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Transcript
Chapter 6: States of Consciousness
I. Waking Consciousness
A. Consciousness- ______________________________________
B. _____________- focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
II. Sleep and Dreams
A. ________________________
1. the biological clock
2. regular bodily rhythms, such as of wakefulness and body temperature,
that occur on a 24-hour cycle
B. Sleep- ______________________________________
III. Measuring sleep activity
A. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
1. __________________- slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
2. __________________- large, slow waves of deep sleep
B. Hallucinations- ______________________
IV. Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
A. Stage 1 Sleep
1. _____________________
2. Brain waves become irregular.
3. It is easy to wake the person, who will insist they are not asleep.
4. Person will report they have dreamlike sensations, such as falling.
B. Stage 2 Sleep
1. Brain wave cycle slows.
2. EEG spindles (small brain wave bursts) develop.
3. __________________________________.
C. Stages 3 and 4 Sleep
1. Increase in delta waves (large and slow waves per second)
2. First time through _____________________________ rejuvenated
D. REM (____________________________) Sleep
1. ___________________
2. ___________________
3. “__________________”
4. muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active
V. Sleep Theories
A. ______________________________
1. Dreams serve an important memory- related function by sorting and
sifting through the day’s experiences
2. Research suggests REM sleep helps memory storage.
B. ______________________________
1. Neural activity during REM sleep provides periodic stimulation of the
brain.
C. ______________________________
1. Dreams are the mind’s attempt to make sense of firings of the brain as
one sleeps
VI. Dreams: Freud
A. Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
1. wish fulfillment
2. discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
B. __________________- remembered story line
C. __________________-underlying meaning
D. Dreams- sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a
sleeping person’s mind
1. hallucinatory imagery
2. discontinuities
3. incongruities
4. delusional acceptance of the content
5. difficulties remembering
VII. Sleep Deprivation
A. Effects of Sleep Loss
1. ______________________
2. ______________________
3. ______________________
4. greater vulnerability to accidents
B. Sleep Disorders
1. _______________- persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
2. _______________- uncontrollable sleep attacks
3. _______________ temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and
momentary reawakenings
C. _____________________
1. occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4
2. high arousal - appearance of being terrified
3. seldom remembered
D. ______________________
1. Formal name for sleepwalking
2. Starts in the deep stages of N-REM sleep
3. Person can walk or talk but remembers nothing of the experience
E. ______________-teeth grinding
F. ______________ –bed wetting
G. ______________ –
1. sudden jerk of a body part occurring during stage 1 sleep
2. Everyone has occasional episodes of myoclonus
VIII.
H. ______________________
1. Occurs when you talk out-loud during sleep.
2. A listener may or may not be able to understand what you are saying.
3. Sleep talking can occur by itself. It may also be a feature of another
sleep disorder, such as one of the following:
a) REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)
b) Sleepwalking
c) Sleep terrors
d) Sleep related eating disorder (SRED)
Hypnosis
A. Hypnosis
1. a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to
another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or
behaviors will spontaneously occur
B. ___________________________
1. Powerful social influences produce a state of hypnosis.
2. This theory notes that a person’s physiological state does not change
under hypnosis.
3. Social factors influence people to believe hypnosis will work.
C. ____________________________
1. During hypnosis our consciousness splits so that one aspect of
consciousness is not aware of the role that other parts are playing.
2. Promoted by Ernest Hilgard (1904-2001)
IX. Explaining Hypnosis
A. Hypnosis Technique
1. _____________________
a) The process by which a hypnotist creates a state of hypnosis in
a subject
b) Usually done by voicing a series of suggestions
c) Voice is usually calm and of a rhythmic tone
B. Hypnotizability
1. Differences in the ability of people to become hypnotized
2. _________________________
3. _________________________
C. Limits to Hypnotic Suggestions
1. Suggestions usually involve sensations, thoughts, emotions, and a
wide variety of behaviors.
2. _________________________
3. Hypnosis can lead people to certain behaviors but so can ordinary
suggestions.
D. ________________________
1. supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis
2. induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
E. _________________________
1. suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
2. used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and
behaviors
F. _________________
1. a split in consciousness
2. allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with
others
3. _____________________
a) Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of
experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
X. Utility of Hypnosis
A. __________________
1. There are isolated cases of hypnosis helping recall.
2. Cannot be sure if the memory came back due to hypnosis
3. Cannot be sure if the memory is accurate or one that is created to
please the hypnotist
B. ___________________
1. Hypnosis does work as a means to control pain.
XI. Drugs and Consciousness
XII. Psychoactive Drug
XIII. a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
XIV. Physical Dependence
XV. physiological need for a drug
XVI. marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
XVII. Psychological Dependence
XVIII. a psychological need to use a drug
XIX. for example, to relieve negative emotions
XX. Dependence and Addiction
XXI. Tolerance
XXII. diminishing effect with regular use
XXIII. Withdrawal
XXIV. discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
XXV. Psychoactive Drugs
XXVI. Depressants
XXVII.
drugs that reduce neural activity
XXVIII.
alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
XXIX. slow body functions
XXX. Psychoactive Drugs
XXXI. Alcohol
XXXII.
affects motor skills, judgment, and memory
XXXIII.
reduces self awareness
XXXIV.
Barbiturates
XXXV.
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing
anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
XXXVI.
Psychoactive Drugs
XXXVII.
Opiates
XXXVIII.
opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
XXXIX.
opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
XL. highly addictive
XLI. Psychoactive Drugs
XLII. Stimulants
XLIII. drugs that excite neural activity
XLIV. caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
XLV. speed up body functions
XLVI. The Physiological Effects of Nicotine
XLVII. Psychoactive Drugs
XLVIII.
Amphetamines
XLIX. drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and
associated energy and mood changes
L. Psychoactive Drugs
LI. Cocaine
LII. effects depend on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation
LIII. coca leaves
LIV. powder
LV. crack
LVI. Cocaine Euphoria and Crash
LVII. Psychoactive Drugs
LVIII. Ecstasy
LIX. MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine)
LX. stimulant and mild hallucinogen
LXI. dangerous short and long term effects
LXII. Psychoactive Drugs
LXIII. Hallucinogens
LXIV. psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory
images in the absence of sensory input
LXV. LSD
LXVI. MDMA (Ecstasy)
LXVII. Psychoactive Drugs
LXVIII.
LSD
LXIX. lysergic acid diethylamide
LXX. a powerful hallucinogenic drug
LXXI. also known as acid
LXXII. THC
LXXIII.
the major active ingredient in marijuana
LXXIV.
triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
LXXV.
Psychoactive Drugs
LXXVI.
Trends in Drug Use
LXXVII.
Perceived Marijuana Risk
LXXVIII.
Near-Death Experiences
LXXIX.
Near-Death Experience
LXXX.
LXXXI.
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death
often similar to drug-induced hallucinations