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Force & Motion Newton’s Laws of Motion Motion Motion An object is in motion if the object changes position relative to a reference point. Speed with a direction is Velocity Speed The speed of an object is the distance it travels divided by the time it takes to travel the distance. Speed = Distance/ Time Velocity The speed of an object moving in a particular direction is called its velocity. Acceleration Acceleration The rate at which the velocity of an object changes is called acceleration. Force is a push or pull exerted on an object. When you exert a force on an object, you can change the object’s motion. Unbalanced Forces Balanced Forces Cause an object to speed up, slow down, start/stop moving, or change direction. Balanced forces do not change an object’s direction. Work = Force X Distance When you exert a force on an object that causes the object to move, you have done work Introduction to Forces and Motion Forces at work at an Amusement Park •Potential Energy Stored energy It can be released later to do work Two types Gravitational – energy due to position Example: yo-yo in your hand Elastic – energy due to compression or stretching. Example: wound up toy • Kinetic Energy Energy of moving objects Examples: moving bike, running water Newton’s First Law: Also Known as “The Law of Inertia” Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. Inertia put a planet in motion and it will always remain in motion unless an external force acts upon it. Gravity pulls the planet towards the Sun to keep it in orbit. Newton's Second Law of Motion: The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Newton's Third Law of Motion: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. An equal and opposite reaction.