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Transcript
LIGHT AND COLOR
SYLLABUS
CYNTHIA MARTONE
JAMES C. LOPRESTO
INTRODUCTION
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Quiz every Thursday
Labs (class exercises)
Power Point Presentations (30 minutes)
Final Exam (as Scheduled)
POWER POINT TOPICS
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Telescopes
Cameras
Lasers
Holograms
Stimulated Emission
The Interferometer
Color Science
Microscopes
Black Body Radiation
The Green Flash
Rainbows, Halos and Sundogs
Total Internal Reflection
The Solar Spectrum
The Pinhole Camera
The Human Eye
Corrective Procedures for Improving Eyesight (Glasses, contacts, sunglasses,
surgical corrections)
Introduction to Subject Matter
• LIGHT (Packet of Energy, photon)
• FOUR FORCES IN NATURE (Strong
Nuclear – gluon, Electromagnetic –
photon, Weak Nuclear – Intermediate
Vector Bosons, Gravity – Graviton (gravity
waves)
• LIGHT (wave and “massless particle”
Inverse Square Law of Light
• Light Sources look dimmer the farther
away they are
• Intensity = 1/ (distance)2
• Standard Candles
COLOR?
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Physical
Physiological
Psychological
THE VIVID SOLAR SPECTRUM!!!!
LIST OF COLOR BANDS
Electromagnetic Radiation
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GAMMA RAYS
X-RAYS
ULTRAVIOLET
VISIBLE
INFRARED
MICROWAVE
RADIO
VISIBLE BAND COLORS
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VIOLET
(INDIGO)
BLUE
GREEN
YELLOW
ORANGE
RED
color blindness?
NATURAL WORLD EMITS ALL
WAVELENGTHS
• Effects of Light on Humans (radiation)
Gamma Rays (deadly)
X-Rays (deadly)
UV (suntan, sunburn)
IR ( skin can detect IR)
Microwaves and Radio Waves
Long Term exposure, Cell phones
and Power Lines?
COMBINATION OF COLORS
• (NOT COLORS IN SCIENTIFIC SENSE)
pink!!!!
brown
black
white
many others!!!!!!
COLOR SCIENCE
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ADDING COLORS
SUBTRACTING COLORS
COLOR WHEELS
COLOR ORGANIZATION AND SCHEMES
Wavelength and Frequency
• Wavelength
• Frequency
• Speed of Light
c = λ ν = wavelength x frequency
sometimes frequency denoted by f
WAVES
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Transverse Waves
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Water Waves
Wave Properties, wavelength, frequency
Longitudinal Waves
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Sound Waves
Maxwell Equations of
Electromagnetic Theory
• Maxwell’s Equations
• Spatial variation of the electric field is equal to
the temperal variation of the magnetic field.
• Spactial variation of the magnetic field is equal
to the temperal variation of the electric field
• The divergence of the magnetic field is zero (no
magnetic poles)
• The divergence of the electric field is 4πρ (there
are electric charges)
Maxwell’s Equations
• Maxwell's Equations
• I. Gauss' law for electricity II. Gauss' law
for magnetism III. Faraday's law of
induction IV. Ampere's law
SIMPLE OPTICS
• Refraction
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http://id.mind.net/~zona/mstm/physics/light/rayOptics/refraction/refraction1.html
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http://www.ps.missouri.edu/rickspage/refract/refraction.html
• Snell’s Law
Lenses
Aperture
Optical Axis
Focal Length
http://freespace.virgin.net/gareth.james/virtual/Optics/Lens/lens.html
Inverted Image
Aberrations
Spherical Aberration
Chromatic Aberration
Coma
REFRACTING TELESCOPES
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Eyepieces
Famous Examples
Speed of Telescope Optics
F-ratio
REFLECTION
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Mirrors
Aberrations
Reflecting Telescopes
Famous Examples
Various Designs and Foci
Adaptive Optics
SPECTROSCOPY
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PRISM
DISPERSION
GRATINGS
SPECTROSCOPES
SPECTROGRAPHS
Littrow Spectrograph
Cyrney-Turner Spectrograph
FOURIER SPECTROSCOPY
THE HUMAN EYE
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The Cornea
The Pupil
The Lens
The Retina
Near Sighted
Far Sighted
Astigmatism
THE CAMERA
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Photographic Emulsion
Digital Imagery and Cameras
Camera Designs
Porro Prisms
FOCAL LENGTHS
F-RATIOS and F-STOPS
Other Optical Instruments
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Magnifying Glass
Microscopes
Binoculars
Periscopes
Telephoto Lens
Fiber Optics
Thin Films
Polarizers
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
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Max Planck and the Photon
Wein’s Displacement Law
Black Body Radiation (perfect radiators)
Radiation Curve for the Sun
THE SOLAR SPECTRUM
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CONTINUUM
ABSORPTION LINES
EMISSION LINES
LINE PROFILES
FLASH SPECTRUM
WEBSITES for SOLAR SPECTRA
INTEFERENCE AND
DIFFRACTION
• INTERFERENCE
• DIFFRACTION
QUANTUM OPTICS
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ATOMS AND LIGHT
ENERGY LEVELS
BOHR MODEL OF ATOM
NARROW WAVELENGTH BANDS
PRODUCED BY ATOMS
• STIMULATED EMISSION
COLORS IN NATURE
• aurora
• colors in nature (other than the
atmosphere)
• eclipses
• planetary nebulae filtered images
• reflection and flourencent nebulae
LASERS
Ruby Lasers
Helium-Neon Lasers
HOLOGRAMS
• Three dimensional images
FOURIER OPTICS
• INTEROMETERS
• FOURIER OPTICS