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Transcript
Name:
Date:
Block:
Chapter 11: The Cardiovascular System
Pages 360-362
1. The cardiovascular system includes not only the heart, but also:
2. The major function of the cardiovascular system is _________________________.
3. The force to move the blood around the body is provided by the beating
_________________ and by ______________ __________________.
4. “The cardiovascular system can be compared to a muscular _________________
equipped with one-way _____________________ and a system of large and small
__________________ tubes within which the blood travels”.
The Anatomy of the Heart pages 362-368
5. The heart weighs less than __________________________________ and is
________________ shaped.
6. Describe specifically where the heart is located:
7. The pericardium is: _______________________________________________________
8. The purpose of the serous fluid in the heart is: _________________________________
9. Name and give the functions of the three layers of the heart:
a. __________________________________________________________________
b. __________________________________________________________________
c. __________________________________________________________________
10. The atria are primarily the __________________________ chambers. Blood enters these
chambers from _____________________________.
11. The ventricles are the _______________________ chambers, or actual _____________
of the heart.
12. The right ventricle forms most of the heart’s _____________________ surface; the left
ventricle forms its ______________________.
13. The ______________________ divides the heart longitudinally.
14. Explain in detail why the heart is considered to be a “double-pump” system.
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15. What is pulmonary circulation?
16. What is systemic circulation?
17. Why are the walls of the left ventricle much thicker than in the right ventricle?
Valves pps. 366-368
18. Valves allow blood flow in ____________________________________.
19. Atrioventricular Valves (AV Valves):
a. Bicuspid ( _____________________) valve has ______________ flaps.
b. Tricuspid (right ____________) valve has _______________ flaps.
c. Chordae tendineae – when the ventricles _____________________, they press on
the blood in their chambers. This forces the _________________________ flaps
upward, _____________________ the valves. They prevent
____________________ into the atria when the ___________________________
are contracting.
20. Semilunar Valves (SL Valves): guard the bases of the two large
_____________________ leaving the ventricles.
a. Pulmonary SL Valve
b. Aortic SL Valve
c. Both are made up of ____________________ leaflets that fit tightly together
when the valves are closed.
21. Each set of valves operates at a different time. AV valves are open during
________________________________________ and closed when the
_____________________ are contracting. The SL valves are closed during
_____________________________________ and are forced open when the
______________________ contract.
22. The heart is not supplied with nutrients with the blood that it pumps. Instead,
_______________________ arteries and _____________________ veins supply the
myocardium with nutrients and oxygen.
Physiology of the Heart pps. 368-374
23. In a single day, the heart pumps the body’s ____________ quarts of blood over
______________ times.
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24. Control of the heart beat involves the intrinsic conduction system, or
__________________ _________________. This sets the heart’s basic
___________________.
25. This causes heart depolarization in only one direction: from _____________________ to
_________________________.
26. Creates a heart contraction equal to about __________________ beats per minute.
27. The sinoatrial node (SA node) is located in the ______________________ and has the
job of:
28. The atrioventricular node (AV node) is located at the junction of the ________________
and the ______________________ and has the job of:
29. The Purkinje fibers function to:
30. Heart “problems” include those listed below. Give a brief definition of each:
a. Ischemia
b. Fibrillation
c. Tachycardia
d. Bradycardia
e. Murmurs (p. 371)
31. Define
a. Systole:
b. Diastole:
32. The average length of a ______________________ ___________________ is about
__________ second.
33. There are three events to the cardiac cycle. Briefly describe below:
a. Mid-to-late Diastole
b. Ventricular Systole
c. Early Diastole
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34. Heart sounds: The first sound is the __________ and is caused by the closing of the
______________________. The second sound is the ______________ and occurs when
the _____________________________________ close at the end of
_______________________.
35. The amount of blood pumped out by EACH side of the heart in 1 minute is called
________________________ __________________________. It is the product of the
_________________________________ and the _______________________________.
36. A healthy heart pumps about ______________% of the blood present in its
_________________________.
37. When blood volume drops suddenly or the heart has been weakened, the
_______________ _____________________ declines, and cardiac output is maintained
by a ___________________ ______________________.
38. Under physical or emotional stress, the nerves of the ANS more strongly stimulates the
______ and ______ nodes, and results in a _____________________ heart beat.
39. How do these drugs affect the heart:
a. Digitalis
b. Epinephrine
c. Thyroxine
40. How does temperature affect heart rate?
Blood vessels pps. 374-386
41. The vascular system is a ________________ transport system.
42. Blood travels from the aorta  arteries  ___________________ 
___________________  ___________________  __________________.
43. Three layers of a blood vessel:
a. Tunica intima/interna
b. Tunica media
c. Tunica externa
44. The walls of arteries are much _____________________ as compared to veins. This is
because the arteries are closer to the pumping action of the _______________ and must
be able to ____________________ and ________________ as the blood flows.
45. In contrast, veins are ______________ from the heart and the pressure in them is
________. Larger veins even have ____________________ that prevent backflow of
blood. Also, the _________________ activity of skeletal muscles aids in the flow of
blood in the veins.
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46. Capillary beds are important because:
Physiology of Circulation pps. 387-397
47. Vital signs include the taking of:
48. Normally, the pulse rate equals the ______________________________________.
49. Define blood pressure:
50. Blood pressure is directly related to _______________________________ and
__________________________________________. BP = CO x PR.
51. What factors can alter a person’s blood pressure?
52. Explain how the kidneys regulate blood pressure:
53. What is hypotension?
54. What is hypertension?
Answer the “Review Questions” # 1-19 on Pages 399-400.
1. ___________
11. ______________
2. ___________
12. ______________
3. ___________
13. ______________
4. ___________
14. ______________
5. ___________
15. ______________
6. ___________
16. ______________
7. ___________
17. ______________
8. ___________
18. ______________
9. ___________
19. ______________
10. ___________
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