Download paper - General Guide To Personal and Societies Web Space at

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Discodermolide wikipedia, lookup

Strychnine total synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Acetylation wikipedia, lookup

Hydroformylation wikipedia, lookup

Ring-closing metathesis wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Published on Web 07/01/2008
Allyl Sulfides Are Privileged Substrates in Aqueous Cross-Metathesis:
Application to Site-Selective Protein Modification
Yuya A. Lin, Justin M. Chalker, Nicola Floyd, Gonçalo J. L. Bernardes, and Benjamin G. Davis*
Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of Oxford, 12 Mansfield Road,
Oxford OX1 3TA, U.K.
Received April 9, 2008; E-mail: [email protected]
Olefin metathesis has become a mainstay in organic synthesis.1
Cross-metathesis (CM), however, is largely underdeveloped compared to ring closing metathesis (RCM) and ring opening metathesis
polymerization since CM does not have the entropic driving force
of RCM and is complicated by self-metathesis.2 Our group has a
long-term interest in site-selective chemical modification of proteins
in an effort to study and modulate their function.3 Olefin metathesis
is an attractive way to install these protein modifications through a
stable carbon-carbon bond. Indeed, incorporation of olefins into
proteins has been possible for nearly a decade,4 but metathesis at
such residues has not been realized. Despite recent reports of olefin
metathesis in water, the current benchmark for homogeneous
aqueous CM is the self-metathesis of simple unsaturated alcohols
such as allyl alcohol.5,6 The limited examples revealed to date
highlight the challenges for aqueous CM and the gap in substrate
complexity that must be bridged to carry out metathesis on protein
surfaces.
To determine the viability of CM on protein surfaces, simple
amino acid models were investigated. Substrates were selected on
the basis of potential incorporation into proteins. A reasonable
starting point was homoallylglycine (Hag) since its in ViVo
incorporation by methionine auxotrophic Escherichia coli is
known.4 Hoveyda-Grubbs second generation catalyst 17 was
selected since it is phosphine free and therefore more likely to be
compatible with protein disulfides than other conventional catalysts.
A simple test metathesis with allyl alcohol 2 was carried out to
assess the reactivity of Hag derivative 3. At the outset, we limited
ourselves to temperatures generally compatible with proteins (e37
°C) and made no effort to exclude oxygen. Since 1 is not freely
soluble in water, it was added as a solution in tBuOH. Unfortunately,
despite repeated attempts, only starting material 3 was recovered
(Table 1, Entry 1). We turned next to cysteine derivatives since
incorporation into proteins should be possible by either chemical
or genetic means if they proved reactive in CM. Remarkably,
S-allylcysteine (Sac) derivative 4 underwent metathesis with allyl
alcohol (Entry 2), affording the CM product in 56% isolated yield
(74% based on recovered 4). This result was noteworthy given the
number of instances where thioethers were detrimental to rutheniumbased metathesis catalysts.8 The metathesis was also efficient with
allyl homocysteine 5 and bisamide Sac derivative 6. Yet when the
alkene was extended by one or two methylene units from the sulfur
center, only allyl alcohol self-metathesis was observed along with
recovered starting material (Entries 5 and 6). Other allylheteroatom
substrates were screened, but allyl sulfides remained the most
efficient metathesis substrates under the conditions employed
(Entries 7-13).
While the self-metathesis of allyl sulfides has been carried out
in organic solvents, the efficiency relative to other heteroatom or
hydrocarbon analogues was not apparent and yields were highly
dependent on the catalyst used.9 We suggest that the enhanced
reactivity of allyl sulfides may be a consequence of sulfur
9642
9
J. AM. CHEM. SOC. 2008, 130, 9642–9643
Table 1. Heteroatom Effects in Aqueous Cross-Metathesis
a
8 mol % of 1, 2.5 h.
conversion.
b
30% tBuOH/H2O.
c
Isolated.
d
>98%
Scheme 1. Sulfur Assisted Cross-Metathesis of Allyl Sulfides
coordination to the ruthenium center that brings the reacting centers
into close proximity (Scheme 1a).10 Fürstner and co-workers have
noted a similar “relay effect” of appropriately positioned heteroatoms in RCM macrocycle synthesis.11 Vinyl sulfides are poor
substrates in aqueous metathesis, likely leading to Fischer carbenes
sensitive to water (Table 1, Entry 7). The decreasing reactivity of
10.1021/ja8026168 CCC: $40.75  2008 American Chemical Society
COMMUNICATIONS
butenyl and pentenyl sulfides (e.g., 7-8 and 11-12) may be
attributed to the formation of unproductive five- or six-membered
chelates, respectively (Scheme 1b).8d,12 Attempts to isolate such
species, however, were unfruitful.13
The results in Table 1 led us immediately to pursue Sac
incorporation into proteins. Conveniently, an efficient chemical route
to thioether modified proteins was recently developed in our
laboratory.14 The reaction of O-mesitylenesulfonylhydroxylamine
(MSH) with cysteine rapidly generates dehydroalanine which can
then be reacted with a thiol nucleophile. Application of this
methodology to a single cysteine mutant of the serine protease
subtilisin Bacillus lentus (SBL) allowed efficient incorporation of
Sac into the protein (eq 1).
Ready access to Sac on protein surfaces enabled us to take
advantage of the unique reactivity of allyl sulfides in CM. Initial
attempts were carried out simply by adding excess 1 and 2 to a
solution of SBL-156Sac 17 in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 8.0)
(Table 2). LC-MS analysis revealed largely unreacted 17, even after
prolonged reaction time. Nevertheless, we were intrigued by a
minor, yet significant, MS signal that appeared upon the addition
of 1 to 17.15 We speculated this species might be a metalloprotein
derived from metathesis with 1, inactive in CM due to nonproductive chelation of side chains to ruthenium. MgCl2 was added to the
reaction buffer with the intention of disrupting any such nonproductive chelation to ruthenium. Fürstner used Ti(OiPr)4 in a similar
fashion to disrupt nonproductive chelation in RCM.12c Gratifyingly,
when MgCl2 was included in the buffer, CM with allyl alcohol
proceeded to >90% conversion at room temperature (Table 2, Entry
2).15 To verify that the effect was due to Mg2+ and not chloride,
NaCl was used as additive (Table 2, Entry 3): no CM was observed
Table 2. Cross-Metathesis on SBL-156Sac
a
Determined by LC-MS. b First hour at rt. c First 2 h at RT.
2+
without Mg . Importantly, 18 was an active peptidase and not
denatured over the modification sequence.15 Biologically and
therapeutically relevant glycosylation16 and PEGylation17 were also
achieved by CM (Entries 4-7).
Finally, efforts in genetic incorporation of allyl sulfide containing
amino acids are also underway to explore their scope as tags for
CM on proteins. Genetic installation ensures stereochemical
homogeneity of the protein backbone and allows strategic flexibility.
This approach was tested using the B834 E. coli strain, a methionine
(Met) auxotroph.4,15 Low level Sac incorporation was verified by
MS-MS analysis in a single Met mutant of Sulfolobus solfataricus
β-glycosidase expressed in Met-depleted media with Sac as Met
surrogate.15
In conclusion, we have shown that allyl sulfides are effective
substrates in aqueous CM through the use of catalyst 1. Taking
advantage of the enhanced reactivity of allyl sulfides in CM, we
were able to post-translationally modify proteins via carbon-carbon
bond formation. This work is an addition to a growing interest in
metal-mediated protein modifications18 and a new standard in
substrate sensitivity and complexity in olefin metathesis.
Acknowledgment. We gratefully acknowledge the Rhodes Trust
(J.M.C.), the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (N.F.) and FCT,
Portugal (G.J.L.B.), for financial support.
Supporting Information Available: Full experimental details and
compound characterization. This material is available free of charge
via the Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.
References
(1) (a) Grubbs, R. H. Handbook of Metathesis; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim,
Germany, 2003. (b) Hoveyda, A. H.; Zhugralin, A. R. Nature 2007, 450,
243–251. (c) Fürstner, A. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2000, 39, 3012–3043.
(2) Connon, S. J.; Blechert, S. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 1900–1923.
(3) Gamblin, D. P.; van Kasteren, S. I.; Chalker, J. M.; Davis, B. G. FEBS J.
2008, 4, 558–561.
(4) (a) Van Hest, J. C. M.; Tirrell, D. A. FEBS Lett. 1998, 428, 68–70. (b)
Van Hest, J. C. M; Kiick, K. L.; Tirrell, D. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000,
122, 1282–1288.
(5) (a) Hong, S. H.; Grubbs, R. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 3508–3509.
(b) Jordan, J. P.; Grubbs, R. H. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 5152–
5155. (c) Binder, J. B.; Blank, J. J.; Raines, R. T. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 4885–
4888. (d) Gulajski, L.; Michrowaska, A.; Naroznik, J.; Kaczmarska, Z.;
Rupnicki, L.; Grela, K. ChemSusChem 2008, 1, 103–109.
(6) For aqueous CM in heterogeneous media, see: (a) Mwangi, M. T.; Runge,
M. B.; Bowden, N. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 14434–14435. (b)
Lipshutz, B. H.; Aguinaldo, G. T.; Ghorai, S.; Voigtritter, K. Org. Lett.
2008, 10, 1325–1328. (c) Gulajski, L.; Sledz, P.; Lupa, A.; Grela, K. Green
Chem. 2008, 10, 271–274.
(7) Garber, S. B.; Kingsbury, J. S.; Gray, B. L.; Hoveyda, A. H. J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 2000, 122, 8168–8179.
(8) (a) Armstrong, S. K.; Christie, B. A. Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 9373–
9376. (b) Shon, Y.-S.; Lee, T. R. Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 1283–1286.
(c) Mascareñas, J. L.; Rumbo, A.; Castedo, L. J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62,
8620–8621. (d) Fürstner, A.; Seklel, G.; Kindler, N. Tetrahedron 1999,
55, 8215–8230.
(9) (a) Toste, F. D.; Chatterjee, A. K.; Grubbs, R. H. Pure Appl. Chem. 2002,
74, 7–10. (b) Spagnol, G.; Heck, M.-P.; Nolan, S. P.; Mioskowski, C. Org.
Lett. 2002, 4, 1767–1770.
(10) Coordination depicted in the metallocyclobutane in Scheme 1a is based on
X-ray analysis of related intermediates: Feldman, J.; Murdezek, J. S.; Davis,
W. M.; Schrock, R. R. Organometallics 1989, 8, 2260–2265.
(11) Fürstner, A.; Langemann, K. Synthesis 1997, 792–803.
(12) (a) Fürstner, A.; Thiel, O. R.; Lehmann, C. W. Organometallics 2002, 21,
331–335. (b) Slugovc, C.; Burtscher, D.; Stelzer, F.; Mereiter, K. Organometallics 2005, 24, 2255–2258. (c) Fürstner, A.; Langemann, K. J. Am.
Chem. Soc. 1997, 119, 9130–9136.
(13) Attempted chelate disruption using Cu(II) and Mg(II) in CM with 12 and
2 led to little or no improvement; S-Ru disruption would also mask putative
privileging S-coordination. If so, at best, one may only expect reactivity
comparable to unfunctionalized terminal olefins (very low in aqueous
systems).
(14) Bernardes, G. J. L.; Chalker, J. M.; Errey, J. C.; Davis, B. G. J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 2008, 130, 5052–5053.
(15) See the Supporting Information for full details.
(16) (a) Dwek, R. A. Chem. ReV. 1996, 96, 683–720. (b) Davis, B. G. Chem.
ReV. 2002, 102, 579–601. (c) Ohtsubo, K.; Marth, J. D. Cell 2006, 126,
855–867.
(17) Harris, J. M.; Chess, R. B. Nat. ReV. Drug DiscoVery 2003, 2, 214–221.
(18) Antos, J. M.; Francis, M. B. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2006, 10, 253–262.
JA8026168
J. AM. CHEM. SOC.
9
VOL. 130, NO. 30, 2008
9643