Download AP Biology Reading/Study Guide (aka Important Stuff to Know

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Management of acute coronary syndrome wikipedia , lookup

Coronary artery disease wikipedia , lookup

Myocardial infarction wikipedia , lookup

Quantium Medical Cardiac Output wikipedia , lookup

Antihypertensive drug wikipedia , lookup

Jatene procedure wikipedia , lookup

Dextro-Transposition of the great arteries wikipedia , lookup

AP Biology Reading/Study Guide (aka Important Stuff to Know!)
Circulation and Gas Exchange
1. What are the limits to diffusion as a means of transport for living things?
Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems. Make sure to focus on the
advantages of each.
Contrast arteries, arterioles , capillaries, veins and venules.
Contrast the circulatory systems of fish, amphibians, non-avian reptiles and mammals/birds.
What is the advantage to double circulation?
Trace a drop of blood through the heart, starting at the vena cava and ending at the aorta.
Name all the parts of the heart, blood vessels and organs it passes through.
Explain the following:
a. Cardiac Cycle (in terms of valves opening and closing)
c. Diastoled. Cardiac Outpute. Stroke Volume8. What does the SA node do?
Why would blood slow in a capillary just when you think it will speed up because the capillary is
10. How is blood flow to the capillaries controlled with respect to meeting the bodies needs? Why
are people with severe cardiac disease instructed not to “overeat” at the holidays?
11. What is the lymphatic system? Why is it important to the circulatory system with regard to
blood volume?
12. What are the major components of plasma and what are their functions?
13. What are the three cell types in the blood and what are their relative amounts and functions?
14. What are pluripotent stem cells and where do they come from?
15. What role does erythropoietin play?
16. Explain blood clotting. Why is it viewed as a cascade reaction?
17. What is the difference between the LDL’s and HDL’s?
18. Describe the following:
a. Stroke
b. Heart Attack
19. Why is gas exchange essential to all living things?
20. Considering the rate of diffusion, why is it essential for respiratory surfaces to maximize surface
21. What is meant by the term countercurrent exchange and why is it an advantage to animals?
22. How does the tracheal system “work” in insects and why is this an advantage to gas exchange?
23. Why do organisms with lungs require a circulatory system?
24. What is the role of alveoli?
25. What is partial pressure? How do partial pressures of gases influence the exchange of gas?
26. Define the following:
a. Tidal Volumeb.
Vital capacity-
c. Residual Volume27. Describe the process of inhalation and exhalation with regard to the contraction of the
diaphragm – which is an active process and which is passive?
28. Describe how breathing is regulated. (Include the role of the medulla, pH, carotid arteries,
aorta, and diaphragm.)
29. Review the dissociation curves for hemoglobin.
a. Why does oxygen leave the hemoglobin when it passes through resting tissue?
How does pH reduction influence oxygen release from the blood?
c. Describe the Bohr shift.
30. Write the equation for cellular respiration. Follow a molecule of CO2 from the body cell to its
release to the air outside the body.