserves diminish,
the concentration of leptin decreases, a phenomenon that in turn causes the appetite center in the
brain to start the hunger stimulus and activate the urge to eat.
Transmission of nerve impulses involves an electrochemical “action potential” generated by
gated ion channels in the membrane that make use of the countervailing gradients of sodium and
potassium ions across the membrane. Potassium ion concentration is high inside cells and low
outside; sodium ion concentration is the opposite. The sodium and potassium ion concentration
gradients are restored by an active transport system, a pump that exchanges sodium and potassium
ions across the membrane and uses ATP hydrolysis as a source of free energy. The release of
neurotransmitter chemicals from the axon terminal at the synapse may initiate an action potential
in an adjacent neuron, propagating the impulse to a new cell.
The pathways of impulses from dendrite to cell body to axon of sensory neurons, interneurons,
and motor neurons link the chains of events that occur in a reflex action. You should be able to
diagram this pathway. Similar paths of neural connections lead to the brain, where the sensations
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
become conscious and conscious actions are initiated in response to external stimuli. You should
also be able to identify gray and white matter in the central nervous system.
Some bacteria, parasites, and viruses cause human diseases because they either rob the body
of necessary sustenance or secrete toxins that cause injury. The human body has a variety of
mechanisms to interfere with or destroy invading pathogens. Besides protection afforded by the
skin, one of the most effective means of defending against agents that harm the body is the immune
system with its cellular and chemical defenses. A clear understanding of the components of the
immune system and knowledge of how vaccines and antibiotics are used to combat disease is needed
to understand why certain medical procedures are necessary. You should also know that acquired
immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) compromises the immune system, causing affected persons to
succumb to other AIDS-associated infections that are harmless to people with an intact immune
The skin serves as a physical barrier to prevent the passage of many disease-causing
microorganisms. Cuts and abrasions compromise the skin’s ability to act as a barrier. Dangers and
physiologic responses occur with a break in the skin.
Cells produce antibodies to oppose antigens, substances that are foreign to the body. An example
of an antigen is a surface protein of a flu virus, a protein with a shape and structure unlike those of
any human proteins. The immune system recognizes that the flu virus structure is different and
generates proteins called antibodies that bind to the flu virus. Antibodies can inactivate pathogens
directly or signal immune cells that pathogens are present.
Several weeks are required before the immune system develops immunity to a new antigen. To
overcome this problem, vaccinations safely give the body a look in advance at the foreign
structures. Vaccines usually contain either weakened or killed pathogens that are responsible for a
specific infectious disease, or they may contain a purified protein or subunit from the pathogen.
Although the vaccine does not cause an infectious disease, the antigens in the mixture prompt the
body to generate antibodies to oppose the pathogen. When the individual is exposed to the
pathogenic agent, perhaps years later, the body still remembers having seen the antigens in the
vaccine dose and can respond quickly. You have been exposed to the practical aspects of
immunization through your knowledge of the vaccinations you must receive before you can enter
school. You have all experienced getting shots and may have seen your personal vaccination record
in which dates and kinds of inoculations are recorded.
Early literature provides descriptions of vaccine use from pragmatic exposure, but the term
vaccine is derived from the cowpox exudate that Edward Jenner used during the 1700s to
inoculate villagers against the more pathogenic smallpox. Louis Pasteur, noted for his discovery of
the rabies treatment, also developed several vaccines. Poliovirus, the cause of infantile paralysis
(poliomyelitis), was finally conquered in the 1950s through vaccines that Jonas Salk and Albert B.
Sabin refined. A virus, which is the simplest form of a genetic entity, is incapable of metabolic life
and reproduction outside the cells of other living organisms. A virus contains genetic material but
has no ribosomes. Although some viruses are benign, many harm their host organism by destroying
or altering its cell structures. Generally, the body perceives viruses as antigens and produces
antibodies to counteract the virus. Bacteria are organisms with a full cellular structure. They, too,
can be benign or harmful. Harmful bacteria and their toxins are perceived as antigens by the body,
which in turn produces antibodies. In some cases infectious diseases may be treated effectively
with antiseptics, which are chemicals that oxidize or in other ways inactivate the infecting
organism. Antiseptics are also useful in decontaminating surfaces with which the body may come in
contact (e.g., countertops). Antibiotics are effective in treating bacterial infections, sometimes
working by destroying or interfering with the growth of bacterial cell walls or the functioning of
cell wall physiology or by inhibiting bacterial synthesis of DNA, RNA, or proteins. Antibiotics are
ineffective in treating viral infections.
You will learn about infections caused by protists (malaria, amoebic dysentery), bacteria (blood
poisoning, botulism, food poisoning, tuberculosis), and viruses (rabies, colds, influenza, AIDS). A
brief review will occur of the dangers of common bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics through
long-standing over-application, as shown by the increasing incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis
and other bacteria.
When an immune system is compromised (e.g., through infection by the human immunodeficiency
virus [HIV]), it becomes either unable to recognize a dangerous antigen or incapable of mounting an
appropriate defense. This situation happens when the virus infects and destroys key cells in the
immune system.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
1. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)_____________________________________
2. Alveoli___________________________________________________________________
3. Amino acid________________________________________________________________
4. Antibiotics________________________________________________________________
5. Antibodies________________________________________________________________
6. Antigen__________________________________________________________________
7. Aorta___________________________________________________________________
8. Arteries__________________________________________________________________
9. Arteriole_________________________________________________________________
10. Axon ____________________________________________________________________
11. Axon terminal_____________________________________________________________
12. Bacteria__________________________________________________________________
13. Bile _____________________________________________________________________
14. Blood____________________________________________________________________
15. Bone marrow_______________________________________________________________
16. Brain stem________________________________________________________________
17. Cancer___________________________________________________________________
18. Capillaries________________________________________________________________
19. Cardiovascular system_______________________________________________________
20. Cerebellum________________________________________________________________
21. Cerebrum_________________________________________________________________
22. Cervix___________________________________________________________________
23. Chemo receptor ____________________________________________________________
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
24. Cholesterol_______________________________________________________________
25. Dendrites_________________________________________________________________
26. Digestive system ___________________________________________________________
27. Disease__________________________________________________________________
28. Egg_____________________________________________________________________
29. Embryo__________________________________________________________________
30. Endocrine_________________________________________________________________
31. Epididymous_______________________________________________________________
32. Erythrocyte_______________________________________________________________
33. Estrogen_________________________________________________________________
34. Fatty Acid________________________________________________________________
35. Fallopian tube_____________________________________________________________
36. Fertilization_______________________________________________________________
37. Fetus____________________________________________________________________
38. Gland___________________________________________________________________
39. Helper T-cell______________________________________________________________
40. Histamine_________________________________________________________________
41. HIV____________________________________________________________________
42. Homeostasis_______________________________________________________________
43. Hormones_________________________________________________________________
44. Hypothalamus______________________________________________________________
45. Immune system____________________________________________________________
46. Immunity, active___________________________________________________________
47. Immunity, passive___________________________________________________________
48. Insulin___________________________________________________________________
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
49. Interneurons______________________________________________________________
50. Killer T-cell_______________________________________________________________
51. Leukocytes________________________________________________________________
52. Lungs____________________________________________________________________
53. Lymphocyte_______________________________________________________________
54. Medulla oblongata___________________________________________________________
55. Menstruation______________________________________________________________
56. Myelin shealth_____________________________________________________________
57. Motor neurons_____________________________________________________________
58. Mucus___________________________________________________________________
59. Nerve___________________________________________________________________
60. Neuron___________________________________________________________________
61. Nervous system____________________________________________________________
62. Olfactory_________________________________________________________________
63. Ovary____________________________________________________________________
64. Ovulation_________________________________________________________________
65. Ovum____________________________________________________________________
66. Pathogen_________________________________________________________________
67. Penis____________________________________________________________________
68. Peristalsis________________________________________________________________
69. Plasma ___________________________________________________________________
70. Platelets_________________________________________________________________
71. Peptide_________________________________________________________________
72. Polypeptide________________________________________________________________
73. Progesterone______________________________________________________________
74. Protein___________________________________________________________________
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
75. Reproductive system_________________________________________________________
76. Scrotum__________________________________________________________________
77. Semen___________________________________________________________________
78. Seminal fluid______________________________________________________________
79. Seminiferous Tubule_________________________________________________________
80. Sensory neurons___________________________________________________________
81. Sperm___________________________________________________________________
82. Synapses_________________________________________________________________
83. Testes___________________________________________________________________
84. Testosterone______________________________________________________________
85. Thalamus_________________________________________________________________
86. Urethra__________________________________________________________________
87. Uterus___________________________________________________________________
88. Vaccination________________________________________________________________
89. Vaccine__________________________________________________________________
90. Vagina___________________________________________________________________
91. Vas Deferens______________________________________________________________
92. Vena cava_________________________________________________________________
93. Venule___________________________________________________________________
94. Virus____________________________________________________________________
95. Zygote___________________________________________________________________
96. Abdominal cavity___________________________________________________________
97. Catalyst__________________________________________________________________
98. Feedback systems __________________________________________________________
99. Follicle___________________________________________________________________
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Photo receptor__________________________________________________________
Structures and Functions of Male and Female Reproductive Organs
Structures and Functions of the Digestive System
Structures and Functions of the nervous organ system.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Structures and Functions of the nervous organ system.
Structures and Functions of the cardiovascular organ system.
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
Anatomy/ Physiology Study Guide
1. Describe the correct path of sperm through the male reproductive system.
2. Fertilization occurs in the
, and implantation occurs in the
3. The male parent produces sex cells called
4. The
make sperm and testosterone.
5. The temperature in the scrotum is the same or different than body temperature? Explain.
6. A healthy adult male produces several hundred million
7. In the female reproductive system, the
8. During
each day.
produce(s) the eggs.
, an egg is released when a follicle ruptures.
9. Which hormone causes the final preparation of the uterus to receive the embryo and inhibits
initiation of the next menstrual cycle?
10. Within which structure in the picture does fertilization normally occur and what is this
structure called?
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
11. The nose is protected from pathogens by
12. What are the major structures of the immune system?
13. Antibodies are produced by
Disease can be caused by
After a virus is trapped by mucus in the nose, it is usually
Transplanted organs that are rejected by the new body are destroyed by
The part of the pathogen that is remembered by the immune system is
The HIV virus attacks
What is the function of the immune system?
20. An organism develops active immunity as a result of
Cholesterol, sex hormones and large amounts of stored energy are examples of what type of
Proteins differ from each other by
What are some characteristics of enzymes?
What are some characteristics of nucleic acids?
Although there are a limited number of amino acids, many different types of proteins exist
26. The wave of muscular contraction that pushes food through the esophagus is called
A digestive function of organ F is the synthesis and secretion of
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
28. The principal function of structure X is to
29. To remove the pancreas, a surgeon would have to enter which cavity?
30. What are the receptors for smelling called?
Which part of the brain regulates blood pressure?
32. Specialized cells called
transfer messages
throughout your body in the form of fast-moving electrical energy.
Examine the illustration of a neuron below and answer the questions that follow.
33. The structures labeled A are called
34. The structures labeled B are called
35. The structures labeled C are called
36. The structures labeled D are called
37. From a neuron's cell body, information is transmitted to other cells by a fiber called a(n)
38. Special neurons called
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview
send impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles.
39. The part of your brain that connects to your spinal cord is called the
primarily controls activities such as speaking, reading, writing, and solving
Where are blood cells made?
What prevents blood from flowing backward in veins?
The close arrangement of alveoli and capillaries allows
The cardiovascular system is made up of which organs?
are the smallest blood vessels in your body.
46. When you exercise, your heart beats faster because
47. Which part of human blood is primarily responsible for transporting nutrients, hormones and
48. To determine heart rate, a student should count the pulsations per minute in
49. What sequence represents the normal pathway of blood?
50. How would you best describe the blood pumped from the structure labeled E?
Anatomy/Physiology Unit Overview