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Transcript
Evolution Practice
12/10/14, 6:08 PM
Evolution Practice
Elian Valenzuela Arias is reviewing answers for this assessment.
Points scored may di!er from the grading guidelines because of teacher review. Contact your program teacher if you
have any questions.
Correct
Partial Credit
Incorrect
Multiple Choice
1. What unexpected observation helped lead Darwin to develop the theory of natural selection? (1 point)
(0 pts) Mountain building occurs in a slow process over time.
(0 pts) Earthquakes take place in the Andes Mountains in Chile.
(0 pts) Farmers use selective breeding to develop more useful crops.
(1 pt) Organisms on the Galápagos were similar to, yet di!erent from, one another and from similar species
in South America.
1 /1 point
2. Charles Darwin was influenced by Charles Lyell, who proposed that geological processes had reshaped Earth over
long periods of time. Which unexpected finding during Darwin's voyage supported Lyell's ideas? (1 point)
(0 pts) variations among species of iguanas
(0 pts) finches with unique feeding adaptations
(1 pt) fossils of ocean organisms high in the Andes Mountains
(0 pts) di!erences between mainland and island organisms
1 /1 point
3. Why did the work of James Hutton influence Charles Darwin's later ideas? (1 point)
(0 pts) Hutton proposed that all organisms have an innate tendency toward perfection.
(0 pts) Hutton was the first to describe fossils of ancient animals.
(0 pts) Hutton suggested that an overwhelming majority of a species' o!spring die.
(1 pt) Hutton proposed that Earth was much older than was previously believed.
1 /1 point
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4. The best definition of natural selection is (1 point)
(0 pts) the constancy of species populations in spite of the production of far more o!spring than needed to
maintain them.
(1 pt) the greater survival and reproduction of organisms with favorable variations than of organisms with
unfavorable variations.
(0 pts) the strengthening and development of a body part by constant use.
(0 pts) the inheritance of traits that are acquired during an organism's lifetime.
1 /1 point
5. A company develops a pesticide that kills 95% of all roaches it is sprayed on. If this pesticide is used commercially
over an extended period of time, what will most likely occur? (1 point)
(0 pts) The pesticide will be so e!ective that it will cause roaches to become extinct.
(0 pts) The e!ectiveness of the pesticide will stay the same over time, but a few roaches will survive and
continue to cause pest-control problems.
(0 pts) The e!ectiveness of the pesticide will increase over time due to disruptive selection.
(1 pt) The e!ectiveness of the pesticide will decrease over time due to natural selection.
1 /1 point
6. What does the principle of descent with modification imply? (1 point)
(0 pts) that all organisms have the ability to change their characteristics
(0 pts) that all organisms are striving for perfection
(0 pts) that all organisms will be survived by descendants that are better adapted to their environment
(1 pt) that all organisms descended from a common ancestor
0 /1 point
7. Evolution can be defined as any change in the relative frequency of alleles in the gene pool of a (1 point)
(0 pts) hybrid.
(0 pts) niche.
(1 pt) population.
(0 pts) phenotype.
1 /1 point
8. How do fossils provide evidence of relatedness between ancient ancestors and modern species? (1 point)
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Evolution Practice
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(1 pt) by displaying gradual changes in specific morphological characteristics
(0 pts) by showing when mass extinctions occurred
(0 pts) by showing how widely-separated organisms have similar features
(0 pts) by showing evidence of co-evolution
0 /1 point
9. Which of the following provided evidence that led many scientists to accept Darwin's theory of natural selection
instead of earlier theories? (1 point)
(1 pt) similarities among embryos
(0 pts) binomial systems of naming
(0 pts) selective breeding of animals
(0 pts) increases in animal population
0 /1 point
10. On what characteristic of an organism does natural selection exert pressure? (1 point)
(0 pts) allele frequency
(0 pts) gene pool
(0 pts) genotype
(1 pt) phenotype
0 /1 point
11. A dark fur mutation occurred in a mouse population. The chart above shows how the population changed over 30
generations. Which statement MOST likely explains the change shown in the chart? (1 point)
(0 pts) Light mice are less likely to mate.
(0 pts) Light mice are better able to find food.
(1 pt) Dark mice are harder for predators to see.
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(0 pts) Dark mice are more susceptible to disease.
1 /1 point
12. Genetic dri" is most likely to result when a single population splits in two, and (1 point)
(0 pts) the two populations are large and roughly equal in size.
(1 pt) one of the populations is very small.
(0 pts) the two populations have the same gene frequencies in the gene pool.
(0 pts) the environment stays the same for both groups.
1 /1 point
13. There are two main causes of genetic variation. Gene shu!ling during meiosis is one. What is the other? (1 point)
(0 pts) natural selection
(0 pts) geographic isolation
(0 pts) polygenic inheritance
(1 pt) mutation in sex cells
1 /1 point
14. In determining evolutionary relationships, molecular clocks depend on (1 point)
(0 pts) radioactive decay of certain elements.
(0 pts) the position of fossils in rock layers.
(1 pt) the rate of DNA mutation.
(0 pts) the similarity of transfer RNA.
1 /1 point
15. A"er an earthquake, a river changes its course and travels through the habitat of a ground-dwelling beetle,
splitting the population in two. Over time, the two populations develop di!erent adaptations and become two species.
This is an example of (1 point)
(0 pts) stabilizing selection.
(0 pts) behavioral isolation.
(0 pts) genetic dri".
(1 pt) geographic isolation.
1 /1 point
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A Proposed Chart Showing the Speciation of Some of Darwin's Finches in the Galápagos Islands
16. If all of the finches share a recent common ancestor as shown in the above diagram, what was the final
mechanism that separated them into di!erent species? (1 point)
(0 pts) geographic isolation
(0 pts) behavioral isolation
(0 pts) temporal isolation
(1 pt) reproductive isolation
0 /1 point
17. Two organisms are said to belong to di!erent species if they (1 point)
(0 pts) di!er enough in physical characteristics to be identified as di!erent.
(0 pts) do not mate when placed together.
(1 pt) cannot mate and produce fertile o!spring.
(0 pts) have di!erent common names.
1 /1 point
18. Diploria strigosa is a brain coral that is commonly found in the Caribbean Sea. What hierarchical taxa does the
name "strigosa" belong to? (1 point)
(0 pts) order
(0 pts) family
(0 pts) class
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(1 pt) species
1 /1 point
19. In classification, families of plants are grouped into (1 point)
(0 pts) phyla.
(1 pt) orders.
(0 pts) classes
(0 pts) genera.
1 /1 point
20. In which kingdom do the organisms shown in Group A belong? (1 point)
(0 pts) Eubacteria
(0 pts) Protista
(0 pts) Archaebacteria
(1 pt) Animalia
1 /1 point
21. What is the di!erence between modern methods of classification and traditional methods of classification?
(1 point)
(0 pts) Modern classification is based on the phenotypic similarities of organisms while traditional
classification is not.
(1 pt) Modern classification is based on evolutionary relationships between organisms while traditional
classification is not.
(0 pts) Traditional classification methods are the foundation on which modern classification is built.
(0 pts) Traditional classification is based on shared-derived characteristics while modern classification is
not.
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1 /1 point
22. Based on modern classification, what assumption is being made if all organisms are placed in a single cladogram?
(1 point)
(0 pts) Only the most successful organisms are living today.
(1 pt) All organisms descended from a common ancestor.
(0 pts) Species are categorized based only on DNA sequences.
(0 pts) The traditional taxa align perfectly with modern classification criteria.
1 /1 point
The relationship of some mammals is indicated in the following cladogram.
23. Which of the following statements describes information represented in the above cladogram? (1 point)
(1 pt) Because organisms are classified based on their evolutionary relationships, the Asian elephant is
more closely related to the mammoth than to the mastodon.
(0 pts) Because organisms are classified based on whether they are extinct, the mastodon, the mammoth,
and the Steller's sea cow are equally related to each other.
(0 pts) Because organisms are classified based on similarities in body plans and appendages, the elephants
and manatees are in di!erent groups.
(0 pts) Because organisms are classified by the environment in which they live, the organisms that live on
land are separated from those that live in the water.
1 /1 point
24. Place the following groups of organisms in the correct order in which, according to fossil evidence, they appeared
on Earth. (1 point)
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(0 pts) fish; aquatic invertebrates; amphibians; reptiles
(0 pts) amphibians; land insects; birds; dinosaurs
(1 pt) fish; land insects; dinosaurs; birds
(0 pts) birds; reptiles; dinosaurs; mammals
1 /1 point
25. In a rock column, the fossils in the upper layers usually are the (1 point)
(0 pts) oldest.
(1 pt) youngest.
(0 pts) best preserved.
(0 pts) least preserved.
1 /1 point
The diagram below shows layers of rock exposed along a roadside and the types of fossils found in those layers.
26. If you wanted to find the absolute age of one of the fossils in Layer C of the above diagram, which technique would
you use? (1 point)
(0 pts) identifying index fossils in the layer
(1 pt) using radioactive dating to determine the age
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(0 pts) measuring the distance between Layer C and Layer A
(0 pts) comparing the fossils in Layer C to those in Layer B
1 /1 point
27. Which of the following probably accounts for the diversity of mammals that developed a"er the Mesozoic Era?
(1 point)
(0 pts) the evolution of the two-chambered heart
(1 pt) the disappearance of the dinosaurs
(0 pts) the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere
(0 pts) the evolution of the opposable thumb
0 /1 point
28. Why was the increase in oxygen gas in Earth's early atmosphere an important development in the evolution of life
on Earth? (1 point)
(0 pts) Oxygen combines chemically with hydrogen to form water, which increased the amount of available
water on Earth.
(1 pt) Although oxygen poisoned many early organisms, it allowed aerobic organisms to evolve.
(0 pts) Because oxygen is not very reactive, it provided a safer environment for most existing organisms.
(0 pts) Oxygen combines chemically with sulfur, removing it from the atmosphere.
1 /1 point
29. The "Cambrian Explosion" refers to the first appearance in the fossil record of a great variety of multicellular
organisms. The fossil record shows that this event took place approximately how long ago? (1 point)
(0 pts) over 5 million years ago
(0 pts) over 50 million years ago
(1 pt) over 500 million years ago
(0 pts) over 5 billion years ago
1 /1 point
30. How can mass extinctions a!ect the direction of evolution? (1 point)
(1 pt) They open up habitats to surviving organisms.
(0 pts) They lead to a state of genetic equilibrium.
(0 pts) They remove isolating mechanisms, such as behavioral isolation and temporal isolation.
(0 pts) They lead to more ecological competition among similar species.
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0 /1 point
31. Occasionally, brief periods of rapid change occur between long periods of stability. This statement summarizes the
theory of (1 point)
(1 pt) punctuated equilibria.
(0 pts) gradualism.
(0 pts) convergent evolution.
(0 pts) divergent evolution.
0 /1 point
32. What pattern shows an adaptive radiation event in the fossil record? (1 point)
(0 pts) There is a small group of recurring fossils for a significant length of time.
(1 pt) There is an increasing variety of fossils in a short period of time.
(0 pts) Fossils from very di!erent geographical locations show the same adaptations.
(0 pts) Fossils abruptly disappear from the fossil record.
1 /1 point
33. What does the "RNA world" hypothesis propose? (1 point)
(0 pts) It proposes that RNA sequences formed from simple organic molecules.
(0 pts) It proposes that RNA sequences can grow and replicate on their own.
(0 pts) It proposes that RNA sequences are necessary for DNA replication.
(1 pt) It proposes that RNA sequences evolved and existed on their own before DNA.
1 /1 point
34. How did the development of sexual reproduction a!ect evolutionary change? (1 point)
(0 pts) It slowed down evolutionary change by resisting natural selection.
(1 pt) It sped up evolutionary change by increasing genetic variation.
(0 pts) Evolutionary change was una!ected by the development of sexual reproduction.
(0 pts) It caused the rate of evolutionary change to fluctuate due to the extreme e!ects of genetic variation.
0 /1 point
The final score is 25/34 (73.5%).
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