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Transcript

Unit 1: Mechanical Equilibrium Mechanical Equilibrium PACING Big Idea / Key Concepts Big Idea: Suggested Pacing: 15 Days An object in mechanical equilibrium is stable, without changes in motion. Key Concepts Chapter: Two 2.1: 2.2: 2.3: 2.4: 2.5: Force Mechanical Equilibrium Support Force Equilibrium for Moving Objects Vectors Suggested Performance Assessment Student Outcomes At the conclusion of Unit 1 Student will be able to do the following: Explain the idea of equilibrium and define the term force. An object in mechanical equilibrium is stable, without changes in motion. Explain the idea of equilibrium and define the term force. You can express the equilibrium rule mathematically as ∑F = 0. Discover that when forces acting on an object are balanced the object will be in equilibrium. For an object at rest on a horizontal surface, the support force must equal the object’s weight. Objects at rest are said to be in static equilibrium; objects moving at constant speed in a straight-line path are said to be in dynamic equilibrium. The sum of two or more vectors is called their resultant. Overarching Questions: 1. What is the difference between force and net force? 2. How are forces visually represented and added? 3. How can you express the equilibrium rule mathematically? 4. How are support force and weight related? 5. How are static and dynamic equilibrium different? Visually represent the idea of mechanical equilibrium and balanced forces. Discover that an upward force is provided from the table. Explain how vectors are used and how they can be added. Visually and mathematically combine parallel and perpendicular vectors. Unit 2: Newton’s First Law of Motion - Inertia Chemistry of Life PACING Big Idea / Key Concepts Big Idea: Suggested Pacing: 15 Days Chapter: Three 3.3: Galileo on Motion 3.4: Newton’s Law of Inertia 3.5: Mass a Measure of Inertia Suggested Performance Assessment Student Outcomes At the conclusion of Unit 2 Student will be able to do the following: Every object continues in a state of rest, or of uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero net force. Explain how force is related to the motion of an object. Key Concepts Define friction and inertia in their own words. Friction is the force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other. The property of a body to resist changes to its state of motion is called inertia. Newton’s first law states that every object continues in a state of rest, or of uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero net force. The more mass an object has, the greater its inertia and the more force it takes to change its state of motion. Weight is the force of gravity on an object. Weight depends on an object’s location. The mass of an object is the same whether the object is located on Earth, on the moon, or in outer space. Overarching Questions: 1. What is friction and how does it affect motion? 2. What is Newton’s First Law of Motion? 3. What relationship does mass have with inertia? 4. How are mass and weight related? Explain Newton’s First Law of Motion in their own words. Explain the difference between mass and weight and mathematically solve for each. Unit 3: Linear Motion Linear Motion PACING Big Idea / Key Concepts Big Idea: Suggested Pacing: 20-25 Days Chapter: Four 4.1: Motion is Relative 4.2: Speed 4.3: Velocity 4.4: Acceleration 4.5: Free Fall: How Fast 4.6: Free Fall: How Far 4.7: Graphs of Motion 4.8: Air Resistance and Falling Objects Suggested Performance Assessment Student Outcomes At the conclusion of Unit 3 Student will be able to do the following: You can describe the motion of an object by its position, speed, direction, and acceleration. Explain how motion is relative and use a frame of reference to describe motion. Key Concepts: Describe that speed is a rate of distance traveled in an amount of time. An object is moving if its position relative to a fixed point is changing. You can calculate the speed of an object by dividing the distance covered by time. Speed is a description of how fast an object moves; velocity is how fast and in what direction it moves. You can calculate the acceleration of an object by dividing the change in its velocity by time. The acceleration of an object in free fall is about 10 meters per second squared (10 m/s2). For each second of free fall, an object falls a greater distance than it did in the previous second. On a distance-versus-time graph the slope represents velocity. Overarching Questions: 1. How can you tell if an object is moving? 2. How can you calculate speed?) 3. How is velocity different from speed? 4. How do you calculate acceleration? 5. For a falling object, how does the distance per second change? 6. How is motion represented on a graph? Compare speed and velocity and be able solve the velocity equation. Describe that acceleration is a rate of the change of velocity in an amount of time. Solve problems using the acceleration equation. Describe how speed and distance change for an object in free fall. Explain the meaning of the slope of a distance-versus-time graph. Unit 4: Projectile Motion Projectile Motion PACING Big Idea / Key Concepts Big Idea: Suggested Pacing: 15 Days Chapter: Five 5.1 Vector and Scalar Quantities 5.2 Velocity Vectors 5.3 Components of Vectors 5.4 Projectile Motion 5.5 Projectiles Launched Horizontally Suggested Performance Assessment Projectile motion can be described by the horizontal and vertical components of motion. Key Concepts: A vector quantity includes both magnitude and direction, but a scalar quantity includes only magnitude. The perpendicular components of a vector are independent of each other. The horizontal component of motion for a projectile is just like the horizontal motion of a ball rolling freely along a level surface without friction. The vertical component of a projectile’s velocity is like the motion for a freely falling object. The downward motion of a horizontally launched projectile is the same as that of free fall. Overarching Questions: 1. How does a scalar quantity differ from a vector quantity? 2. What is the resultant of two perpendicular vectors? 3. How do components of a vector affect each other? 4. Describe the components of projectile motion. Describe the downward motion of a horizontally launched projectile. 5. Student Outcomes At the conclusion of Unit 4 Student will be able to do the following: Unit 5: Newton’s Second and Third Law Newton’s 2nd and 3rd Law PACING Big Idea / Key Concepts Big Idea: Suggested Pacing: 15 Days Chapter: Six and Seven 6.1 Force Causes Acceleration 6.2 Mass Resists Acceleration 6.3 Newton’s Second Law 7.2 Newton’s Third Law 7.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses Suggested Performance Assessment An object accelerates when a net force acts on it. For every force, there is an equal and opposite force. Key Concepts: Unbalanced forces acting on an object cause the object to accelerate. For a constant force, an increase in the mass will result in a decrease in the acceleration. Newton’s second law states that the acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object. Newton’s third law states that whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object. A given force exerted on a small mass produces a greater acceleration than the same force exerted on a large mass. Overarching Questions: 1. What causes an object to accelerate? 2. How does an increase in mass affect acceleration? 3. What is the relationship among an object’s mass, an object’s acceleration, and the net force on an object? 4. What happens when an object exerts a force on another object? 5. Why do objects that experience the same amount of force accelerate at different rates? Student Outcomes At the conclusion of Unit 5 Student will be able to do the following: