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Transcript
THE CRUSADES
Crusade comes from
Crux: latin for cross
Lasted over 200 years
Eight wars aimed at getting Palestine
back
November 18, 1095
Pope Urban II
“You common people
who have been miserable
sinners, become soldiers
of Christ! You nobles, do
not [quarrel] with one
another. Use your arms
in a just war! Labor for
everlasting reward.”
CAUSES
1. Rise of Turks
• Fatimid Dynasty treated Christians & Jews
harshly, churches destroyed
• Seljuk Turks, enemy of Fatimid, gained control of
Holy Land
–
–
–
–
–
Turkish group from Central Asia
Became Muslim
By 1071, Turks captured much of Byzantine Empire
Took Jerusalem from Byzantines
Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban II: HELP!!!
2. Attacks on Pilgrims
• Christians traveled to Jerusalem from A.D. 300
as pilgrims - people who journey to a sacred
place
• Turks take Palestine turn pilgrims away
• Attack and murder
• Goes against Islamic teachings
• Gives pope reason to call Christians to action
3. Land, Trade, and Wealth
• Church ulterior motives:
• Europeans wanted Palestine AND key trade
routes (Africa, Asia, Europe)
• Palestine in key location
• Church had
on Byzantine empire.
• Pope agrees to help emperor, but were rivals
• Hopes to weaken empire & control wealthy trade
routes
• European merchants jump on idea, join crusades
Crusades Begin
Peter the Hermit – ordinary man
in monk’s clothing
– gathered army of common men
– too inexperienced
– food became scarce as #s increased
– crusaders looted towns, many killed when towns
fought back, became prisoners
Peter continues
(& army)
We are too
impatient!!
We rule, you
drool!
Oh, Peter.
Wait for
the
knights
Sooooooo…..
Oh rats!!! Should
have waited! We
lost??!!
Boo to the knights!!
• Treat Byzantines badly
• Kill, loot
• Take control of Jerusalem (1099)
• Kill 10,000 Muslims, Christians,
Jews
This is the First Crusade
Finally! The
knights have
arrived.
Are we
done?
I think
not!!
Christians create four kingdoms
Four more crusades follow (8)
Saladin rules!! Who drools?
I’m
awesome!
Strong Muslim ruler
named, Saladin takes
control
By 1187, Saladin
takes Jerusalem.
Oh, Saladin,
please return
the holy city
to the
Christians
Oh what a
jokester you
are!!
But you are an
OK guy, so I’ll
let the
Christian
pilgrims come
visit.
Failure
• Disorganized armies
• Military strength of the people of Palestine &
their desire to repel the invaders
• Bad treatment of Byzantine people by the
crusaders
Results
• Christians NEVER recaptured Holy Land
• Increased trade
• Made use of money more common
–
–
–
–
Originally traded services for land/protection
Nobles needed $ buy armor/supplies
Allowed individuals/whole towns to buy freedom
Feudalism grew weaker; money came into use
• Ships traveled Med. Sea with rugs, jewelry, glass,
spices – demand increased
• TRADE GREW
Discovery-The Crusades
7mins