Download National and Regional Capacities and - ICMyL

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Marine biology wikipedia, lookup

The Marine Mammal Center wikipedia, lookup

Marine pollution wikipedia, lookup

Marine habitats wikipedia, lookup

Raised beach wikipedia, lookup

Marine life wikipedia, lookup

Marine microorganism wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
FINAL REPORT
National and Regional Capacities and Experiences on Marine Invasive Species,
Including Ballast Waters, Management Programmes in the Wider Caribbean
Region - a Compilation of Current Information
Vyjayanthi Lopez and Ulrike Krauss
CAB International Caribbean and Latin America Regional Centre (CLARC)
Gordon Street, Curepe, Trinidad & Tobago
United Nations Environment Programme
July 2006
FINAL REPORT
National and Regional Capacities and Experiences on Marine Invasive Species,
Including Ballast Waters, Management Programmes in the Wider Caribbean
Region - a Compilation of Current Information
Vyjayanthi Lopez and Ulrike Krauss
CAB International Caribbean and Latin America Regional Centre (CLARC)
Gordon Street, Curepe, Trinidad & Tobago
United Nations Environment Programme
July 2006
1
Table of Contents
Table of Contents ____________________________________________________________________ 1
List of Acronyms ____________________________________________________________________ 2
Executive Summary __________________________________________________________________ 4
Resumen Ejecutivo___________________________________________________________________ 6
Background ________________________________________________________________________ 8
Introduction ________________________________________________________________________ 8
Materials and methods_______________________________________________________________ 14
Internet searches _________________________________________________________________ 14
Questionnaires___________________________________________________________________ 14
Additional information____________________________________________________________ 15
Results ___________________________________________________________________________ 15
Internet searches _________________________________________________________________ 15
Questionnaires___________________________________________________________________ 20
National Questionnaires __________________________________________________________ 20
Regional Questionnaires __________________________________________________________ 32
Additional Information ___________________________________________________________ 33
Discussion ________________________________________________________________________ 35
Conclusions and needs assessment _____________________________________________________ 38
Acknowledgements__________________________________________________________________ 40
Bibliography _______________________________________________________________________ 40
Annex I. Summary – Ballast Water Convention 2004 ______________________________________ 44
Annex IIa and IIb. National and regional questionnaires - English___________________________ 47
Annex III a and III b: National and Regional Questionnaires – Spanish ______________________ 52
Annex IV. Organizations with past or ongoing projects / activities in the Wider Caribbean Region__ 57
Appendix 1 Scientific Cooperative Agreements between the STRI and countries of the WCR _ 81
Appendix 2: Mandate of BEST _____________________________________________________ 82
Annex V. Project / programmes on, or with potential relevance to, MIS and Ballast Waters
management _______________________________________________________________________ 83
Annex VI: Additional / relevant information from responses to questionnaires__________________ 89
Annex VII: Additional resources ______________________________________________________ 93
Annex VIII. Definitions______________________________________________________________ 95
Annex IX. Summary - RSP, CBD, GISP Workshop (June 2005); Meliane and Hewitt (2005). ____ 101
2
List of Acronyms
AGGRA
AMEP
ANCON
CABI
CABI-CLARC
CaMPAM
CANARI
CAR/RCU
CARICOMP
CBCRM
CBD
CCA
CCA-CCAMP
CCCP
CEC
CEDRE
CEP
CERMES
CI
CIM
CIMAR
CINVESTAV
CIP
CLME
CMS
CONABIO
COP
CORAL
CR
CREP
CRFM
CZM
DIAS
DIMAR
ECCEA
EIA
FIGIS
FUDENA
GCFI
GCRMN
GEF
GISP
HACCP
IAS
ICRAN
ICRI
ICS
IDRC
IETC
IMA
IMO
INBIO
Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment
Assessment and Management of Environmental Pollution
Asociación Nacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (Panama)
CAB International
CABI Caribbean and Latin America Regional Centre, Trinidad & Tobago
Caribbean Marine Protected Areas Managers Network and Forum
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute
Caribbean Regional Coordinating Unit
Caribbean Coastal and Marine Productivity (Programme)
Community-based Coastal Resource Management (Wider Caribbean)
Convention on Biological Diversity
Caribbean Conservation Association
CCA-Coastal and Marine Management Programme
Centro Control Contaminación del Pacìfico (Colombia)
Commission for Environmental Cooperation for North America
Centre of Documentation, Research and Experimentation on Accidental Water Pollution
(France)
Caribbean Environment Programme
The Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, UWI, Barbados
Conservation International
El Centro de Investigaciones Marinas (Cuba)
Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología (Costa Rica)
Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios Avanzados de IPN - Unidad Merida (Mexico)
Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras
Caribbean Large Marine Ecosystem
Centre for Marine Sciences (UWI, Mona, Jamaica)
Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (Mexico)
Conference of Parties
Coral Reef Alliance
Coral Reef
Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme
Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism
Coastal Zone Management
Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (FAO)
Dirección General Marítima (Colombia)
Eastern Caribbean Coalition for Environmental Awareness
Environmental Impact Assessment
Fisheries Global Information System (FAO)
Fundacion para la defense de la naturaleza (Venezuela)
Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute
Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network
Global Environment Facility
Global Invasive Species Programme
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Invasive Alien Species
International Coral Reef Action Network
International Coral Reef Initiative
International Chamber of Shipping
International Development Research Center (Canada)
UNEP International Environmental Technology Center (Japan)
Institute of Marine Affairs (Trinidad and Tobago)
International Maritime Organization
Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (Costa Rica)
3
INEA
INTERTANKO
INVEMAR
IOC
IOCARIBE
IOI
IRF
ISA
IUCN
LANWOFI
MARPOL
MBRS
MEPC
MER
MIAS
MIS
MPA
MSC
NACRI
NFWF
NIMOS
NOAA
NRI
OAS
OECS
RAC
REMPEITC
Instituto Nacional de los Espacios Acuáticos e Insulares (Venezuela)
International Association of Independent Tanker Owners
Centro de Investigaciones Marinas de Colombia
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (of UNESCO)
IOC sub-commission (for Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico)
El Instituto Internacional del Océano para el Gran Caribe (Costa Rica)
Island Resources Foundation
International Seabed Authority (Jamaica)
The World Conservation Union
Latin American Network of Women working in Fisheries
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Project of CCAD/GEF/World Bank
Marine Environment Protection Committee (IMO)
Marine Education and Research Centre
Marine Invasive Alien Species
Marine Invasive Species
Marine Protected Area
Maritime Safety Committee (IMO)
Netherlands Antilles Coral Reef Initiative
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
National Institute For Environment And Development (Suriname)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Natural Resources Institute (UK)
Organization of American States
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
Regional Activity Centre
(RAC) Regional Marine Pollution Emergency, Information and Training Centre Caribbean
(Curaçao)
ROLAC
Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
SBSTTA
Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
SIDSNet
Small Islands Developing States Network
SIDS-POA
Small Islands Developing States-Programme of Action
SPAW
Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife
STAC
Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee
STRI
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama)
TNC
The Nature Conservancy
UANL
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (Mexico)
UNAM
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
UNCED
UN Conference on Environment and Development (=Earth Summit)
UNCLOS
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
UNCSD
UN Commission on Sustainable Development
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNEP-WCMC UNEP-World Conservation and Monitoring Centre
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
USDS/BOEISA U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Oceans & International Environmental & Scientific
Affairs
USFWS
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
UWI
The University of the West Indies (Cave Hill, Barbados; Mona, Jamaica; St. Augustine,
Trinidad & Tobago)
WCPA
World Commission on Protected Areas
WCR
Wider Caribbean Region
WCS
Wildlife Conservation Society
WRI
World Resources Institute
WW2BW
White Water to Blue Water Initiative
WWF
World Wildlife Fund
4
Executive Summary
The Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) encompasses two ‘biodiversity hotspots’: the Caribbean
and the Mesoamerican, both with high species endemicity. Invasive alien species (IAS) are
increasingly being seen as a threat to indigenous biodiversity. Little is known about marine
invasive species (MIS) compared to terrestrial ones. Ships’ ballast water (BW) is a major
invasion pathway. In order to start filling this knowledge gap on MIS, UNEP’s Caribbean
Environment Programme (CEP) commissioned CABI’s Caribbean and Latin American Regional
Centre (CLARC) to collate information on national and regional capacities and experiences with
MIS, including BW, management, as a baseline against which future projects can be proposed
as well as assessed.
Two bilingual questionnaires, aimed at garnering information at the national and regional levels,
respectively, were uploaded on CEP’s website and widely disseminated. An up-to-date list of
MIS in the WCR was synthesized from the responses and publications on reliable websites.
Since there was little published information on MIS management, the search was widened to
include related areas (marine protected areas, coastal zone and coral reef management,
taxonomy) in the fields of research, facilities/equipment, information management and marine
partnerships. Experiences, capacities and networks from these activities can potentially be
useful in future MIS management projects.
A total number of 118 MIS were recorded, led by fishes (39) and arthropods (31). Of 23
responses to the questionnaires, 19 were from national agencies and four regional. Each of the
four regional agencies covered different geographic areas, ranging from small islands to
mainland North America. Their wide-ranging mandate covered tertiary education and capacity
building, natural resource management, conservation, monitoring and enforcement of
regulations, biological information systems and risk analysis for biodiversity. Human and
infrastructure capacity was largely deemed adequate for current activities. None of the agencies
had MIS/BW on their immediate agenda, although there was awareness of the potential
importance of the area. Despite considerable variation among nations, maritime / BW matters
were generally dealt with by a relevant Port Authority, and MIS by Marine / Coastal zone
Management body. Although awareness of MIS / BW issues was low, some countries had or
anticipated a wide stakeholder involvement. Countries in the region, except Colombia and the
USA, had no experience with MIS management, since none had participated in any relevant
programmes. Both USA (with considerable experience) and Colombia (with experience in BW
only) indicated that there was scope for additional and improved capacity building in their
respective countries. Infrastructural capacity was relatively good for current activities, but varied
considerably among the countries. Even countries that currently had adequate capacity stated
that additional, specific facilities would be necessary to undertake work in MIS / BW
management.
A needs assessment indicates that:
• Awareness-raising activities are necessary in all countries at policy, planning and
implementation and research levels
• St. Kitts and Nevis is the only country in the WCR to have signed on to the Ballast Water
Convention (IMO, 2004). Other countries need to consider acceding to the Convention in
order to access funding, technical advice and other support
5
•
•
•
There is a need for fundamental capacity building at national / regional levels, taking into
consideration existing experience and capacity from relevant / related areas. Co-ordination
mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure that this is undertaken and followed through
Available infrastructure needs to be upgraded and adapted to accommodate MIS / BW
work, both at national and regional level
Linkages need to be established among ongoing and planned programmes in MIS
management in the WCR region and beyond. Existing networks (electronic groups, listservers) should be revitalized as necessary
A Regional Action Plan with stakeholder participation is needed to link together individual
national and / or sub-regional plans to regional and global plans, in order to maximize synergies
and narrow gaps and differences.
6
Resumen Ejecutivo
La Región del Gran Caribe Ampliado (RCA) comprende dos “puntos calientes de
biodiversidad”: el caribeño y el mesoamericano, ambos con un alto grado de especies
endémicas. Las especies exóticas invasoras (EEI) se consideran cada vez más como una
amenaza a la biodiversidad local. Se sabe poco de las especies invasoras marínas (EIM),
comparado con las terrestres. Las aguas de lastre (AL) de barcos son la principal ruta de
invasión. Con el fin de llenar la brecha existente de conocimiento sobre EIM, el Programa
Ambiental del Caribe (PAC) del PNUMA contrató al Centro Regional del Caribe y América
Latina (CLARC por sus siglas en inglés) de CABI para recopilar información referente a las
capacidades y experiencias tanto nacionales como regionales sobre el manejo de EIM,
incluyendo AL, como referencia con la cual se pueden proponer y evaluar futuros proyectos.
En el sitio internet de PACCEP se insertaron y se diseminaron ampliamente dos cuestionarios
bilingües, para acopiar información a nivel nacional y regional respectivamente. De las
repuestas y publicaciones en sitios de Internet de confianza se sintetizó un listado actualizado
de EIM en la WCR. Debido a que existía poca información publicada sobre el manejo de EIM,
se amplió la búsqueda a temas relacionados (áreas marínas protegidas, zonas costeras y
manejo de arrecifes, taxonomía) a los campos de investigación, facilidades / equipo, manejo de
información y asociaciones entre interesados. Las experiencias, capacidades y redes de estas
actividades tienen el potencial de ser útiles para futuros proyectos sobre el manejo de EIM.
Se recolectó un total de 118 EIM, liderado por peces (39) y artrópodos (31). De las 23
repuestas a los cuestionarios, 19 provenían de agencias nacionales y cuatro de regionales.
Cada una de las cuatro regionales cubrió un área geográfica diferente, desde islas pequeñas
hasta el continente Norteamericano. Sus amplios rangos de mandatos incluyeron educación
terciaria, manejo de recursos naturales, conservación, monitoreo e implementación regulatoria,
sistemas de información biológica y análisis de riesgo para la biodiversidad. Para las
actividades actuales, generalmente se consideró adecuada la capacidad humana y de
infraestructura. Ninguna de las agencias tenía en su agenda inmediata EIM/AL, pero existía
conciencia de la importancia potencial del tema. A pesar de una gran variabilidad entre
naciones, los asuntos marítimos y de AL interesaron generalmente a las autoridades portuarias
relevantes, mientras EIM a la agencia que manejaba manejando zonas marítimas y costeras.
Aunque el conocimiento sobre asuntos EIM/AL era poco, algunos países previeron un amplio
involucramiento de los interesados. Con excepción de Colombia y Estados Unidos, los países
de la región no contaron con experiencias en el manejo de EIM, ya que no habían participado
en ningún programa relevante. Tanto los Estados Unidos (con una amplia experiencia ) como
Colombia (con experiencia en AL solamente) indicaron un margen para mejorar más la
capacidad de sus respetivos países. La capacidad de infraestructura fue relativamente buena
para las actividades actuales, pero varió considerablemente entre los países. Incluso países
con una capacidad actual adecuada indicaron la necesidad de facilidades específicas
adicionales para trabajar en el manejo de EIM/AL.
Una evaluación de necesidades indicó que:
• Hacen falta actividades para aumentar la conciencia en todos los países a los niveles
políticos, de planificación y de implementación
• San Cristóbal y Nieves es el único país en la WCR que ha firmado la Convención sobre
Aguas de Lastres (OMI, 2004). Los demás países deberían firmar la misma para poder
accesar fondos, consejo técnico y otro tipo de apoyo
7
•
•
•
Se necesitan capacitaciones fundamentales tanto a nivel nacional como regional, tomando
en cuenta las experiencias existentes, las capacidades en temas relevantes y que se
relacionan. Para asegurar que esto se implemente y se le brinde seguimiento, hacen falta
mecanismos de coordinación
La infraestructura disponible requiere mejoramiento y adaptación tanto a nivel nacional
como regional, para realizar trabajos en EIM/AL
Hay que establecer enlaces entre proyectos de manejo EIM actuales y planificados dentro y
fuera de la WCR. Las redes existentes (grupos electrónicos, listas de servidores) se deben
revitalizar según cada necesidad
Se requiere un Plan de Acción Regional con participación de los interesados, para vincular los
planes individuales nacionales y sub-regionales para implementar los planes regionales y
globales, con el fin de maximizar sinergias así como minimizar las brechas y diferencias.
8
Background
The flora and fauna of the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) is diverse and has significant
ecological, aesthetic, economic and amenity value to the countries and territories of the region.
Increasingly, invasive species are seen as a threat to indigenous biodiversity, through their
impacts on natural and semi-natural habitats and ecosystems and are now widely cited as the
second greatest global threat to biodiversity, after habitat destruction. The impacts of invasive
species can be ecologically complex, operating at ecosystem, habitat, community, species and
genetic levels.
The issue of invasive species as an environmental and sustainable development threat is
increasingly recognized by a number of treaties, in particular the Convention on Biological
Diversity (CBD, 1992), which under Article 8(h) calls on Parties to “prevent the introduction of,
control, or eradicate those alien species (= invasive alien species - IAS) which threaten
ecosystems, habitats, or species”. Article 12 of the Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife
(SPAW) Protocol (CEP-UNEP, 1990), outlines that each Party shall take all appropriate
measures to regulate or prohibit intentional or accidental introduction of non-indigenous (=alien
or exotic) or genetically altered species to the wild that may cause harmful impacts to the
natural flora, fauna or other features of the Wider Caribbean. In the case of marine
environments, the threat from IAS comes from various pathways and sources, with ballast water
from ship hulls being among the major culprits.
Adequate documentation / information on marine IAS and their management in the Caribbean is
lacking (Kairo et al., 2003). This is the first necessary step towards formulating plans for an
appropriate strategy, be it prevention, damage limitation or eradication. The Caribbean and
Latin America Regional Centre (CLARC) of CAB International (CABI) has therefore been
commissioned by UNEP-CAR/RCU’s sub-Programme "Conservation and Sustainable Use of
Major Ecosystems in the Wider Caribbean" of the Regional Programme on Specially Protected
Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) to compile information on national and regional capacities and
experiences on marine invasive species (MIS) management programmes in the Wider
Caribbean, including ballast waters (BW) management.
Introduction
The Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) is defined in Article 2:1 of the Cartagena Convention as
the "marine environment of the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea and the areas of the Atlantic
Ocean adjacent thereto, south of 30° north latitude and within 200 nautical miles of the Atlantic
coasts of the [United] States [of America] (USA)". This geographic area stretches from as far
north as Florida (USA) to as far south and east as French Guyana on the North Coast of South
America (Plate 1). The WCR comprises the 36 UN member states and territories that created
the Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP) (Table 1). It includes Mexico, Central America,
and the many small island nations and territories of the insular Caribbean.
Marine and terrestrial ecosystems of the WCR provide outstanding examples of island and
aquatic species diversity and natural history. As a result of the international importance for the
biodiversity and conservation value, the region encompasses two ‘biodiversity hotspots.’ The
Caribbean hotspot1 spans 4.31 million km2 of ocean and 0.26 million km2 of land area (Plate 2)
1
http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/caribbean/
9
(Mittermeier et al., 2000; Myers et al., 2000), encompassing most of the island groups in the
Caribbean Sea and extending to the southern tip of Florida. The Mesoamerica hotspot2 includes
a number of nearshore and offshore islands in both the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean,
which are important biologically due to the presence of endemic species and as nesting areas
for seabirds (Plate 3). Among the ecosystems in this hotspot are intermittent coastal swamps
and mangrove forests along the Pacific coast from Mexico to Panama.
Plate 1. The Wider Caribbean Region3
Table 1 Thirty-six States and Territories of the Wider Caribbean region
Antigua and Barbuda
Bahamas
Barbados
Cuba
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Belize
Colombia
Costa Rica
Kingdom of the
Netherlands:
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
France
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
United Kingdom of Great
Britain & Northern Ireland:
Aruba, Netherlands
Antilles (Bonaire,
Curacao, Saba, St.
Eustatius, St. Maarten)
Department of France
(French Guyana,
Guadeloupe,
Martinique, St. Martin)
Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman
Islands, Turks & Caicos
Islands, Montserrat, UK Virgin
Islands
Saint. Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Venezuela
United States of
America (USA):
Navassa Island,
Commonwealth of Puerto
Rico, US Virgin Islands
The level of marine endemicity within both hotspots is high. The marine diversity in the
Caribbean includes about 60 species of corals and about 1,500 species of fish, nearly a quarter
of which are endemic. Indeed, the greatest concentration of fish species in the Atlantic Ocean
Basin occurs in the northern part of the hotspot in waters shared by The Bahamas, Cuba and
2
3
http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/mesoamerica/
http://www.cep.unep.org/operational-components/member-states
10
the United States (Mittermeier et al., 2000; Myers et al., 2000). Mesoamerica lies between two
biogeographic regions, the Nearctic of North America and the Neotropical of South and Central
America and the Caribbean. The biodiversity thus represents a confluence of the flora and
fauna of the two regions. There has been greater focus on the conservation of terrestrial
ecosystems (compared to marine) of this region. Nevertheless, marine ecosystems are very
important to the livelihood of coastal communities and the issue is thus high on the
developmental agenda of the countries.
Plate 2: Caribbean biodiversity hotspot
Plate 3: Mesoamerica biodiversity hotspot
The issue of marine invasive species and their potential impact on the marine ecosystems and
coastal economies is a relatively new topic, particularly in the WCR. The impacts of invasive
species can be ecologically complex. At the simplest level, indigenous species may be
threatened directly by the proliferation of a predator or competitor. However, cumulative effects
across biological scales can result in complex changes in the availability of resources (nutrients,
light, oxygen), the dynamics of competition for resources, and ecosystem structure and function
(Kairo et al., 2003). Marine environments present exceptionally challenging conditions for the
control of bio-invasions (Meliane and Hewitt, 2005). The absence of clear borders in the marine
environment severely limits management options. Detection, particularly at low densities, is
difficult. Species spread in a three-dimensional fluid system, where monitoring is a difficult and
costly task. Moreover, many eradication and control options (e.g. clearance, shooting, pesticide,
herbicide, etc) used in the terrestrial biota are harder to apply in the aquatic systems. Thus,
while management options and mechanisms for IAS have been relatively well-studied and
understood for terrestrial systems, particularly for species impacting human activity (Plate 4),
Wittenberg and Cock (2001) acknowledge that much more research and capacity building
activities are necessary before the management of MIS can be successfully undertaken.
Globally, preliminary findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment confirmed IAS as one of
the major drivers towards homogenization of ecosystem biodiversity in marine environments4.
Participants of the World Conservation Congress’ ‘Coping with Aliens’ workshop confirmed that
although IAS have been recognized as a major threat to biodiversity, efforts to combat them
have been insufficient to date. Invasions are less likely to be accurately recorded and monitored
in marine, as opposed to terrestrial, environments. Increased baseline and monitoring surveys,
and more detailed and quantitative risk assessment methodologies were identified as key
priorities. In order to build capacity to identify and mitigate IAS, there were also calls for the
development of regional marine IAS networks, greater cooperation and sharing of resources,
and increased involvement with all stakeholders, including the private sector.
4
http://www.iucn.org/themes/marine/pdf/PostWCC_KeyMarineMsgs.pdf
11
Plate 4. Flow chart for addressing alien species invasions: black bars mark the potential final
stages of the invasive alien species, while diamonds symbolize important bifurcations and
decision points (Wittenberg and Cock, 2001).
12
Regionally, a 2001 workshop on invasive species held in Costa Rica did not single out any
marine invasive species (MIS) in the Wider Caribbean (including Mesoamerica and the United
States) (Hernández et al., 2002). In a 2003 compilation aimed at quantifying threats from alien
invasive species to the insular Caribbean (Kairo et al., 2003), 552 alien species were listed, only
18 of which were MIS. The authors speculated that this was at least in part because
technological advances facilitating the reporting of marine species (e.g. improvements in diving
equipment) were recent. In addition, there was often difficulty in determining whether newly
reported marine species were introduced aliens or merely native species that had formerly gone
unobserved. It was concluded that there was a gap in knowledge regarding the status of
introduced organisms in the marine environment, and the threat that these may constitute. Only
one species has been reported as an MIS from the WCR in the Global Invasive Species
Database5 as well as the FAO (2006) Fish Database. A total of 74 nuisance species are
reported from the marine and estuarine ecosystems in five states of the US bordering the Gulf
of Mexico (Ray, 2005a), details of which are available on the US Geological Survey (USGS)
database6. Of these, four marine species (Perna viridis, the Asian green mussel; Perna perna,
the brown mussel; Sphaeroma terebrans, a wood-borer; Phylloriza punctata, the Australian
Jellyfish) were considered to significantly impact marine environments of the Americas (Ray,
2005b). A review in the UK Overseas Territories recorded 2261 invasive species, which was
considered ‘a significant under-estimate’ (Varnham, 2006). There were only four non-native
species identified that were related to the marine environment or were linked to aquaculture.
However, ‘this was not because they were deliberately ignored, simply that there was no
information available upon them’. Furthermore, the author suggested that there was ‘every
chance that these may be significant both in number and in their impact’.
A number of exotic species have been introduced to the WCR for aquaculture projects, with
potentially negative impacts on native biota (CEC, 2001). Generally the positive social and
economic aspects of such introductions are considered, with little concern for the chance of
accidental introduction of diseases and pathogens and the potential escape of the maricultured
species into the wild. To date, there are no known experimental studies to verify the exact
impacts caused by the introduced alien species. However, it is well known that invasions can
lead to fundamental changes in natural communities7. Another way in which invasive species
are introduced to new environments is through the live and fresh seafood trade. Non-native
aquatic and marine species purchased as seafood and then dumped or released into local
water supplies can bring diseases, parasites, and hitchhikers, all of which can also establish
themselves within their new environment and become invasive8.
Ballast water (BW) is increasingly being recognized as an important vehicle of aquatic IAS
introduction and spread. BW is water from the sea, which a ship takes in to create stability as it
unloads cargo and later releases at another port. There is great potential for transferring harmful
aquatic organisms, including pathogens. It is estimated that each year, up to 14 billion tonnes of
BW is transferred globally, and between 7 – 10,000 species of marine organisms may be
present in BW at any given time. Since most marine species include a planktonic stage in their
life cycles, virtually all taxa, from vertebrates to microorganisms are represented (GISP, 2005).
In addition, the sediments associated with ballast water commonly harbour cysts of species
such as dinoflagellates, which can remain in a state of dormancy until they are deposited in a
suitable environment. Thus, many marine species survive in the BW, while seaweeds and
barnacles cling to the hull. In the absence of specific natural predators to keep them under
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=131&fr=1&sts=sss
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/
7
http://www.cep.unep.org/marine-issues/plonearticlemultipage.2005-10-12.3537186879/plonearticle.2005-10-12.7226297710
8
http://massbay.mit.edu/exoticspecies/index.html
5
6
13
control, introduced marine species can become invasive and begin to spread in a new,
conducive environment (Table 2).
Table 2. Examples of marine invasive species introduced via the shipping industry (relevant to
the Wider Caribbean Region)9
Invasive Species
Scientific Name
Common Name
From
Country/Area Introduced
To
Balanus amphitrite
barnacle
Carcinus maenas
European shore crab
(green crab)
Codium fragile
green sea-fingers (alga) Japan, Northwest Pacific
Australia, New Zealand, Europe,
Mediterranean, and North America
Mytilopsis sallei
bivalve
Visakhapatnam Harbour, India
Rhithropanopeus harrisii Zuiderzee crab, dwarf
crab
Schizoporella unicornis bryozoan
Southwestern Pacific and
Indian oceans
European Atlantic waters
Central America
North Pacific and Atlantic oceans
Australia, US, Brazil, Panama,
Hawai’i, Ceylon, South Africa
East Coast of the American
United Kingdom
continent from New Brunswick
to northeast Brazil.
Japan
Australia, North America, Europe
Sphaeroma walkeri
isopod
Northern Indian Ocean
Australia, Mediterranean, South
Africa, Brazil, Florida-Caribbean,
Egypt, India, Hawai’i, and California
Styela clava
leathery sea squirt
Japan, Korea, and Siberia
coasts
Australia, United Kingdom, Atlantic
and Pacific North America
Thecacera pennigera
opisthobranch
Eastern coast South America Australia
Watersipora arcuata
Lace coral
Mexico
Australia
Vibrio cholerae
Cholera bacterium
Latin America
Gulf Coast of the United States
BW may also pose a substantial threat to human health. Ship-mediated dispersal of pathogens
may play an important role in the emergence and epidemiology of some waterborne diseases,
such as the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the agent of human cholera (Table 2). On the bottom of
BW tanks, sediments become concentrated, allowing organisms adapted to these conditions to
survive and be moved from place to place. Whereas BW favours pelagic species, the sediment
hosts ground-dwelling organisms and increases the number of species able to survive the
journey between the intake and the dumping of the BW (Wittenberg and Cock, 2001). In
addition, the Panama Canal, an 80-km long waterway joining the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is
located in the WCR. This provides a significant and permanent pathway for MIS / BW to move
between the two oceans.
Controlling and managing how ships release BW can be critical to reducing the threat of
invasions in waters near BW release sites. The problem of harmful aquatic organisms in BW
was first raised at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 1988 and since then IMO's
Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), together with the Maritime Safety
Committee (MSC) and technical sub-committees, have been dealing with the issue, focusing
first on guidelines (Resolution A868(20), adopted 27 November 1997) and then on developing
the new BW convention. In February 2004, the International Convention for the Control and
Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments (IMO, 2004) was adopted, setting
standards for improved BW management worldwide (Summary at Annex I). The Convention
regulates where, when, and how BW can be released and awaits ratification to take effect. The
9
based on http://www.ortepa.org/pages/ei19pt5.htm
14
IMO has also set up a special technical assistance programme, "GloBallast,"10 to assist
developing countries in reducing the transfer of harmful organisms in BW and is linked into
relevant ongoing programmes and activities in developed countries (Australia11, Europe12, New
Zealand13 and United States of America14). Globallast helps countries to implement current IMO
BW guidelines and prepares them for implementing the Ballast Water Convention when it
comes into force. The IMO has invited and urged nations in the WCR to ratify or accede to the
new Convention15. This will enable countries to access funding, technical advice and other
support to build the institutional collaborative structures. However, until all the countries ratify or
accede to the Convention, taking appropriate measures will not be mandatory.
Thus, globally and regionally, there has been increasing awareness of the need for research,
infrastructure and action in combating the threat of MIS. As a first step, it is necessary to
document the current status in the WCR and thereby identify what is needed in terms of
experiences and capacities for managing MIS. The current compilation is being undertaken in
response to this need. The compilation can thus form the baseline against which future projects
and actions can be proposed as well as assessed.
Materials and methods
The necessary information was collected in several ways.
Internet searches
A number of reliable websites on the Internet (GISP, IUCN, UN-bodies) and related links were
examined. Searches were conducted on popular and reliable search engines (google, yahoo)
using relevant key words (Caribbean, Marine Invasive, Alien, Ballast Water). Information from
these sites was downloaded in available formats (.doc, .pdf, .ppt) and scanned for relevant
content. In addition, websites of national and regional agencies / organizations (listed on CEP
website) were explored for information, not only on relevant projects, activities and facilities, but
also on the mission and vision. This was compiled in several Tables for ease of review and
updating. In addition, information on exotic / invasive species from the various lists (Kairo et al.,
2003, Ray, 2005 a, b; FAO, 2006; GISP 2005) and the questionnaires was synthesized and
grouped.
Questionnaires
Two questionnaires were developed aimed at garnering information in English (Annex IIa, IIb)
and Spanish (Annex IIIa, IIIb) at the national and regional levels, respectively. The
questionnaires were uploaded on CEP’s website, together with additional information about the
project. An introductory message was distributed on various list-serves and to contact points for
further dissemination among colleagues and peers in the marine sector. The initial deadline for
submission of completed questionnaires was three weeks; this was later extended to five weeks
in order to widen the circulation as well as to accommodate a request for extension from some
10
http://globallast.imo.org
http://www.deh.gov.au/coasts/pollution/antifouling/ballast/pubs/ballast.pdf
12
http://sea.helcom.fi:15037/dps/docs/documents/Maritime%20Group/HELCOM%20MARITIME%202,%202004/5_3.pdf
13
http://www.fish.govt.nz/sustainability/biosecurity/ballastwater.html
14
http://www.uscg.mil/hq/gm/mso/bwm.htm
15
http://www.caribvoice.org/science%20&%20Tech/ballastwater.html
11
15
of the contributors. In addition, individual emails were sent to the SPAW focal points and in most
instances, contacts were established by telephone.
Additional information
A glossary of relevant terms and definitions was compiled, based mainly on CABI’s IAS
Concepts, Terms and Contexts16.
Results
Internet searches
Most of the Internet searches were conducted between January and March 2006. While every
effort has been made to ensure that the information downloaded was up-to-date, it is not always
possible to ascertain when a particular website has been set up or updated. It is also possible
and noteworthy that some websites were updated after the information was downloaded and
collated in this compilation.
Apart from activities being undertaken in the United States on the development of lists and
mitigation methods for some of the more damaging species (e.g. Ray, 2005a, b), there is little
published information on MIS management. Since the area of MIS management could involve a
range of research and planning agencies, the information search net was widened to include
organizations which had in the recent past or were currently undertaking work / activities in the
following areas:
- marine protected area (MPA) management
- coastal zone (CZ) management
- coral reef (CR) management
- taxonomic identifications / listing
The nature of involvement could be:
- research in all of the above areas
- provision of facilities and equipment for research activities
- information collation, networking
- marine partnerships
Details on the Organizations, including contact information and relevant activities / projects were
compiled into a datasheet (Annex IV). Likewise, relevant projects in various sectors, undertaken
in the recent past, as well as those ongoing or to be undertaken in the near future were
compiled (Annex V). Experiences and capacities built from several of these projects and
activities can potentially be very useful in future MIS management.
Information from various lists, synthesized in Table 3, revealed that the total number of MIS
recorded thus far is 118. Of these, fishes form the largest group (39), followed by arthropods
(31) and mollusks (15) (Table 4). A total of 74 species has been reported from the five US Gulf
States (Ray, 2005a), 18 in the Insular Caribbean (Kairo et al., 2003; Varnham 2006) and one
species each from the Global Invasive Species database and the FAO (2006) Fish Database.
The remaining species were extracted from a presentation given by Terraquatica at the Scoping
Workshop on BW Management in the WCR, held in Puerto La Cruz, 8-9 February 2006 and
from the Colombia and Curaçao (Roos, 1971) responses to the national questionnaires.
16
http://www.cabi.org/ias_ctc.asp?Heading=Terms
16
Table 3: A synthesized of list of marine / brackish water exotic species, reported as known or potential invasive species from the
Wider Caribbean Region (for sources of information, see footnotes below)
Scientific Name
Common names
Status
Geographic Distribution
Acanthurus sohal
Amphiprion sp.
Belonesox belizanus
Callionymus lyra
Cephalopholis argus
Chaetodon lunula
Chiloscyllium punctatum
Colossoma or Piaractus sp.
Cromileptes altivelis
Cynoscion nebulosus
Dorosoma petenense
Sohal surgeonfish
Clown fish
Pike killifish
Dragonet
Peacock hind
Racoon Butterfly
Banded shark
Unidentified pacu
Humpback grouper
Spotted seatrout
Threadfin shad
Native transplant
Invasive
Exotic
Invasive
Exotic
Native transplant
Invasive
Exotic
Exotic
Native transplant
Native transplant
Florida
17
Bahamas Islands
18
Florida
17
Bahamas Islands
18
Florida
18
Florida
17
Bahamas Islands
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Texas
18
Florida
Epinephelus lanceolatus
Euxiphipops navarchus
Euxiphipops xanthometopon
Gramma loreto
Hemichromis letourneuxi
Hemiscylliidae sp.
Heterodontus zebra
Hoplosternum littorale
Lutjanus analis
Queensland grouper
Blue-girded angelfish
Yellow-faced angelfish
Royal gramma
African jewelfish
Bamboo shark
Zebra bullhead shark
Brown hoplo
Mutton snapper
Invasive
Invasive
Invasive
Exotic
Exotic
Invasive
Invasive
Exotic
Exotic
Bahamas Islands
17
Bahamas Islands
17
Bahamas Islands
18
Florida
18
Florida
17
Bahamas Islands
17
Bahamas Islands
18
Florida
19
Bermuda
Naso lituratus
Oreochromis mossambicus
Orangespine unicornfish
Mozambique tilapia
Native transplant
Invasive
Platax orbicularis
Pomacanthus annularis
Pomacanthus asfur
Pomacanthus imperator
Pomacanthus maculosus
Pomacanthus semicirculatus
Orbiculate batfish
Blue ringed angelfish
Arabian angel
Emperor angelfish
Yellowbar angelfish
Semicircle angelfish, zebra
angelfish
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Native transplant
Exotic
Exotic
Florida
18
Florida , Not specified within
20 21
Caribbean
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
Fishes
17
Kairo et al., 2003
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/
http://www.jncc.gov.uk/files/jncc372_databaseDec05a.xls.zip
20
http://www.issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=131&fr=1&sts=sss
21
http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/species?fid=2408
18
19
18
17
18
Origin / Native distribution
Confined to the Red Sea
Indian / Pacific oceans
Central America
Britain and Ireland coast
Indian / Pacific oceans
Indian / Pacific oceans
Indian / Pacific oceans
Amazon basin
Indian / Pacific oceans
Western Atlantic / Gulf of Mexico
North/Central America, Gulf of
Mexico
Indian / Pacific oceans
Pacific ocean
Indian / Pacific oceans
Western Central Atlantic
Tropical Africa
Indian / Pacific oceans
Asia / Western Pacific
Caribbean and South America
Western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico,
Caribbean
Indian / Pacific oceans
Africa
Indian / Pacific oceans
Indian / Pacific oceans
Western Indian ocean
Indian / Pacific oceans
Indian ocean
Indian / Pacific oceans
17
Scientific Name
Common names
Status
Geographic Distribution
Bluefaced angel
Lionfish
Bursa triggerfish
Blackchin tilapia
Scat
Red drum
Moorish Idol
Sailfin tang
Yellow tang
Sailfin tang
Yellowtail tang
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Native transplant
Native transplant
Exotic
Native transplant
Exotic
Exotic
18
Origin / Native distribution
Pomacanthus xanthometopon
Pterois volitans
Rhinecanthus verrucosus
Sarotherodon melanotheron
Scatophagus argus
Sciaenops ocellatus
Zanclus cornutus
Zebrasoma desjardinii
Zebrasoma flavescens
Zebrasoma veliferum
Zebrasoma xanthurum
Florida
19
18
Bermuda Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
Texas 18
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
Indian / Pacific oceans
Indian / Pacific oceans
Western Pacific
Africa
Indian / Pacific oceans
Atlantic, including Gulf of Mexico
Indian / Pacific oceans
Indian Ocean
Indian / Pacific oceans
Africa, Indian / Pacific oceans
Western Indian Ocean
Botryllus schlosseri
Didemnum perlucidum
Styela plicata
Golden star tunicate
A white crust tunicate
Pleated sea squirt
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Florida
18
Texas
18
Florida
18
Trididemnum solidum
Benthic colonial ascidian
Exotic
Curaçao
Common around British Isles
Indian / Pacific oceans
Warm parts of Atlantic, Indian,
Pacific oceans; Caribbean, Gulf of
Mexico
Western / Central Atlantic
A bryozoan
A bryozoan
Exotic
Exotic
Florida
18
Florida
Not known
Indian Ocean
Invasive
Exotic
Native transplant
Invasive
Exotic
Bermuda, Bahamas Islands 17
18
Florida
18
Florida
17
Curaçao
18
Florida
East Pacific / West Atlantic Ocean
Caribbean / Southwest Atlantic
Eastern Pacific
Not known
Indian / Pacific oceans
Littorina littorea
Lyrodus medilobatus
Melanoides tuberculatus
Myosotella myosotis
Oenebra muricoides
Perna perna
American oyster
Lake Merritt cuthona
A nudibranch
Lesser grilled triton
Giant coxcomb oyster,
Honeycomb oyster
Common periwinkle
An Indo-Pacific shipworm
Red-rim melania
Marsh snail
Adam's dward triton
Mexilhao mussel
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Invasive
Exotic
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
Curaçao 17
18
Texas
Perna viridis
Pinctada margaritifera
Rangia cuneata
Truncatella subcylindrica
Green-lipped/green mussel
Pacific pearl oyster
Atlantic rangia
Snail
Invasive
Exotic
Native transplant
Exotic
Florida , Jamaica
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
Ascidians/tunicates
Ectoprocts (bryozoan or lace coral)
Sundanella sibogae
Victorella pavida
Molluscs (mussels, oysters)
Crassostrea virgnica
Cuthona perca
Ercolania fuscovittata
Galagno succineta
Hyotissa hyotis
17
, Bonaire
17
18
18
18
17
, Trinidad
17
Europe
Indian / Pacific oceans
Cosmopoliton (Asia and Africa)
Europe
Not known
Atlantic coast of South America and
Africa
Indian / Pacific oceans
Indian / Pacific oceans
Western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico
English channel
18
Scientific Name
Common names
Status
Geographic Distribution
Invasive
Exotic
Bahamas islands
18
18
Florida ,Texas
Arthropods - Crustaceae (Barnacles, crabs, shrimps)
Artemia cysts
Balanus amphitrite
Balanus reticulates
Brine shrimp
Striped barnacle, Purple
acorn barnacle
A barnacle
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Centropages typicus
Charybdis hellerii
Chelura terebrans
Eriocheir sinensis
Eucalanus elongates
Eucalanus sp.
Euterpina acuitifrons
A barnacle
A copepod
Bocourt swimming Crab,
red blue crab
A copepod
An Indo-Pacific crab
An amphipod
Chinese mitten crab
A copepod
A copepod
A copepod
Ligia exotica
Litopenaeus vannamei
Lucicutia clause
Lucicutia sp.
Lucifer typus
Neocalanus sp.
Oithona ovalis
Oithona plumifera
Palaemon africanus
Pelagodiscus sp.
Penaeus monodon
Petrolisthes armatus
Wharf roach
Pacific white shrimp
A copepod
A copepod
A decapod
A copepod
A copepod
A copepod
African prawn
A brachypod
Asian tiger shrimp
Green porcelain crab
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Native transplant
Pseudocalanus sp.
Pseudodiaptomus sp.
A copepod
A copepod
Exotic
Exotic
Pullosquilla litoralis
Mantis shrimp
An isopod
Exotic
Exotic
An isopod
Exotic
Balanus trigonus
Clytemnestra sp.
Callinectes bocourti
Sphaeroma terebrans
Sphaeroma walkeri
22
National questionnaire response from DIMAR, Colombia
Native transplant
Exotic
Native transplant
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
17
Florida
18
Florida
18
Colombia
18
Florida
22
18
Texas
18
Florida
18
Florida
18
Louisiana
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
18
Florida
18
Texas
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
18
Florida
22
Colombia
18
Florida
18
Florida
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
18
Florida
Florida
18
Florida
18
Origin / Native distribution
Global
Southwestern Pacific and Indian
oceans
Southwestern Pacific and Indian
oceans
Cosmopolitan – Tropical /
subtropical seas
Not known
Western Atlantic - Caribbean to
Brazil
Not known
Indian and Pacific oceans
Not known
South-east Asia
Not known
Not known
Not known
Northeastern Atlantic,
Mediterranean
Eastern Pacific
Not known
Not known
Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans
Not known
Atlantic?
Not known
Africa
Not known
Indian / Pacific oceans
Pacific, Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico,
Caribbean
Not known
Not knownn
Indian / West Pacific oceans;
Australia
Indian / Pacific oceans; Africa;
Australia
Indian / Pacific oceans, Africa
19
Scientific Name
Common names
Status
Geographic Distribution
Origin / Native distribution
Zeuxo maledivensis
A tanaid
Exotic
Florida
Cosmopolitan
A spionid worm
A polychaete worm
Mud worm
Exotic
Exotic
Native transplant
Florida
18
Florida
18
Florida
Invasive
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Bahamas Islands
13
Florida
Florida 13, Puerto Rico 18
18
Florida
Phyllorhiza punctata
Sea nettle
Freshwater hydroid
Pink meanie
Orangestriped green
anemone
Australian spotted jellyfish
Exotic
Radianthus sp.
Tubastraea coccinea
Tubastraea rosea
Cliona lampa
Sea anemone
Orange cup coral
Invasive coral
Invasive sponge
Exotic
Exotic
Not known
Exotic / marine?
Louisiana , Florida , Puerto
18
Rico
17
Bahamas Islands
18
18
18
Louisiana , Florida , Texas
23
Curaçao
19
Bermuda
Nannochloropsis oculata
Dictyocha polyaetis
Asterionellopsis glacialis
Chaetoceros messanensis
Chaetoceros glandazzi
Chaetoceros tortissimus
Odontella aurita
Yellow-green microalga
Silicoflagellate
Diatoms
Diatoms
Diatoms
Diatoms
Diatoms
Invasive
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Bahamas Islands
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
Hemidiscus cuneiforms
Ditylum brightwelli
Paralia sulcata
Pseudoeunotia doliolus
Ulva reticulata
Kappaphycus alvaresii
Diatoms
Diatoms
Diatoms
Diatoms
Alga
Alga
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Exotic
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
22
Colombia
24
Venezuela
24
Venezuela
Zeeappelsterfte; "Sea
apple death disease"
Invasive
Curaçao
Annelids (worms)
Boccardiella ligerica
Hydroides elegans
Polydora cornuta
18
18
Europe
Australia (speculative)
Cosmopolitan
Coelentrates (Sponges/ Corals)
Chrysoara quinquechirra
Cordylophora caspia
Drymonema dalmatinum
Haliplanella lineata
17
18
Microalgae
22
Disease and other unknowns
Disease
23
24
Roos, 1971 (as listed in Curaçao’s response to the national questionnaire)
Ballast water scoping workshop, February 2006, Puerta La Cruz, Venezuela
17
18
17
Not known
Caspian Sea
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
Pacific
Tropical western Pacific ocean
Not known
Eastern and Western Atlantic;
Indian / Pacific oceans
Not known
Not known
Worldwide - Cosmopolitan
Not known
Not known
Not known
North Sea/North Atlantic Ocean:
Continuous Plankton records
Not known
Recorded: English Channel
Worldwide
Central Pacific water mass?
Worldwide
Asia?
Not known
20
Table 4. A quantitative summary of marine / brackish water exotic species, with known or
suspected invasiveness, from the Wider Caribbean Region (from Table 3)
Group
No. of species
Fishes
Ascidians/tunicates
Ectoprocts
Molluscs
Arthropods
Annelids
Coelentrates/corals/sponges
Microalgae
Disease and other unknowns
Total
39
4
2
15
31
3
9
14
1
118
Questionnaires
A total of 23 responses were received, 19 from national and 4 from regional agencies. Two
national agency responses were received from Colombia, the first from Instituto de
Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras (INVEMAR - a research institute) and the second from
Dirección General Marítima (DIMAR – Maritime agency). In addition, the Comisión Nacional
para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), Mexico, submitted reponses to
both the national and regional questionnaires since there is participation at both levels.
The national and regional questionnaires were collated separately (Tables 5-10). In addition,
information of note that could not be adequately captured or emphasized in the Tables has been
summarized in Annex VI.
National Questionnaires
Responsibility for MIS / BW issues:
The national focal points that responded to the questionnaires varied widely between various
countries (Table 5). Likewise, agencies mandated to deal with marine / maritime matters as well
as MIS / BW issues varied considerably. But in general, maritime matters were dealt with by a
relevant Port Authority, while MIS fell under the purview of Marine / coastal zone management
bodies. Interestingly, many countries had a relatively wide range of stakeholder involvement,
either current (e.g. USA) or envisaged (St. Lucia, The Bahamas), with most countries reporting
at least two agencies as being responsible. There was a general lack of awareness of MIS / BW
issues. A ‘formal’ or established focal point for dealing with MIS was also lacking.
Current human resource capacity
With few exceptions (notably USA, Colombia), most of the countries in the WCR did not have
adequate human capacity to deal with MIS / BW issues - current or imminent (Table 6). While a
number of countries indicated that one or more persons were trained in or had experience with
MIS / BW issues, it is likely that these persons were trained in the area of marine / coastal zone
management and not in MIS / BW management per se. In view of the fact that there has been
no specific training activity in the region on MIS / BW and it was obvious from the response to
the next section (“participation in MIS / BW projects”) that no activities had been undertaken, it
seems likely that the question was misunderstood. Indeed, the need for urgent capacity building
was almost universally acknowledged. In addition, both USA and Colombia, which had some
ongoing capacity building activities, stressed on the need for additional capacities, even as it
was conceded that a good start had been made towards addressing this particular need in a
relatively new problem area.
21
Table 5. National / territory level contact for issues related to Marine Invasive Species (MIS), including Ballast Water (BW)
Management
Country
Anguilla
(U.K)
Antigua and
Barbuda
Bermuda
(U.K)
The Bahamas
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
James C. Gumbs
Director, Fisheries and Marine
Resources, Department of
Fisheries and Marine Resources
Government of Anguilla, P O Box
60, Crocus Hill
Tel. 264 497 2871/8705
Fax 264 497 8567
james.gumbs@gov.ai
Agencies involved
in MIS / BW
Department of
Fisheries and Marine
Resources
Philmore A. James, Senior
Fisheries Officer, Fisheries
Division, Point Wharf, St. John’s;
Tel: 268 462 1372/ 268 764 1266
Fisheries@antigua.gov.ag
Mr. Lionel Michael, Chief Health
Inspector / Ms. Sharon Martin, Port
Health Officer, Central Board of
Health, All Saints Road, St. John’s;
Tel: 268 462 2936
Mr. Hugh Mack, Antigua Port
Authority, Deep Water Harbour
St. John’s; Tel: 268 727 3133
mackhc@hotmail.com
Ms. Maxine James, ABDF/ Coast
Guard Base, Deep Water Harbour
St. John’s
Jack Ward – Director, Department
of Conservation Services (DCS)
Tel 441 293 4464 ext 114
fax 441 293 6451
jaward@gov.bm
Stacey Wells-Moultrie, Bahamas
Environment, Science and
Technology (BEST) Commission,
Ministry of Energy and the
Environment, Nassau Court
Nassau, The Bahamas
Tel: 242-322-2576
Fax:242-326-3509
smoultrie@best.bs or
bestnbs@hotmail.com
Central Board of
Health (CBH)
Ministry of Health
Department of
Environment
Contact information for
agencies in MIS / BW
Department of Fisheries
Marine Resources,
Government of Anguilla, PO
Box 60, Crocus Hill, Anguilla
Tel. 264 497 2871/8705
Fax 264 497 8567
james.gumbs@gov.ai
Karim Hodge, Director of
Environment, Chief
Minister’s Office, P O Box 60
The Valley, Anguilla
Tel. 264 497 2871
karim.hodge@gov.ai
All Saints Road
St. John’s
Antigua W.I.
Tel: 268 462 2936
Role / responsibility
Fisheries Management and regulating marine
resource use.
Marine Pollution
Supervision of Ports
Direct Inspection and Assessment
Antigua Port
Authority
Antigua Port Authority
Deep Water Harbour
St. John’s
Antigua W.I.
Tel: 268 462 0050 /
268 727 3133
Port and Harbour Management
Department of
Environmental
Protection
DCS
Tom Sleeter – Director
tsleeter@gov.bm
Regulatory
Species and habitat management
The Bahamas
Maritime Authority
Jack Ward – Director
jaward@gov.bm
Tel: 242-394-3024
Fax: 242-394-3014
Port Department
Tel: 242-328-7126
Department of Marine
Resources
BEST Commission
Tel:242-393-1777
Port state control and management of harbours,
ports and marinas
Management of marine resources including
fisheries
Marine environmental issues including invasive
species
National parks including marine protected areas
Bahamas Nat’l Trust
Tel:242-322-2576
Fax:242-326-3509
Tel: 242-393-1317
Awareness re:
MIS / BW issues
YES
Port Operations
Port State Control
Port state control and ship inspections
Somewhat;
Various Officers
from different
agencies may
have dealt with
aspects of
Marine Invasive
Species (MIS),
including the
potential threats
from Ballast
Waters (BW)
YES
Yes
22
Country
Barbados
Cayman
Islands
(U.K)
Colombia
Curacao
(Netherlands)
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
Dr. Lorna Inniss, Deputy Director
and Ms. Angelique Brathwaite,
Marine Biologist, Coastal Zone
Management Unit, Bay Street,
Bridgetown; Tel: 1 246 427 1587
Email: linniss@coastal.gov.bb
Ms. Gina Ebanks-Petrie
Director of Environment and Mr.
Timothy Austin, Assistant Director,
Research & Assessment,
Department of Environment, P.O.
Box 486GT, Grand Cayman,
Tel: (345) 949-8469
Timothy.Austin@gov.ky
Agencies involved
in MIS / BW
CZMU
International
Transport
Barbados Port
Authority
Environment Division
Department of
Environment
1. Instituto de Investigaciones
Marinas y Costeras INVEMAR
Cerro Punta de Betín, Zona
Portuaria, Santa Marta,
Magdalena. Tel: +57 (5) 4211380
Fax: +57(5) 4312986
gnavas@invemar.org.co
2. Direccion General Marítima
(DIMAR), Vicealmirante Edgar
Augusto Cely Nùñez, Director
ecely@dimar.mil.co
Area Medio Ambiente Marino,
DIMAR, Trans 41 No 27 – 50 CAN
Bogotà ; CF Esteban Uribe
Alzate, Bogotà. Tel: 57 -1-2200490
Ext. 2701; euribe@dimar.mil.co
PU Luz Angela Castro, Bogotà.
Tel: 57-1-2200490 Ext 2704;
lcastro@dimar.mil.co ; CN Orlando
Solorzano Martinez, Cartagena.
Tel: 669 4104 ext 102;
dcioh@cioh.org.co; PU Mary Luz
Cañon Paez; Cartagena. ext 107;
mcpaez@cioh.org.co; PE Gustavo
Tous Herazo. Cartagena. ext 107;
gtous@cioh.org.co
Dr. Adolphe O. Debrot
Carmabi Foundation
P.O. Box 2090
adebrot@cura.net
599-9-462-4242
DIMAR (Marine and
Ports Institution)
Maritime Authority of
the Cayman Islands
Contact information for
agencies in MIS / BW
Angelique Brathwaite
Valerie Brown
Role / responsibility
Richard Alleyne
Harbour Master
Kim Downes
Ms. Gina Ebanks-Petrie
Director of Environment,
Department of Environment,
PO Box 486GT, G. Cayman
Tel: (345) 949-8469
gina.ebanks-petrie@gov.ky
Capt. Barrie Rial, PO Box
2256GT, Grand Cayman
cisrky@cishipping.com
Director
ecely@dimar.mil.co
Biodiversity Focal Point
Safeguarding local marine natural resources.
Marine Biologist
Chief Technical Officer
Drafting and implementing local legislation for IMO
BW Convention
Direction, Coordination and Control of Maritime
activities, including the adoption of the Convention
on Ballast Water
Ministry of
Environment,
Household, Territorial
Development
Leonardo Muñoz, Dirección
Ecosistemas, MAVDT
Legislation
Colombian Institute
for Marine and
Coastal Research
(INVEMAR)
Francisco Arias I. General
Director, INVEMAR, (same
address as in Column 2).
Tel +57 (5) 4211380
Scientific research
Regional
Environmental
Authorities
-
Control
Agriculture and
Fisheries Service
Klein Kwartier 33, Curacao
ffdilrosun@dlvv34.gobiernu.
com
Werf de Wilde, P.O.Box 689
cpamanag@cura.net
P. Henriquez
p.henriquez@curports.com
Insular fisheries legislation
Harbor Safety
Inspection Curacao
Ports Authority
Inspection, pollution compliance
Awareness re:
MIS / BW issues
Somewhat: Most
agencies have
only a cursory
knowledge
High level of
awareness in
Department of
Environment and
Maritime
Authority; Low
awareness in
other agencies
1. Somewhat,
awareness is
evident in some
agencies, but is
not a priority in
research and/or
policies
2. YES, for BW
issues
Not really aware
of any problems,
so level seems
adequate as long
as there are no
issues
23
Country
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
Agencies involved
in MIS / BW
Carmabi Foundation
www.carmabi.org
National Department
of Public Health and
Environment
Netherlands Antilles
Shipping Inspection
and REMPITC
Fokkerweg 26
Dominican
Republic
Guyana
Haiti
Jamaica
Francisco X. Geraldes
Centro de Investigaciones De
Biologia Marina, Universidad
Autonoma De Santo Domingo
franciscogeraldes@yahoo.es
Mr. Doorga Persaud, Executive
Director, Environment Protection
Agency (EPA), IAST Building,
Turkeyen Campus, Greater
Georgetown; Ramesh Lilwah,
Biodiversity Specialist, and Annie
Pitamber, Senior Env’l Officer,
EPA, Natural Resource
Management Dvsn, 263 Earl’s
Ave. Subryanville, Georgetown
Tel: 592 225-5892 / 6048
ramesh.lilwah@yahoo.com
annsid@gmail.com
Exil Lucienna, Director, Coastal
and Aquatic Ecosystem Services,
Ministry of Environment, 181, Ave
Jean-Paul II, Haut-Turgeau, Portau-Prince; Tel.:509 245 9309/ 245
7572; Fax: (509) 246 7360
exillucienna@yahoo.fr ; Fridès
Moreau, Nat’l Assn. of Fishermen;
Jean Hugues Valcin / Nicson
Saintilus, Save the Sea Gp Dimitri
Norris, Min. of Environment;
Appolon Jean Numa, C’bean Fish
Centre; Joseph Wilto, Centre for
Reflection & Action for the
Environment; Ginnette Lopez,
Assn of Haitian “Rondonneurs”
Dayne Buddo
Natural History Division
Subsecretaria de
Recursos Costeros y
Marinos, Secretaria
de Estado de Medio
Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales
Ministry of Public
Works and
Communication
Contact information for
agencies in MIS / BW
A. Debrot, B. Leysner
Piscaderabaai, P.O.Box
2090; adebrot@cura.net
Eric Newton
eric@mina.vomil.an
paul@mina.vomil.an
Thomas Smith
imoctr@attglobal.net
Herbert Silonero
hsilon@attglobal.net
599-9-461-4012/519-6402
Lic. Idalia Acevedo
Subsecretaria de Estado
Role / responsibility
Awareness re:
MIS / BW issues
Biological research
National maritime environmental legislation
Ballast water issues, maritime spill preparedness
Administration of Dominincan Marine & Coastal
Resources
Yes
Environmental Management
No
Maritime Office, Transport
and Harbors Department.
Battery Road , Kingstown,
Georgetown,
Environment Protection
Agency, IAST Building,
Turkeyen Campus, Greater
Georgetown
Monitoring of vessels
Ministry of
Environment
Yves-André Wainright
Programme for Sustainable development of Marine
Areas
YES
National Environment
and Planning Agency
No information
No information
YES
Environment
Protection Agency
Conservation of biodiversity including marine
biodiversity
24
Country
Mexico
St. Kitts / Nevis
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
The Institute of Jamaica
10-16 East Street
Kingston, Jamaica WI
Tel: (876) 922-0620-6 ext 249
Fax: (876) 922-1147
chm.nhd@cwjamaica.com
Hesiquio Benítez
Liga Periférico – Insurgentes Sur
4903 Col. Parques del Pedregal
Tel (52)+55 5004 5000
Fax (52)+55 5004 4931
deai@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Verónica Aguilar
vaguilar@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Patricia Koleff
dtap@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Mariana Bellot
mbellot@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Ralph Wilkins, Fisheries Officer,
Department Of Fisheries, P. O
Box 03, Basseterre; Tel. (869)
465-8045; Fax: (869)466-7254
fmusk@caribsurf.com
Mc Lean Hobson, Director of
Maritime Affairs, Department of
Maritime Affairs, P.O. Box 186
Needmust; Tel: (869)466-7032 /
4846; Fax: (869)465-9475
directorma@caribsurf.com
Randolph Edmead, Senior
Environmental Officer, Physical
Planning and Environment
P.O. Box 597, Bladens
Commercial Development
Wellington Road, Basseterre
Tel: (869) 465-2277.
Fax: (869)465-5842
phyplskb@sisterisles.kn
Agencies involved
in MIS / BW
Institute of Jamaica
University of the
West Indies, Mona
Contact information for
agencies in MIS / BW
No information
No information
Role / responsibility
Secretaría de
Comunicaciones y
Transportes
Director General of
Merchant Marine
Management and administration of the marine
sector including ballast water
Director General of
‘Gateways’
Administration of the marine ‘Gateways’
Secretaría de Marina
Secretaría de Medio
Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales
Comisión Nacional
para el Conocimiento
y Uso de la
Biodiversidad
Department of
Maritime Affairs
Department of
Fisheries
Director General of the
Environmental Policy and
Regional & Sectoral
Integration
Coordination Unit for
International Affairs
Director for the Analysis and
Priorities
Awareness re:
MIS / BW issues
No information
No information
Yes, for BW, not
for other areas
Responsible for national security and
contamination of marine environment
Establish policies favourable to conservation of the
environment, in particular work in area of aquatic
invasive species in collaboration with CONABIO
Mc Clean Hobson
Director
Coordinate the area of BW with the Secretaria de
Communicaiones y Transportes
Integration of the information and databases
regarding aquatic invasive species, in collaboration
with the national research institutions for
assistance in the area of invasive species
Oversight for Safety, Security and protection of the
Marine Environment
Joseph Simmonds
Senior Fisheries Officer
Marine Resources Management (Fish, Fishers,
Vessels, Reefs etc.)
YES
25
Country
St. Lucia
Suriname
25
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
Dermot Saltibus, Director of
Maritime Affairs, St Lucia Air and
Sea Ports Authority,
P.O. Box 651, Castries
Tel: 758 452 2893/4
Fax: 758 453 0889
saltibusd@slaspa.com
Guy Mathurin, Senior Research
Officer, Ministry of Agriculture,
Forestry & Fisheries, Castries.
Tel: 758 468-5600
Fax: 758 450-1185
research@slumaffe.org
Vaughn Charles, Chief Fisheries
Officer, Department of Fisheries,
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry
and Fisheries, Pointe Seraphine
Tel; 758 468 4135/4143;
Fax: +(758) 452 3853
chieffish@slumaffe.org and
deptfish@slumafe.org
Cedric Nelom
Director, Office Environmental
Monitoring & Enforcement, The
National Institute For Environment
And Development In Suriname
(NIMOS)
Tel: +597-520045/520043
Fax: +597-520042
info@nimos.org
Agencies involved
in MIS / BW
Division of Maritime
Affairs25
Department of
Fisheries
Crop Protection and
Quarantine Units
Environmental Health
Department of the
Ministry of Health???
Ministry of Natural
Resource – Nature
Conservation Division
Ministry of Transport,
Communication &
Tourism – Maritime
Authority Suriname
Maritime Authority
Suriname and the
respective District
Commissioner,
assisted by the
Proscecutor’s office,
the Police and the
Ministry of Trade and
Industry
Contact information for
agencies in MIS / BW
Division of Maritime Affairs
P.O. Box 651, Castries,
Saint Lucia
Tel: +(758) 452 2893/4;
Fax: +(758) 453 0889
saltibusd@slaspa.com
Department of Fisheries
Ministry of Agriculture,
Forestry and Fisheries
Pointe Seraphine, Castries,
Saint Lucia
Tel +(758) 468 4135/4143;
Fax: +(758) 452 3853
chieffish@slumaffe.org and
deptfish@slumaffe.org
Ministry of Agriculture,
Forestry & Fisheries, Union,
Castries, Saint Lucia.
Tel: +(758)468-5600; Fax:
+(758)450-1185
research@slumaffe.org
Role / responsibility
Inspection of vessels; Control and compliance
measures
Development and Management of the Fisheries
Sector
Inspection of growing plants, areas under
cultivation (including fields, plantations, nurseries,
gardens, greenhouses), and plant and plant
products in storage or in transportation, particularly
with the objective of reporting the existence,
outbreak and spread of plant pests and diseases
and controlling them.
Cornelius Jongbawstraat 14
lbbnb@sr.net
Responsible for arrangements for the protection
and maintainance of nature monuments
No information
Responsible for among others, protection of our
marine environment against pollution by marine
vessels
No information
Responsible for the implementation of the
Harbours Decree 1981
(S.B. 1981 no. 86), which prohibits discharge of
waste, oil, and oil-contaminated water and
condemned goods into public waterways and
harbours
Focal point and clear roles and responsibilities re: MIS / BW have NOT yet been officially established in St. Lucia
Awareness re:
MIS / BW issues
Some reports
circulated for
information from
Crop Protection
and Quarantine,
Department of
Fisheries and
Maritime
Division, where
some persons
attended
meetings at
which MIS and
BW formed part
of the agenda
items discussed
NO
26
Country
United States
of America
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
Dean Wilkinson
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA)
Department of the Interior
Office of the Secretary
(OS/SIO/NISC)
1849 C Street, NW
Washington DC 20240
Dean_Wilkinson@ios.doi.gov
Tel: (202) 354-1875
CDR Kathy Moore, Chief
Environmental Standards Division
U.S. Coast Guard
Tel: (202) 267-2716
environmentalstandards@comdt.u
scg.mil
Agencies involved
in MIS / BW
National Invasive
Species Council
Aquatic Nuisance
Species Task Force
National Oceanic and
Atmospheric
Administration
U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service (USFWS)
U.S. State
Department
U.S. Coast Guard
Environmental
Protection Agency
U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers
Animal and Plant
Health Inspection
Service
U.S. Maritime
Administration
Smithsonian
Environmental
Research Center
U.S. Geological
Survey
Contact information for
agencies in MIS / BW
Dr. Richard Orr
Assistant Director for
International Affairs
Richard_Orr@ios.doi.gov
(202) 354-1882
Scott Newsham
Executive Secretary
Scott_Newsham@fws.gov
(703) 358-1796
Dean Wilkinson
Dean.Wilkinson@noaa.gov
(202) 3541875
Kari Duncan
Kari_Duncan@fws.gov
(703) 358-2464
Virginia Cox
CoxVT@state.gov
(202) 647-3883
Currently being reassigned.
environmentalstandards@co
mdt.uscg.mil
(202) 267-2716
Marilyn Katz
Katz.Marilyn@epa.gov
(202) 566-1246
Al Cofrancesco
al.f.confrancesco@erdc.usa
ce.army.mil
(601) 634-3182
Kenneth Seeley
kenneth.r.seeley@aphis.usd
a.gov
(301)734-3640
Carolyn Junemann
Carolyn.Junemann@dot.gov
(202) 366-1920
Whitman Miller
millerw@si.edu
(443) 482-2439
Sharon Gross
sharon_gross@usgs.gov
(703)648-4076
Role / responsibility
Planning and policy development for invasive
species generally within the U.S. Government.
Interagency coordination. Oversight.
Similar role to National Invasive Species Council
but for aquatic invasives only.
Co-Chair—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Prevention, monitoring, and control of aquatic
invasive species. Research on aquatic invasive
species. Education on aquatic invasive species.
Research on ballast water treatment technologies
and other aspects of the ballast water issue.
Co-chair—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Ballast water management technology.
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
International organizations, agreements, and
negotiations
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Federal ballast water management policy and
regulation (including hull fouling)
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Monitoring. Risk assessment protocols. Regulation
of control technologies. Verification of BW
technologies.
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Aquatic plant management. Research on control
technologies.
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Diseases affecting aquatic organisms. Risk
assessment.
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Research on ballast water management
technologies.
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Monitoring. Databases. Ballast water research.
Member—Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Testing of ballast water management systems,
General research on aquatic invasive species. Risk
analysis.
Awareness re:
MIS / BW issues
YES
27
Country
Venezuela
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
Dr. Jesús Ramos Oropeza
Ministerio del Ambiente
Oficina Nacional de Diversidad
Biológica, C.S.B., Torre Sur, Piso
6, Ofic. 600
El Silencio, Caracas.
Telf: 58212-408.4757 / 58
Fax: 58212-408.4756
jramos@marn.gob.ve
(Same address as above)
Lic. Edis Solórzano
Tel: 58212-408.2135 / 2136
Fax: 58212-408.2109
esolorzano@marn.gob.ve
Lic. Aurora Sanz Agreda
Tel: 58212-408.2139
asanz@marn.gob.ve
Lic. Begoña Mora Celis
Tel: 58212-408.2125
bmora@marn.gob.ve
Agencies involved
in MIS / BW
Ministerio del
Ambiente
Oficina Nacional de
Diversidad Biológica
Ministerio de
Infraestructura
Instituto Nacional de
los Espacios
Acuáticos e insulares
(INEA)
Gerencia de
Seguridad Integral
Contact information for
agencies in MIS / BW
C.S.B., Torre Sur, Piso 6,
Ofic. 600. El Silencio,
Caracas.
Telf: 58212-408.4757 / 58
Fax: 58212-408.4756
Av. Orinoco entre
Mucuchíes y Perijá. Edif..
INEA. Piso 3.
Caracas.
Telf: 58212-9091552 /01550
Role / responsibility
Gestión de la Diversidad Biológica
Programa de Gestión de las Aguas de Lastre
Awareness re:
MIS / BW issues
Yes
28
Table 6. National capacities for Marine Invasive Species (MIS), including Ballast Water, Management
Country
Anguilla
(U.K)
Antigua
and
Barbuda
The
Bahamas
Barbados
Capacity – human resource
No. of
Current
Plans re:
persons with
capacity
capacity
/ years - MIS adequate?
building
experience
None
No
None
Laboratory
Boat (s) or
access to
Materials
No
Yes
Capacity – physical infrastructure
Equipment
Diving
Communication
(excluding
equipment
equipment /
diving)
networking
Current
capacity
adequate?
Plans re: capacity
building
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
None
No
No
No
No
None
No response
7 persons /
10-25 years
No
None
Yes, not
adequate
Limited
No
response
No
Not able to
respond
2 persons / 3
years
2+2 persons
/ 50 years
(cumulative):
environment
protection &
30 years
(cumulative):
conservation
services
1 person /
20 years,
plus several
BSc. / MSc.
trained
7 persons /
3-6 years;
BSc. to Ph.D
scientists
6 persons /
1-4 years (all
DIMAR); 2
technician, 2
University, 2
postgraduate
To some
extent
No
No
response
None
Yes,
limited
Yes
Yes,
limited
Yes
Yes,
limited
Some
Yes, limited
Yes
Yes, limited
Yes
Yes
Yes
To some
extent
No
Yes –
currently
the threat
appears
minimal &
there is
adequate
capacity to
respond
Yes
Plans for
IAS
prevention
are in
place
Yes
Yes
No
response
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
None
Yes
Yes
-
Yes,
scientific
monitoring
Yes
Yes
Yes
None
No
None
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Some
capacity
building
ongoing,
more
needed
Yes for
biological
analysis;
No for
microbiology of
pathogens
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
More economic
resources needed for
expansion and
building on current
capacity
Curacao
Netherlan
ds
None
-
-
Yes
Yes
Yes
Lack of
specialized
equipment
for BW
samples
from international
traffic
Yes
Yes
Yes
Dominican
2-4
No
None
No
No
No
Some
Some
Some
Yes, but
only as
there are
as yet no
known or
imminent
problems
No
REMPITC aware of
need for BW
regulations and
participates in IMO
meetings. Other than
that: NO plans, no
legislation
None
Bermuda
(U.K)
Cayman
Islands
Colombia
INVEMA
R
Colombia
- DIMAR
(for BW)
To be devised based
on needs
Steps being taken to
formally adopt IMO
recommendations &
institute appropriate
monitoring to ensure
compliance
29
Country
Republic
Guyana
Haiti
Jamaica
Mexico
St. Kitts /
Nevis
St. Lucia
Capacity – human resource
No. of
Current
Plans re:
persons with
capacity
capacity
/ years - MIS adequate?
building
experience
persons
None
No
None
16 persons /
No
Yes, there
3-10 years;
response
are
2 technician
projected
Others: first
plans for
degree or
discussion
Masters
1 person / 8
No
Proposal
years (Ph.D.
on BW
pending)
submitted
4 persons /
No
This will
1-5 years
become
with Ph.D. –
necessary
all research
once BW
convention
is acceded
None
No
No
Capacity – physical infrastructure
Equipment
Diving
Communication
(excluding
equipment
equipment /
diving)
networking
Laboratory
Boat (s) or
access to
Materials
Current
capacity
adequate?
Plans re: capacity
building
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes to
some
extent
None
Needs strengthening;
There are plans to
negotiate for a large
programme in this
regard
Yes
Yes,
insufficient
Yes, not
sufficient
No
Yes,
insufficient
Yes
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
No
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
No
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
No
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
No
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
Yes, but
inadequate
Yes, but
can be
improved
Database and
information
systems exist
No
Yes, plans will have to
be put in place for
necessary
infrastructure at the
major ports
No
No
Yes, but lack capacity
Yes, but can be
improved
No
Relevant agencies
need to get together
and decide on what is
required
1 person in
marine
(regulatory)
& 1 person
in terrestrial
sp. (potential
trainer) /
both M.Sc.
Not known
No
No26
Some, but
not free
and not
adequate
Yes, but
for use re:
current
activities
Needed
Sampling
equipment
needed
No
No
Yes, but
limited
Yes, but
limited
No
No
Yes, but limited
No
Not known
United
States of
America
Difficult to
assess
To a large
27
extent
Ongoing
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, but
privately
owned
Yes
Yes
Yes
To a large
28
extent
Ongoing
Venezuela
No response
No
response
No
response
No
response
No
response
No
response
No
response
No
response
No response
No
response
No response
Suriname
26
The Maritime Division needs to be staffed and ship inspectors need to receive training in Port State Control and inspection of monitoring equipment. Other bodies (Department of
Fisheries, Crop Protection and Quarantine Units, Ministry of Health) require training in monitoring, conduct of investigations, litigation measures, collection of evidence, etc.
27
Current expertise on BW issues is quite good. In other areas related to MIS, the science is generally immature. Although work is being done, basic issues remain in invasion
biology. Very difficult to predict what species will become invasive if introduced. Management tools are extremely limited. Progress is being made in such areas, however.
28
The infrastructure for dealing with aquatic invasives in the United States is quite good. A large number of academics are working on various issues. Federal and State agencies are
engaged. As in any discipline, there is room for improvement, however. To some extent aquatic invasive issues began as peripheral issues to other responsibilities. The number of
people devoted exclusively to marine invasive species is quite small although a large number have been involved with specific issues
30
Physical infrastructure
The response to current physical structure was relatively more positive (Table 6). As a result of
participating in a range of national and regional projects, programmes and enabling activities in
recent years, many countries now had a relatively robust physical infrastructure. There were a
few exceptions, however, notably Antigua & Barbuda, Guyana and St. Kitts/Nevis, which
indicated the need for a more extensive improvement of the overall physical infrastructure. In
addition, communication networks were not as adequate and also needed addressing.
Experience in MIS / BW management
With the exception of the USA, which had somewhat extensive but relatively recent experiences
in MIS/BW management, and Colombia, which had participated as an observer in the Globallast
project, none of the other countries had undertaken any activities in MIS / BW management
(Table 7). Much of the work in the USA has, however, been undertaken on the West Coast
(California) and in Hawai’i.
Table 7. National experiences from 2001-2006 in Marine Invasive Species (MIS) / Ballast Water
(BW) Management
Country
Experience in MIS / BW Management Programmes
Current status
Local
No. of
Relevant publications and other
of programme
capacity
persons
information
/ partners
building/areas trained
N/A
N/A
N/A
None
Participation in
MIS / BW
programmes
None
Species
involved in
programme
N/A
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Bermuda
(UK)
Cayman
Islands
(UK)
Colombia INVEMAR
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
GloBallast
Program, OMI/
PNUD/GEF.
BW / sediment
monitoring
Yes,
Taxonomy,
bacteriology
Six
Colombia DIMAR
GloBallast
Program, OMI/
PNUD/GEF.
BW / sediment
monitoring
Anonymous, 2003a. Anonymous,
2003b. Anonymous, 2006a.
Anonymous, 2006b.
None
N/A
Yes,
Protection of
Marine
Environment
N/A
One
Curacao
(Netherlan
ds)
Dominican
Republic
Guyana
Haiti
Ongoing;
Partners:
CIOH; Jorge
Tadeo Lozano
& Magdalena
Universities
Ongoing,
covering both
Atlantic and
Pacific coasts
N/A
N/A
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Boschma, 1953; Roos, 1971; Bak,
1985; Nagelkerken et al., 1999;
Debrot, 2003; Zabin, 2005;
None
None
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Jamaica
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mexico
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Anguilla
(UK)
Antigua
and
Barbuda
The
Bahamas
Barbados
29
Nation guided by international / local
laws & regulations on health & litter
/ marine / waste management
In 2006, anticipate participation in
BW Globallast programme
Attendance of one staff member at
BW Meetings for two years
Varnham (2006)
Regulations for control of BW
discharge in Cayman waters have
been written: awaiting adoption
Rondón et al. 2003a; Rondón, et al.
2003b
None
Discussions ongoing for a large
programme in MIS / BW
Buddo et al., 2003
The Institute of Jamaica and UWI
have put forward a BW proposal for
funding: awaiting approval
HACCP training: risk management
of risks from invasive pathogenic
species in fish production29
http://www.conabio.gob.mx/conocimiento/info_especies/especies_invasoras/doctos/especiesinvasoras.html
31
Country
Experience in MIS / BW Management Programmes
Current status
Local
No. of
Relevant publications and other
of programme
capacity
persons
information
/ partners
building/areas trained
N/A
N/A
N/A
None
St. Kitts /
Nevis
St. Lucia
Participation in
MIS / BW
programmes
None
Species
involved in
programme
N/A
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Suriname
None
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
United
States of
America
Rapid response
to Caulerpa
infestation in
California
Caulerpa
taxifolia
No response
No response
National Control
& Management
Plan
Sabellid worm
eradication in
abalone
Caulerpa
taxifolia
No response
No response
No response
No response
Eradication of
knotted wrack in
San Francisco
Bay
Management of
Phragmites
Ascophyllum
nodosum
Completed;
NOAA, State
of California,
USDA,
USFWS.
Plan complete
Multiple
partners
Completed;
NOAA funded
Private
researchers
Completed;
Smithsonian
Environmental
Research Ctr
Ongoing;
Multiple
Federal and
State agencies
No response
No response
Yes,
Pesticide use,
and physical
removal of
plants
Unable to
determine mostly
operated by
State Govts
Management of
Spartina on
west coast
Spartina spp.
National Control
and
Management
Plan for green
crab
Carcinus
maenas
Removal of
non-native
macroalgae
fouling
Hawaiian coral
reefs
Five species of
introduced
algae
Ongoing;
Multiple
Federal / State
agencies
Plan completecurrently being
implemented;
Multiple State /
Federal
agency and
private
researchers
Ongoing
NOAA and the
State of Hawaii
Yes, Removal
of fouling
algae
Undaria
removal in
Monterey Bay
National Marine
Sanctuary
Nutria control
Undaria
pinnatifida
Ongoing;
NOAA
Yes, Physical
removal
Expertiseleveldependant:
may be few
hundred. A
more limited
number of
skin divers;
but program
has others
people
providing
support
Dozens of
volunteers
Myocastor
coypus
None
N/A
Ongoing;
APHIS; State
Governments,
USFWS
N/A
N/A
N/A
Venezuela
Terebrasabella
heteroincinata
Phragmites
australis
St. Lucia needs to consider
acceding to the BW Convention
Increasing MIS / BW awareness
may assist with inclusion of these
issues in the National Biodiversity
Action Plan, now being developed
Literally hundreds of papers have
been written in the area of aquatic
invasives, and a list can be
provided. Government publications
include Meeting the Invasive
Species Challenge (the National
Management Plan) available with
other document such as criteria for
ranking pathways at
www.invasivespecies.gov
The Aquatic Nuisance Species Task
Force web site has the strategic
plan and items such as a generic
risk assessment protocol.
http://anstaskforce.gov
The Army Corps of Engineers has
prepared CD-ROMS on aquatic
plant management. Other web sites
that may be of interest:
In addition to the U.S. Federal
Government, individual State
governments play a key role in
many areas. Many resources in
coastal waters are under State
jurisdiction. The States have been
in the lead on control efforts. They
are also a key portion of monitoring
efforts. A number of States have
passed their own ballast water
management regulations, and at
least a couple are sponsoring
research into methods of managing
ballast water.
See Annex VII for additional
sources of information from the USA
Ojasti, 2001a, b.
32
Regional Questionnaires
Mandate region and areas of expertise
Four regional agencies responded to the questionnaire, each addressing a different mandate as
well as geographical area (Table 8).
Table 8. Regional level contact for issues related to Marine Invasive Species (MIS), including
Ballast Water (BW) Management
Name and address
of Agency
Contact for person(s)
completing questionnaire
Biscayne National
Park
9700 S.W. 328th
Street
Homestead, FL,
33033, USA
Richard Curry, Chief, Division
of Science and Resource
Management 305-230-1144,
Ext 3006,
richard_curry@nps.gov
Shelby Moneysmith, Marine
Technician, 305-230-1144, Ext
3009, Fax: 305-230-1190,
Shelby_moneysmith@nps.gov
Dr. Robin Mahon
Phone 246-417-4570
Fax 246-424-4204
rmahon@caribsurf.com
CERMES, University
of the West Indies,
Cave Hill Campus,
Barbados
Comisión Nacional
para el
Conocimiento y Uso
de la Biodiversidad
(CONABIO), Mexico
Hesiquio Benítez
Liga Periférico – Insurgentes
Sur 4903 Col. Parques del
Pedregal
Tel (52)+55 5004 5000
Fax (52)+55 5004 4931
deai@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Verónica Aguilar
vaguilar@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Patricia Koleff
dtap@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Mariana Bellot
mbellot@xolo.conabio.gob.mx
Virgin Islands
National Park/Virgin
Islands Coral Reef
National Monument
Rafe Boulon, Chief
Resource Management /
Steve Clark, Chief Ranger,
Law Enforcement
VI National Park/Coral Reef
NM, 1300 Cruz Bay Creek
St. John, VI 00830
Countries in which
agency undertakes
activities / project
Mostly southeast Florida;
minimal in US Virgin
Islands
Area(s) of expertise /
responsibility
Barbados, British Virgin
Islands. Guyana, Grenada,
Jamaica, St. Vincent and
the Grenadines, St. Lucia,
Trinidad and Tobago,
Multi-lateral projects
involving the United States
of America and Canada
Fisheries
Coastal management
Climate change
Sustainable tourism
Biodiversity
Biological information
systems and risk analysis
for biodiversity;
Director for International
Affairs: Networking Mariana Bellot
mbello@xolo.conabio.gob.
mx
Technical Director for
Analysis and Priorities:
Expert Analyst - Verónica
Aguilar
vaguilar@xolo.conabio.gob
.mx
Conservation/Research/Inv
entory and Monitoring of
protected areas (Rafe
Boulon)
Enforcement of
regulations, visitor
protection (Steve Clark)
US Virgin Islands
Expertise in most areas of
marine and terrestrial
resources management,
although not in all areas of
marine science
Awareness re:
MIS / BW
issues
Somewhat:
aware of
threats by MIS /
BW, but limited
staff to monitor
resources of a
fairly large area
(450 sq. miles)
YES
YES
No, neither MIS
nor BW are
considered
serious issues
at this time
Thus, the Insular Caribbean was covered by CERMES (UWI, Barbados), Southeast Florida by
the Biscayne Bay National Park, US Virgin Islands (USVI) by the USVI National Park / Coral
Reef National Monument. CONABIO in Mexico served as the focal point for the multi-lateral
collaboration / projects between the United States of America, Canada and Mexico.
The areas of expertise were activity-dependent, thus, CERMES, as a tertiary education body,
was involved in regional training / capacity building in a range of areas of current interest, while
Biscayne Bay National Park addressed terrestrial and (some) marine resource management. In
keeping with its mandate, the USVI National Park performed the dual functions of Conservation
/ Research / Inventory and Monitoring of protected areas as well as Enforcement of regulations
and visitor protection, but was not involved in BW issue. CONABIO supports biological
information systems and provides risk analysis for biodiversity.
There was general awareness of MIS / BW issues.
33
Current human resource capacity
CERMES professional staff was not trained in MIS / BW management per se, nor did it have
any specific plans to work in the area, unless additional human resources were made available.
It was, nevertheless, expected that expertise in the area could be acquired with relatively minor
briefing and exposure to issues and approaches. Biscayne Bay Park did not have the necessary
human resource capacity, but could easily source additional relevant expertise from the
University of Miami (Table 9). Likewise, USVI National Park could draw necessary assistance
from others with experience, and it was expected that the regular monitoring activity would pick
up on any new MIS. It was also deemed that the local government officials needed awareness
and detection training in MIS / BW.
Physical infrastructure
Three of the four organizations stated that they had adequate physical infrastructure in keeping
with their current mandate and activities (Table 9). Indeed, USVI had the capability of
developing the necessary network “to document and treat a potential problem, depending on the
level of threat”.
Experience in MIS / BW management
None of the agencies had any prior experience in MIS/BW management, nor had any plans in
place currently towards organizational capacity building. Staff of Biscayne Bay Park felt that the
current biggest threat came from individuals who were releasing exotic fish from aquariums.
Mexican scientists participated recently in HACCP training in management of risks from invasive
pathogenic species in fish production30
Additional Information
The response to the national questionnaire from the United States provided a range of
additional useful sources of information (Annex VII). The glossary of relevant definitions is
located in Annex VIII.
30
http://www.conabio.gob.mx/conocimiento/info_especies/especies_invasoras/doctos/especiesinvasoras.html
34
Table 9. Regional capacities for Marine Invasive Species (MIS), including Ballast Water, Management
Agency
CONABIO,
Mexico
Biscayne
National
Park,
Florida
Capacity – human resource
No. of persons
Current
Plans re:
with / years capacity
capacity
MIS / BW
adequate?
building
experience
10 persons / 1No,
This will
5 years
become
experience
necessary
each, Diploma
once BW
/ Doctorates
convention
is acceded
1 person / 30
No, but
None,
years; Masters
additional
since
relevant
expertise
expertise
can be
can be
easily
easily
sourced
sourced
Capacity – physical infrastructure
Equipment
Diving
Communication
(excluding
equipment
equipment /
diving)
networking
Laboratory
Boat (s)
or access
to
Materials
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
Yes
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
Yes
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
Yes
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
Yes
Currently
not
adequate
for MIS
management
Yes
Current
capacity
adequate?
Plans re: capacity
building
Database and
information
systems exist
No
Yes, plans will have
to be put in place for
necessary
infrastructure at the
major ports
Yes
No
No, but the
organization has the
capability of
developing the
needed network to
document and treat a
potential problem,
depending of the level
of threat
No plans for work in
MIS / BW unless
additional human
resources are made
available
None
CERMES,
Barbados
None
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes,
including
GIS
Yes
Yes
Yes
Virgin
Islands
National
Park/Virgin
Islands
Coral Reef
National
Monument
7 persons / >50
years
combined
experience
Yes; Park
does not
deal with
BW; MIS
can be
picked up
via regular
monitoring
Necessary
assistance
will be
drawn
upon from
others with
experience
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes, but
local
government
needs
awareness
and
detection
training
35
Discussion
Although fewer marine than land species have been described, in some respects the marine
realm is more diverse (World Resources Institute, 199231). It hosts 31 of the world's 32 extant
animal phyla, 14 of them exclusively marine. Coral reefs, like tropical forests, are renowned for
their dazzling species diversity, though recent evidence suggests that the deep sea might also
have a remarkably high species diversity. Because many marine species defend themselves
chemically, marine biochemical diversity is an exciting source of new medicines. The diversity of
life in marine systems also affords recreational and aesthetic pleasures. The oceans' biotic
wealth extends beyond numbers of species; the highest measured productivity on Earth is in
North Pacific kelp beds. Seafoods provide much of humankind's protein supply. Marine
photosynthesizing and shell-forming organisms tie up carbon dioxide that would otherwise
intensify global warming. The diversity of marine ecosystems, from structurally complex
mangrove forests to seemingly featureless oceanic midwaters, is at least comparable to
terrestrial ecosystems. Marine scientists are continually reminded of how little is known about
the seas. Not until 1938 was it learned that coelacanth fish, until then known only as fossils, still
survived in the Indian Ocean. And it was as recently as 1977 that hydrothermal vents, with
diverse and unique associated ecosystems, were discovered in the East Pacific (World
Resources Institute, 1992). Protection of this unique heritage for future generations is thus of
urgent importance. Invasive species are currently among the foremost, major threats to marine
environments and biodiversity
Globally, awareness of risks to marine and coastal environments from MIS / BW is relatively
recent. Nevertheless, mitigating activities have been moving at a fast pace on various fronts.
Management of MIS in BW, mariculture and coastal/marine biodiversity / environment are the
three critical areas that have consistently engaged the interest and attention of stakeholders.
Recent trends as well as present and future developments in these three areas are discussed
below, together with ways in which the WCR can link into and benefit from some of the ongoing
and future activities.
With regard to BW, the IMO together with various partners has been at the forefront, primarily
through the pilot GEF-UNDP-IMO GloBallast project. This first phase (PDF A - 2000 to 2004)
included 6 pilot countries: Brazil, China, India, Iran, South Africa and Ukraine. Activities ranged
from a review of the legislation, to building awareness, technical training, and port surveys and
risk assessments at demonstration sites. Following an evaluation of Phase I, a second Phase GEF-UNDP-IMO Globallast Partnership (GBP) through a PDF-B project, is intended to assist
developing countries to enact, through effective partnerships, the necessary national level
policy, legal and institutional reforms, and build capacity to address the risks arising from the
transfer of invasive aquatic species and pathogens in ships' BW and sediments. Regions will
be identified through selected criteria, to implement this project (GISP, 2005). A scoping
workshop for the WCR was held in Venezuela in February 2006, facilitated by IMO, UNEP and
INEA and organized by RAC-RAMPEITC, during which regional partnerships for Phase II were
discussed for incorporation into the overall plan of action.
In the early 1990’s, in an effort to limit the transfer of MIS via BW, the IMO established a Ballast
Water Working Group as part of the MEPC. This led to the adoption of the 1993 ballast
management guidelines, followed by a revised version in 1997 (IMO, 1997). The guidelines
recommend a variety of management measures aimed at reducing the risk of IAS introductions,
31
http://pubs.wri.org/pubs_content_text.cfm?ContentID=1681
36
including the exchange of BW at sea, regular removal of sediment from the ballast tanks, and
treatment of BW and sediment before discharge. The IMO subsequently developed the
International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and
Sediments. The Convention, a legal instrument, was adopted in February 2004, but has yet to
come into force (Summary at Annex I).
The shipping industry participates actively in the IMO MEPC Ballast Water Working Group. The
International Chamber of Shipping (ICS) and the International Association of Independent
Tanker Owners (INTERTANKO) and Classification Societies have published Model Ballast
Water Management Plans that give practical guidance for the implementation of IMO Guidelines
on-board ships (IMO, 1997). All of the approaches recommended under the IMO Guidelines are
subject to limitations. Reballasting at sea currently provides the best-available risk minimisation
measure, but is subject to serious ship-safety limits. Even when fully implemented, this
technique is less than 100% effective in removing organisms from BW.
A range of agencies has likewise been collaborating globally on the issue of MIS from the
biodiversity and environment perspective. Decisions VI/23 and VII/5 of the Conference of the
Parties (COP) of the CBD call for the development of a joint programme of work on managing
the major vectors of marine IAS introduction. This process is being coordinated by the Global
Invasive Species Programme (GISP) on behalf of the CBD and in conjunction with the UNEP
Regional Seas Programme (RSP), involving all major stakeholders and role-players in the
international management of marine IAS. A joint work plan for the management of Marine
Invasive Alien Species (MIAS) was presented to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical
and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) at the 11th meeting in Montreal, 28 November - 2
December 2005 (CDB, 2005). This was based on contributions made by various organizations
before, during and after a Workshop of the Joint Work Programme on Marine and Coastal
Invasive Alien Species, held in Montreal on 27-29 June 2005.
In June 2005, scientists, managers and port authority representatives from East Africa attended
a GISP / UNEP32 pilot training in Tanzania to test the Training Toolkit on the Management of
Marine and Coastal Invasive Species. Participants worked in four groups (1) PreventionUnintentional Introduction (2) Prevention – Intentional Introductions (Mariculture, Fisheries and
Aquaria); (3) Post-Border Management; (4) Cross Cutting Issues. For each of the working
groups a report was prepared including gaps and needs identified, areas of duplication and
possibilities for collaboration and a plan of action to address the gaps, proposing lead agencies,
funding possibilities and a possible time frame. GISP was expected to consolidate the 4 reports
into one report and develop a work plan with clear future activities, the way forward and roles of
the different actors. Among the recommendations, RSP was tasked to consider the possibility of
supporting (financially) some regions (such as CAR - Caribbean) in regional activities on MIAS,
such as implementing the training course that RSP and GISP developed.
Activities in the Pacific region can in many aspects, be considered relevant to the Caribbean,
since both regions are primarily island economies and can thus learn from each other’s
experiences. Both rely heavily on marine resources, which can be seriously and negatively
impacted by MIS. The Pacific region has been actively pursuing development of strategies for
IAS management, including MIS. Information from a Workshop on Invasive Species in the
Pacific: Strategies for Countering the Threats, 4-5 July 2002 33 should be a useful starting point
for the Caribbean. The Workshop identified MIAS as a serious issue. Where good information
32
33
http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/News/Regional_Seas_and_Invasive_Species/default.asp
http://www.gbf.ch/desc_workshop_old.asp?no=26&app=&lg=EN&now=3
37
existed, e.g. for Hawai’i, it was clear that MIAS were a severe threat to biodiversity. There was
concern that a gap in information on MIAS existed for most of the Pacific region. Regulations for
risk analysis on marine alien species were not as well developed or implemented as those for
terrestrial species. It was suggested that the development of a Regional Risk analysis could
provide models for countries to follow. Methods for prevention of marine invasions urgently
needed further development and research, including at an engineering level (e.g. ship design).
Ecosystem studies (available niches) would contribute to prevention efforts. Climate change
was also of high relevance, since during El Niño events, for instance, organisms could disperse
more than in normal times; in addition, increased storms and resulting damage to ships
increased the risk of release of MIAS in BW.
The science of MIS / BW is still in its infancy. In most countries, more research is needed on
taxonomy and identification of species, and there is often a shortage of knowledge about natural
distributions (Wittenberg and Cock, 2001). For marine organisms, it is difficult even to state
whether a questionable species is indigenous or introduced, i.e. their origin will be unknown
(cryptogenic species). The results obtained during these studies should be disseminated to
generate public awareness, and also fed into international databases to contribute to an
accessible global knowledge base of invasive species. Rapid assessment surveys have been
used in the United States34 and Australia35 with some success.
No biological control project has been attempted against a marine invader until recently, and
studies on the suitability of several parasites against different organisms are underway, e.g.
specific parasitic castrators of crabs (Wittenberg and Cock, 2001). The authors point out that
consultation with outside experts is especially useful and recommended in difficult or little known
situations, such as dealing with marine invasions – in some instances the invasive species will
be little known in the scientific community and there may be no control method known. They
further suggest that if targets or situations not previously controlled are encountered, techniques
will have to be developed and tested as the programme proceeds. Secord (2003), however,
emphasizes that biocontrol in marine habitats is risky since it poses many more uncertainties
and has a much sparser history than its counterpart on land. The author warns marine biologists
and resource managers against including biocontrol in proposals on integrated pest
management in marine systems. Based on a review of six ecologically and taxonomically
diverse case studies, Secord (2003) concludes that host specificity could not be guaranteed in
the marine biocontrol proposals examined and suggests that feasible alternatives to classical
biocontrol in the marine realm should be emphasized, including more investment in invasion
prevention tools, early detection and eradication while invasions are small, and increased
attention to native natural enemies to control exotic pests.
Mariculture is another potential area of concern. Non-indigenous species are frequently used in
aquaculture and mariculture. Many alien marine species have become firmly established far
from their native ranges and are culturally accepted as “just more biodiversity” e.g. Japanese
oyster and Manila clam (World Fisheries Trust, 200236). Escapes from marine net pens are not
uncommon and escapees often invade their new habitats. For instance, approximately 80% of
the salmon production on the Canadian Pacific coast is based on an alien species, the Atlantic
salmon (Salmo salar). The continuous addition of adult Atlantic salmon into the coastal
environment may affect the population of the native relatives, Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus
spp.); recent observations suggest a successful colonization by the exotic species (Wittenberg
and Cock, 2001). The greater risk, however, is probably with escape of local species, because
34
35
36
http://massbay.mit.edu/exoticspecies/ras/RASfactsheet.html
http://www.marine.csiro.au/crimp/nimpis
http://www.biodiv.org/doc/meetings/mar/temctre-01/official/temctre-01-02-en.pdf
38
they are more likely to interbreed with wild populations, which can affect their survival: the ability
of natural populations to recover from introgression of genes in farmed specimens has been
very little studied (World Fisheries Trust, 200229). There is a need for effective national and
international measures and policies in order to mitigate and prevent the negative consequences
of such introductions. Since containment in aquaculture cannot be guaranteed, species should
not be introduced until a risk assessment has been undertaken to assess the safety of the
action proposed (Wittenberg and Cock, 2001). Among the recommended actions to diminish
colonizing by marine and brackish water species is the domestication and culture of native
species, the avoidance of future introductions, and the controlling of water uses and pollution.
(CEC, 2001). Article 9 of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO, 1997)
provides a set of voluntary principles and standards that, if applied, ensure potential social and
environmental problems associated with aquaculture development are duly addressed and that
aquaculture develops in a sustainable manner. Another initiative, the UNCLOS framework
(Article 196), requires states to take measures to control the accidental or intentional
introduction of exotic species in marine environments37.
Conclusions and needs assessment
Based on responses to the questionnaires (Tables 5-10), it is clear that very little has been
undertaken in most countries, with the exception of the USA (and to a much smaller extent
Colombia), where a range of activities are ongoing. Most of these have begun fairly recently in
the west of the country (California and Hawai’i). In addition, the science of MIS / BW is still in the
early stages of development. Thus, it may take a few years before any concrete results become
available. Nevertheless, the WCR can significantly benefit from even the current experiences in
the USA and elsewhere (e.g. GloBallast project). In addition, there is scope to participate and
partner in, as well as benefit from the experiences of national and regional activities being
planned by a number of agencies, including in the South Pacific.
As a starting point, most countries need to undertake awareness-raising activities at various
levels: policy, planning and implementation, as well as research. Current policy and legislation
need to be upgraded to bring it in line with international requirements. In this regard, countries in
the region should consider acceding to the Ballast Water Convention (IMO, 2004). St. Kitts and
Nevis38 is the only country in the WCR to have signed on to the Convention. While taking
appropriate measures will not be mandatory until the Convention has been ratified by the
required quorum, this will nevertheless enable countries to access funding, technical advice and
other support to build the institutional collaborative structures.
There is little national / regional capacity for MIS / BW management. There is thus a need for
the provision of fundamental capacity building (training and resources), which will have to be
provided by regional / global agencies with relevant experience. Coordination and implementing
mechanisms need to be put in place in order to ensure that this capacity building process is
undertaken and followed through. With regard to infrastructural capacity, with few exceptions,
the available facilities could be upgraded / extended / adapted / modified to accommodate MIS /
BW work, both at national and regional levels. Countries that are in need of extensive
infrastructure will have to find the means of acquiring the necessary facilities and equipment,
either through national resources or external funding sources. Existing training programmes
such as those of GISP/UNEP should be expanded and adapted to the WCR as appropriate
37
38
http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/UNCLOS-TOC.htm
http://www.imo.org/includes/blastDataOnly.asp/data_id%3D14502/status.xls
39
which should prove more cost-effective than developing entirely new programmes and will also
assist with the development of synergies with other regions.
There is limited experience in MIS management worldwide, but this is rapidly changing as more
and more work is being undertaken and valuable experience acquired, shared and replicated at
national, regional and global levels. GISP’s global project “Building Capacity and Raising
Awareness in Invasive Species Prevention and Management” has been recently approved for
GEF funding at PDF-B level. MIS play a major role with the following activities:
• Customisation of GISP course for marine IAS
• Improved Management and Conservation Practices for the Cocos Island Marine
Conservation Area, Costa Rica
The current compilation likewise contributes to regional efforts at collating available information
as a starting point. The reported MIS have been placed into nine groups, based on taxonomic
classification. Fishes (33%) and arthropods (26%) lead the list in terms of number of species,
followed by molluscs (12%), microalgae (12%) and coelentrates (7%), with tunicates, annelids,
euprocts and diseases accounting for the remaining 10%.
Strategies for MIS management are also being developed in the national programmes of
several countries - Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, Norway, USA and others (CBD, 2005),
and can be very useful in developing national strategies. Much of the work in the USA is being
undertaken on the West Coast and in Hawai’i, and it is nevertheless expected that the
experiences gained will provide valuable guidance to activities in the WCR. It is thus necessary
to establish linkages among ongoing and planned projects and programmes in MIS
management in the region and elsewhere. Globallast Partnerships is one such project in which
the Caribbean region is being given the opportunity to participate. In addition, CABI-CLARC is
currently in the process of developing a large project on mitigating the threats of IAS, including
MIS / BW for funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and other partners. The
Caribbean Invasive Species Working Group (CISWG), of which CABI is a founding member, is
likewise planning a number of activities, including a pilot Distance Diagnostic Network on IAS. In
addition, experience and capacity from other areas, in particular MPA, CZ and CR, can all
contribute towards various activities aimed at the overall management of MIS in the WCR.
Communications and networking has also been identified as a concern. In this regard, it is
necessary to activate / revive / revitalize a number of networks (electronic groups, list-servers)
that already exist. Such networks, which are increasingly becoming mainstreamed and widely
accessible, can be used for information gathering, discussion, and dissemination. In addition,
the possibility of existing maritime networks incorporating MIS / BW protocols into their systems
can be explored as another possible mechanism.
The needs identified during the current assessment are similar and in keeping with the four
major gaps in MIS management reported by Meliane and Hewitt (2005) (summary in Annex IX):
- Research
- Legislation and regulation
- Management methods and options
- Funding
While acknowledging that “eradication and control options (e.g. clearance, shooting, pesticide,
herbicide, etc) used in the terrestrial biota are harder to apply in the aquatic systems”, the
authors suggest a Joint Global Work Plan as an instrument that would highlight priorities to be
tackled at the international, regional and national levels. Undertaken with a range of partners,
this envisages the following components:
40
-
Preventing introductions through control of invasion pathways (ballast water, hullfouling, aqua/maricultures, aquarium trade and live seafood/bait)
Developing baseline knowledge
Incursion and management response: including surveys, eradication/control and new
research
Cross-cutting issues (training, awareness-raising, information sharing, building
distributed information systems that deliver information on risks, identification, and
response strategies)
In this regard, awareness raising as well as a regional Action Plan is needed. This will link
together the individual national and / or sub-regional plans in the WCR on the one hand and
global plans on the other. During this process, relevant elements of the two assessments –
global and regional – will need to be looked at critically in order to identify synergies and gaps.
Where synergies exist, these need to be encouraged and fostered, while seeking ways of
narrowing gaps and differences. Stakeholder participation in this process will be vital. It is only
through individual as well as collective, collaborative action that strategies for mitigating the
effects of MIS can be developed and implemented in the WCR.
Acknowledgements
We are very grateful to all the contributors who took time from their busy schedules to complete
the questionnaires and to participate in the compilation process. Appreciation and thanks to:
• CEP staff, in particular Alessandra Vanzella-Khouri, Heidi Savelli-Soderberg and Ingrid Lee
Smart, who provided necessary support throughout the project
• Anne deGazon of CABI-CLARC for her usual quiet and efficient administrative support
• Stas Burgiel, Elianny Dominguez, Francisco Nunez of TNC, Yohann Soubeyran of IUCNFrance, Andrea Grosse of USGS and others for the dissemination of the Questionnaires
• Oliver Cheesman of UK for his patience, support and follow-up: this resulted in at least four
additional responses.
• James Brooks, Thesaurus Manager, CABI-UK for very kindly and promptly providing the
copyright information and references for the Definitions section of the report.
Bibliography
Anonymous 2003a. Sampling ballast water for pathogens: the Colombian Approach. In: Globallast
Monograph Series 9.
Anonymous 2003b. Presencia de organismos exógenos y patógenos en aguas de lastre de buques de
tráfico internacional – fase. En Memorial Seminario Nacional de Ciencias del Mar (SENALMAR),
Santa Marta Colombia. 2003.
Anonymous 2006a. Dinámica Planctónica, Microbiológica y Fisicoquímica en Cuatro Muelles de da Bahía
de Cartagena y Buques de Tráfico Internacional. En Boletín científico Nº 23 del Centro de
marlucpaez@yahoo.com;
Investigaciones
Oceanográficas
e
Hidrográficas.
Email:
gtous1261@yahoo.com ; magdagavilan@yahoo.com ; tatianavj@yahoo.com;
Anonymous 2006b. Comunidad Fitoplanctónica en la Bahía De Cartagena y en Aguas de Lastre de
Buques de Tráfico Internacional. En Boletín Científico Nº 23 del Centro de Investigaciones
Oceanográficas e Hidrográficas. Email: marlucpaez@yahoo.com; gtous1261@yahoo.com;
magdagavilan@yahoo.com
Bak, R. P. M. 1985. Recruitment patterns and mass mortalities in the sea urchin Diadema antillarum.
Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Symp. (Tahiti) 5: 267-272.
41
Boschma, H. 1953. On specimens of the coral genus Tubastrea, with notes on phenomena of fission.
Stud. Fauna Curaçao Caribb. Islands vol. 4: 109-119 pp. (discusses occurrence of the invasive coral
Tubastrea rosea)
Buddo, D. St. A., Steele, R. D., and D’Oyen, E. R. 2003. Distribution of the invasive indo-Pacific green
mussel, Perna viridis, in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, Bulletin of Marine Science 73: 433-441.
Bullock, J.M., Hodder, K.H., Manchester, S.J. and Stevenson, M.J. 1996. Review of Information, Policy
and Legislation on Species Translocation. A report commissioned by the Joint Nature Conservation
Committee as a background for future policy formulation. JNCC Report No. 261. Joint Nature
Conservation Committee, Species Conservation Branch, Peterborough, UK
Carlton, J.T. 1996. Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77, 1653-1655.
CEP-UNEP. 1990. SPAW Protocol. http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/legislation/spaw.html
Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America. 2001. Preventing the introduction
and spread of aquatic invasive species in North America, 28-30 March 2001. Montreal, Quebec,
Canada. 86pp. http://www.cec.org/files/PDF/BIODIVERSITY/aquatic-invasives_en.pdf
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). 1992. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity,
United Nations Environment Programme, Montreal, Canada
CBD. 1992. Article 8(h) In-situ Conservation: Prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien
species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. http://www.biodiv.org/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf
CBD. 2002. COP 6 - Sixth Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on
Biological Diversity. The Hague, Netherlands (7 - 19 April 2002). Decision VI/23. Alien species that
threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. Annex. Guiding Principles for the Prevention, Introduction
and Mitigation of Impacts of Alien Species that Threaten Ecosystems, Habitats or Species
CBD. 2005. Towards the development of a joint work plan for the management of marine invasive alien
species. UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/11/INF/10. http://www.biodiv.org/doc/meetings/sbstta/sbstta11/information/sbstta-11-inf-10-en.doc
Colautti, R.I. and MacIsaac, H.J. 2004. A neutral terminology to define 'invasive' species. Diversity and
Distributions 10, 135-141
Davis, M.A. and Thompson, K. (2000) Eight ways to be a colonizer; two ways to be an invader: a
proposed nomenclature scheme for invasion ecology. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America
81, 226-230.
Debrot, A. O. 2003. A review of the freshwater fishes of Curaçao, with comments on those of Aruba and
Bonaire. Car. J. Sci. 39: 100-108.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. 2003. Review of Non-native Species Policy: Report
of the working group. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2003) National Code on Introductions and Transfers of
Aquatic Organisms. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Canada. COPYRIGHT:
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Eilenberg, J., Hajek, A. & Lomer, C. (2001) Suggestions for unifying the terminology in biological control.
BioControl 46, 387-400.
FAO. 1997. FAO technical guidelines for responsible fisheries. FAO Fisheries Department, Aquaculture
Development. No. 5. FAO, Rome. 40p.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w4493e/w4493e00.htm#Contents
FAO. 2006. Fish Database. Froese, R. and D. Pauly. Editors. 2006. FishBase. World Wide Web
electronic publication. www.fishbase.org, version (03/2006)
Genovesi, P. 2001, Guidelines for Eradication of Terrestrial Vertebrates: A European Contribution to the
Invasive Alien Species Issue. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural
Habitats Standing Committee. T-PVS (2000) 65 revised 2. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France
Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) 2005. South America Invaded. 80 pp.
http://www.gisp.org/publications/invaded/gispSAmerica.pdf
Hernández, G., Lahmann, E.J. & Salicido, R.P-G. 2002 Invasives in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.
(results of the regional workshop on Invasive Alien Species: Meeting the Challenges Posed by their
Presence in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean, Costa Rica, 11 & 12th June 2001). IUCN, San Jose,
Costa Rica. http://www.iucn.org/places/orma/publica_gnl/especies.pdf
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). 2005. ICES Code of Practice on the
Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms 2005. ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark. COPYRIGHT:
ICES
42
International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1997. Guidelines For The Control And Management Of Ships'
Ballast Water To Minimize The Transfer Of Harmful Aquatic Organisms And Pathogens. 17 pp.
http://globallast.imo.org/868%20english.pdf
International Maritime Organization (IMO). 2004. International Convention for the Control and
Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments. 38 pp.
http://www.bsh.de/de/Meeresdaten/Umweltschutz/Ballastwasser/Konvention_en.pdf
Kairo, M., Ali, B. Cheesman, O., Haysom, K. and Murphy, S. 2003. Invasive species threats in the
Caribbean Region. Report to The Nature Conservancy. 134 pp http://tinyurl.com/awoxl or
http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo et al, 2003.pdf
McNeely, J.A., Mooney, H.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P.J. and Waage, J.K. (eds). 2001. Global Strategy on
Invasive Alien Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK
Meliane, I. and Hewitt, C. 2005. Gaps and priorities in addressing marine invasive species. IUCN Global
Marine Programme Working Paper - September 2005. 13 pp.
http://www.iucn.org/themes/marine/pdf/Marine%20AIS_GAPS-PRIORITIES.pdf
Mittermeier, R.A., Myers, N. and Mittermeier, C.G. 2000. Hotspots: Earth’s biologically richest and most
endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Conservation International Publications.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G. & Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for
conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.
Nagelkerken I., Smith G.W., Snelders, E., Karel M., & James, S. 1999. Sea urchin (Meoma ventricosa)
die-off in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles) associated with a pathogenic bacterium. Dis. Aquat. Org.
38:71-74.
Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A. and Galil, B.S. 2004. A uniform terminology on bioinvasions: a chimera or an
operative tool? Marine Pollution Bulletin 49, 688-694
Ojasti, J. 2001a. Estudio sobre el Estado Actual de las Especies Exóticas: Estudio Nacional. Comunidad
Andina Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Convenio de Cooperación Técnica no Reembolsable
ATN/JF-5887-RG.
Ojasti, J. 2001b. Estrategia Regional de Biodiversidad para los Países del Trópico Andino: Especies
Exóticas Invasoras. Convenio de Cooperación Técnica no Reembolsable ATN/JF-5887-RG CAN –
BID
Ray, G. L. 2005a. Invasive Animal Species in Marine and Estuarine Environments: Biology and Ecology.
Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington D.C.
http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/elpubs/pdf/trel05-2.pdf
Ray, G. L. 2005b. Invasive Estuarine and Marine Animals of the Gulf of Mexico, ANSRP Technical Notes
Collection (ERDC/TN ANSRP-05-4), U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center,
Vicksburg, MS. http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/elpubs/pdf/ansrp05-4.pdf
Rondón, S.R., Vanegas, T. and Tigreros, P.C. 2003a. Sampling ballast water for pathogens: the
Colombian approach. In: Raaymakers S. (Ed). 1st International Workshop on Guidelines and
Standards for Ballast Water Sampling, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 7-11 April 2003: Workshop Report.
GloBallast Monograph Series No. 9. IMO London. pp. 46-53
Rondón, S.R., Vanegas, T. and Tigreros, P.C. 2003b. Contaminación en la Bahía de Cartagena por
Aguas de Lastre de los Buques. Boletín Científico CIOH, No. 22
Roos, P. J. 1971. The shallow-water stony corals of the Netherlands Antilles. Stud. Fauna Curaçao
Caribbean Islands, vol. 37: 108 pp.
Ruiz, G.M. and Carlton, J.T. 2003. Invasion vectors: a conceptual framework for management. pp. 459504, in: Ruiz, G.M. and Carlton, J.T. (eds) Invasive Species: Vectors and Management Strategies.
Island Press, Washington, DC, USA
Secord, D. 2003. Biological control of marine invasive species: cautionary tales and land-based lessons.
Biological Invasions 5 : 117–131.
USA 1990, 1996. Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act. Public Law 101-646,
Nov. 29, 1990, as amended in National Invasive Species Act, Public Law 104-332, Oct. 26, 1996.
USA 1999. Executive Order 13112 of February 3, 1999: Invasive Species. Federal Register 64(25), 61836186
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report No. 372. 39
pp. http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3634
World Conservation Union. 2000. IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss caused by
Alien Invasive Species. Prepared by the SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. Approved by the
43
51st Meeting of the IUCN Council, Gland Switzerland, February 2000. IUCN, Species Survival
Commission, Gland, Switzerland
Wittenberg, R. and Cock, M.J.W. 2001. Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit of Best Prevention and
Management Practices. CABI Publishing, Wallingford (on behalf of the Global Invasive Species
Programme). http://www.cabi-bioscience.ch/wwwgisp/100Toolkitfin.pdf
World Resources Institute. 1992. Biodiversity in Marine Ecosystems. In: Global Biodiversity Strategy:
Guidelines for action to save, study and use Earth’s biotic wealth sustainably and equitably. World
Resources Institute, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the United Nations Education,
Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
http://pubs.wri.org/pubs_content_text.cfm?ContentID=1681
World Trade Organization. 1995. The WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary
Measures (SPS Agreement). World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Zabin, C. J. 2005. Community Ecology of the Invasive Intertidal Barnacle Chthamalus proteus in Hawai`i.
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Hawai’i, Manoa. (Effects this native Caribbean species is having in
the Pacific: population biology studied in Curaçao).
44
Annex I. Summary – Ballast Water Convention 2004
International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments 39
http://www.imo.org/Conventions/mainframe.asp?topic_id=867
Adoption: 13 February 2004; Entry into force: 12 months after ratification by 30 States, representing 35 per cent
of world merchant shipping tonnage. The Convention is divided into Articles; and an Annex, which includes
technical standards and requirements in the Regulations for the control and management of ships' ballast water
and sediments. The main features of the Convention are outlined below.
General Obligations
Under Article 2 General Obligations Parties undertake to give full and complete effect to the provisions of the
Convention and the Annex in order to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic
organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments.
Parties are given the right to take, individually or jointly with other Parties, more stringent measures with
respect to the prevention, reduction or elimination of the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens
through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments, consistent with international law.
Parties should ensure that ballast water management practices do not cause greater harm than they prevent to
their environment, human health, property or resources, or those of other States.
Reception facilities
Under Article 5 Sediment Reception Facilities Parties undertake to ensure that ports and terminals where
cleaning or repair of ballast tanks occurs, have adequate reception facilities for the reception of sediments.
Research and monitoring
Article 6 Scientific and Technical Research and Monitoring calls for Parties individually or jointly to promote and
facilitate scientific and technical research on ballast water management; and monitor the effects of ballast water
management in waters under their jurisdiction.
Survey, certification and inspection
Ships are required to be surveyed and certified (Article 7 Survey and certification) and may be inspected by
port State control officers (Article 9 Inspection of Ships) who can verify that the ship has a valid certificate;
inspect the Ballast Water Record Book; and/or sample the ballast water. If there are concerns, then a detailed
inspection may be carried out and "the Party carrying out the inspection shall take such steps as will ensure
that the ship shall not discharge Ballast Water until it can do so without presenting a threat of harm to the
environment, human health, property or resources."
All possible efforts shall be made to avoid a ship being unduly detained or delayed (Article 12 Undue Delay to
Ships).
Technical assistance
Under Article 13 Technical Assistance, Co-operation and Regional Co-operation, Parties undertake, directly or
through the Organization and other international bodies, as appropriate, in respect of the control and
management of ships' ballast water and sediments, to provide support for those Parties which request technical
assistance to train personnel; to ensure the availability of relevant technology, equipment and facilities; to
initiate joint research and development programmes; and to undertake other action aimed at the effective
implementation of this Convention and of guidance developed by the Organization related thereto.
Annex - Section A General Provisions
This includes definitions, application and exemptions. Under Regulation A-2 General Applicability: "Except
where expressly provided otherwise, the discharge of Ballast Water shall only be conducted through Ballast
Water Management, in accordance with the provisions of this Annex."
39
The full text of the Convention is available to purchase from IMO www.imo.org (choose 'Publications', 'Purchase IMO Publications
Here', in field box enter 'I620M'.)
45
Annex - Section B Management and Control Requirements for Ships
Ships are required to have on board and implement a Ballast Water Management Plan approved by the
Administration (Regulation B-1). The Ballast Water Management Plan is specific to each ship and includes a
detailed description of the actions to be taken to implement the Ballast Water Management requirements and
supplemental Ballast Water Management practices.
Ships must have a Ballast Water Record Book (Regulation B-2) to record when ballast water is taken on board;
circulated or treated for Ballast Water Management purposes; and discharged into the sea. It should also
record when Ballast Water is discharged to a reception facility and accidental or other exceptional discharges
of Ballast Water
The specific requirements for ballast water management are contained in regulation B-3 Ballast Water
Management for Ships:
• Ships constructed before 2009 with a ballast water capacity of between 1500 and 5000 cubic metres must
conduct ballast water management that at least meets the ballast water exchange standards or the ballast
water performance standards until 2014, after which time it shall at least meet the ballast water
performance standard.
• Ships constructed before 2009 with a ballast water capacity of less than 1500 or greater than 5000 cubic
metres must conduct ballast water management that at least meets the ballast water exchange standards
or the ballast water performance standards until 2016, after which time it shall at least meet the ballast
water performance standard.
• Ships constructed in or after 2009 with a ballast water capacity of less than 5000 cubic metres must
conduct ballast water management that at least meets the ballast water performance standard.
• Ships constructed in or after 2009 but before 2012, with a ballast water capacity of 5000 cubic metres or
more shall conduct ballast water management that at least meets the standard described in regulation D-1
or D-2 until 2016 and at least the ballast water performance standard after 2016.
• Ships constructed in or after 2012, with a ballast water capacity of 5000 cubic metres or more shall conduct
ballast water management that at least meets the ballast water performance standard.
Other methods of ballast water management may also be accepted as alternatives to the ballast water
exchange standard and ballast water performance standard, provided that such methods ensure at least the
same level of protection to the environment, human health, property or resources, and are approved in principle
by IMO's Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC).
Under Regulation B-4 Ballast Water Exchange, all ships using ballast water exchange should:
• whenever possible, conduct ballast water exchange at least 200 nautical miles from the nearest land and in
water at least 200 metres in depth, taking into account Guidelines developed by IMO;
• in cases where the ship is unable to conduct ballast water exchange as above, this should be as far from
the nearest land as possible, and in all cases at least 50 nautical miles from the nearest land and in water
at least 200 metres in depth.
When these requirements cannot be met areas may be designated where ships can conduct ballast water
exchange. All ships shall remove and dispose of sediments from spaces designated to carry ballast water in
accordance with the provisions of the ships' ballast water management plan (Regulation B-4).
Annex - Section C Additional measures
A Party, individually or jointly with other Parties, may impose on ships additional measures to prevent, reduce,
or eliminate the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens through ships' Ballast Water and
Sediments.
In these cases, the Party or Parties should consult with adjoining or nearby States that may be affected by such
standards or requirements and should communicate their intention to establish additional measure(s) to the
Organization at least 6 months, except in emergency or epidemic situations, prior to the projected date of
implementation of the measure(s). When appropriate, Parties will have to obtain the approval of IMO.
Annex - Section D Standards for Ballast Water Management
There is a ballast water exchange standard and a ballast water performance standard. Ballast water exchange
could be used to meet the performance standard:
46
Regulation D-1 Ballast Water Exchange Standard - Ships performing Ballast Water exchange shall
do so with an efficiency of 95 per cent volumetric exchange of Ballast Water. For ships exchanging
ballast water by the pumping-through method, pumping through three times the volume of each ballast
water tank shall be considered to meet the standard described. Pumping through less than three times
the volume may be accepted provided the ship can demonstrate that at least 95 percent volumetric
exchange is met.
Regulation D-2 Ballast Water Performance Standard - Ships conducting ballast water management
shall discharge less than 10 viable organisms per cubic metre greater than or equal to 50 micrometres
in minimum dimension and less than 10 viable organisms per milliliter less than 50 micrometres in
minimum dimension and greater than or equal to 10 micrometres in minimum dimension; and
discharge of the indicator microbes shall not exceed the specified concentrations.
The indicator microbes, as a human health standard, include, but are not be limited to:
a. Toxicogenic Vibrio cholerae (O1 and O139) with less than 1 colony forming unit (cfu) per 100
milliliters or less than 1 cfu per 1 gram (wet weight) zooplankton samples ;
b. Escherichia coli less than 250 cfu per 100 milliliters;
c. Intestinal Enterococci less than 100 cfu per 100 milliliters.
Ballast Water Management systems must be approved by the Administration in accordance with IMO
Guidelines (Regulation D-3 Approval requirements for Ballast Water Management systems). These include
systems which make use of chemicals or biocides; make use of organisms or biological mechanisms; or which
alter the chemical or physical characteristics of the Ballast Water.
Prototype technologies
Regulation D-4 covers Prototype Ballast Water Treatment Technologies. It allows for ships participating in a
programme approved by the Administration to test and evaluate promising Ballast Water treatment
technologies to have a leeway of five years before having to comply with the requirements.
Review of standards
Under regulation D-5 Review of Standards by the Organization, IMO is required to review the Ballast Water
Performance Standard, taking into account a number of criteria including safety considerations; environmental
acceptability, i.e., not causing more or greater environmental impacts than it solves; practicability, i.e.,
compatibility with ship design and operations; cost effectiveness; and biological effectiveness in terms of
removing, or otherwise rendering inactive harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in ballast water. The
review should include a determination of whether appropriate technologies are available to achieve the
standard, an assessment of the above mentioned criteria, and an assessment of the socio-economic effect(s)
specifically in relation to the developmental needs of developing countries, particularly small island developing
States.
Annex- Section E Survey and Certification Requirements for Ballast Water Management
Gives requirements for initial renewal, annual, intermediate and renewal surveys and certification requirements.
Appendices give form of Ballast Water Management Certificate and Form of Ballast Water Record Book.
Resolutions adopted by the Conference
The Conference also adopted four resolutions:
• Conference resolution 1: Future work by the Organization pertaining to the International Convention for the
Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments
• Conference resolution 2: The use of decision-making tools when reviewing the standards pursuant to
Regulation D-5
• Conference resolution 3: Promotion of technical co-operation and assistance
• Conference resolution 4: Review of the Annex to the International Convention for the Control and
Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments
47
Annex IIa and IIb. National and regional questionnaires - English40
Prepared by CAB International Caribbean and Latin America Regional Centre, Trinidad & Tobago for
UNEP-CAR/RCU's Programme on Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW). Completed
questionnaires should be sent to Mrs. Vyjayanthi Lopez at v.lopez@cabi.org by March 22, 2006.
IIa. Questionnaire: National capacities and experiences in marine invasive species
management programmes including ballast waters in the Wider Caribbean
Name of Country / territory
Name of Focal point addressing the questionnaire
Contact details of the Focal point addressing the
questionnaire
Name and contact information for person(s) assisting with the questionnaire:
Name
Contact information
1. Which Governmental and other agencies have the mandate for dealing with issues related to the
marine sector, including Maritime (ballast water) issues?
Name of Agency
Contact Information
Role / responsibility
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
2. Is there awareness among the various agencies on the issue of Marine Invasive Species (MIS),
including the potential threats from Ballast Waters (BW)?
• Yes
• No
• Somewhat (please specify)
3. Which Governmental agencies have the mandate for dealing with issues related to MIS, including
BW, management?
Name of Agency
Contact Information
Role / responsibility
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
4. How many persons have any experience in MIS / BW management?
Agency
No. of
persons
No. of years of
experience
Education
level(s)
Role /
responsibility
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
5. Is the current / available level of expertise adequate to deal with imminent problems concerning MIS,
including BW, management?
40
http://www.cep.unep.org/features/2006/marine-invasive-species ; http://www.cep.unep.org/features/2006/national-questionnaireon-mis-wider-caribbean.doc/view ; http://www.cep.unep.org/features/2006/regional-questionnaire-on-mis-wider-caribbean.doc/view
48
If yes, are any further improvements needed?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
If no, are there any plans in place for dealing with this issue?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
6. What infrastructural capacity is available in your country to deal with MIS, including BW,
management?
Item
Yes / No
Laboratory facilities
Appropriate boat(s) or access to
Materials
Equipment (excluding diving)
Appropriate diving equipment
Communication networks
Any other (please specify)
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
7. Is the current / available infrastructural capacity adequate to deal with imminent problems concerning
MIS?
If yes, are any further improvements needed?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
If no, are there any plans in place for dealing with this issue?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
8. Has your country participated in any MIS management programme(s) in the past five years? Yes (
No ( )
If yes, name the programme(s), species involved, partners and current status (ongoing, completed)
Programme
Species involved
Partners
Current status
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary or give details on a separate sheet; also please
provide any available electronic linkages to the programme(s) in Section 9 below)
9. Did any of the programme(s) (above) result in local capacity building in dealing with MIS? Yes (
No ( )
)
)
49
If yes, name the programme(s), no. of persons trained, area in which they received training and current
status (trained persons still working in the area or have moved on)
Programme
No. persons trained
Area of training
Current status
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
10. Any relevant publications / electronic links (add more spaces / lines as necessary)
11. Any other information related to MIS / BW management (add more spaces / lines as necessary)
IIb. Questionnaire: Regional capacities and experiences in marine invasive species
management programmes including ballast waters in the Wider Caribbean
Name and Address of the Regional Organization / Agency
Name and full contact details (including telephone, fax, email) of
principal person addressing the questionnaire
Name and contact information for person(s) assisting with the questionnaire:
Name
Contact information
Any other relevant information:
1. In which countries of the region does your organization normally undertake projects / activities? (add
more space / lines if necessary)
2. What are the principal area(s) of expertise of your organization?
3. Is there awareness within your organization on the issue of Marine Invasive Species (MIS), including
the potential threats from Ballast Waters (BW)?
•
•
•
YES
NO
SOMEWHAT (please specify – add more spaces / lines if necessary)
4. Which division(s) in your organization has the mandate for dealing with issues related to the marine
sector, including Maritime (ballast water) issues?
Name of Division
Contact Information
Role / responsibility
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
5. Which division(s) has the mandate for dealing with issues related to MIS, including BW, management?
Name of Division
Contact Information
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
Role / responsibility
50
6. How many persons in your organization have any experience in MIS / BW management?
Division
No. of
persons
No. of years of
experience
Education
level(s)
Role /
responsibility
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
7. Is the current / available level of expertise in your organization adequate to deal with imminent
problems concerning MIS, including BW, management, in your region?
• If yes, are any further improvements needed?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
•
If no, are there any plans in place for dealing with this issue?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
8. What infrastructural capacity is available within your organization to deal with MIS, including BW,
management?
Item
Yes / No
Laboratory facilities
Appropriate boat(s) or access to
Materials
Equipment (excluding diving)
Appropriate diving equipment
Communication networks
Any other (please specify)
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
9. Is the current / available organizational infrastructural capacity adequate to deal with imminent
problems concerning MIS, including BW, in your region?
If yes, are any further improvements needed?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
If no, are there any plans in place for dealing with this issue?
(add more spaces to the table if necessary)
10. Has your organization participated in any MIS management programme(s) in the past five years? Yes
( )
No ( )
51
•
If yes, name the programme(s), species involved, partners and current status (ongoing,
completed)
Programme
Species involved
Partners
Current status
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary or give details on a separate sheet; also please
provide any available electronic linkages to the programme(s) in Section 12 below)
12. Did any of the programme(s) (above) result in regional capacity building in dealing with MIS? Yes (
No ( )
•
If yes, name the programme(s), no. of persons trained, area in which they received training
and current status (trained persons still working in the area or have moved on)
Programme
No. persons trained
Area of training
Current status
(add more spaces / lines to the table as necessary)
13. Any relevant publications / electronic links (add more spaces / lines as necessary)
14. Any other information related to MIS / BW management (add more spaces / lines as necessary)
)
52
Annex III a and III b: National and Regional Questionnaires – Spanish41
Confeccionado por CAB International, Centro Regional del Caribe y América Latina (CABI-CLARC),
Trinidad y Tobago, para el programa de Área y Fauna Especialmente Protegida (SPAW por sus siglas en
inglés - Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife)
IIIa. Cuestionario: Capacidades y experiencias nacionales en programas de manejo de especies
invasoras marinas, incluso aguas de lastre, en el Caribe Ampliado
Nombre del País/ territorio
Nombre del Punto Focal a quien
corresponda el cuestionario
Detalles para contactar el Punto Focal
a quien corresponda el cuestionario
Nombres y detalles para contactar las personas que ayudan con el cuestionario
Nombre
Información de contacto
1. Cual agencia, del Gobierno u otra, tiene el mandato para asuntos del sector marítimo, incluso aguas
de lastre marítimas?
Nombre de la Agencia
Información de Contacto
Papel / responsabilidad
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
2. Existe una conciencia sobre asuntos de especies invasoras marinas (EIM), incluso la amenaza
potencial de aguas de lastre, entre las diferentes agencias?
• SI
• NO
• HASTA CIERTO PUNTO (especifique, por favor)
3. Cuál agencia, del Gobierno u otra, tiene el mandato para asuntos de EIM, incluso el manejo de
aguas de lastre?
Nombre de la Agencia
Información de Contacto
Papel / responsabilidad
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
4. Cuántas personas tienen experiencia con el manejo de EIM o aguas de lastre?
Agencia
No. de
personas
No. de años de
experiencia
Nivel(es) de
Educación
Papel /
responsabilidad
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
41
http://www.cep.unep.org/features/2006/las-especies-invasoras-marinas/ ; http://www.cep.unep.org/features/2006/cuestionarionacional.doc/view/ ; http://www.cep.unep.org/features/2006/cuestionario-regional.doc/view/
53
5. Es adecuado el nivel de experiencia actual, disponible para manejar los problemas inminentes
relacionados con el manejo de EIM, incluso aguas de lastre?
a. En caso afirmativo, se necesitan algunas mejoras adicionales?
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
b. En caso negativo, existen planes para solucionar estos asuntos?
(agregue filas cuando sea necesario)
6. Cuál infraestructura está disponible para el manejo de EIM, incluso aguas de lastre?
Ítem
Si / No
Laboratorio equipado
Bote(s) adecuado(s) o acceso a los
mismos
Materiales
Equipo (excluyendo el de buceo)
Equipo apropiado de buceo
Redes de comunicación
Otro (especifique por favor)
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
7. Es adecuada la infraestructura disponible para manejar los problemas inminentes relacionados al
manejo de EIM, incluso aguas de lastre?
a. En caso afirmativo, se necesitan algunas mejoras adicionales?
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
b. En caso negativo, existen planes para solucionar estos asuntos?
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
8. Ha participado su país en algún programa de manejo de EIM en los últimos cinco años?
Si ( )
No ( )
a. En caso afirmativo, cuales fueron los títulos de los programas, las especies involucradas, los
socios y cual es el estatus actual (en ejecución, terminado)
Programa
Especies
involucradas
Socios
Estatus actual
54
(Agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario o proporcione detalles en una hoja adicional. Por favor
proporcione cualquier enlace electrónico a los programas en la sección 9 a continuación)
9. Algunos de estos programas mencionados anteriormente, resultaron en la capacitación local para el
manejo de EIM? Si ( )
No ( )
a. En caso afirmativo, cual fue el título del programa? Cuantas personas fueron capacitadas?
En que área se capacitaron? Y cual es el estatus actual (personas capacitadas siguen
trabajando en la temática o cambiaron a otro puesto)?
Programa
No. de personas
capacitadas
Temática de la
capacitación
Estatus actual
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
10. Mencione cualquier publicación relevante / enlaces electrónicos (agregue filas cuando sea necesario)
11. Indique cualquier información relacionada con el manejo de EIM / aguas de lastre (agregue
filas/hojas cuando sea necesario)
IIIb. Cuestionario: Capacidades y experiencias regionales en programas de manejo de especies
invasoras marinas, incluso aguas de lastre, en el Caribe Ampliado
Nombre y Dirección de la Organización / Agencia Regional
Nombre y detalles de contacto completos (teléfono, fax, correo
electrónico) de principales personas a quienes corresponda el
cuestionario
Nombres y detalles completos de personas que ayudan con el cuestionario:
Nombre
Información de contacto
Cualquier otra información relevante:
1. Normalmente en cuáles países de la región, su organización está realizando proyectos y
actividades? (Agregue filas adicionales cuando sea necesario)
2. Cuáles son las principales áreas de experiencia de su organización?
3. Existe dentro de su organización, una conciencia sobre asuntos de especies invasoras marinas
(EIM), incluso la amenaza potencial de aguas de lastre,?
•
•
•
SI
NO
HASTA CIERTO PUNTO (especifique, por favor)
4. Cuál unidad de su organización tiene el mandato para asuntos del sector marítimo, incluyendo aguas
de lastre marítimas?
55
Nombre de la Unidad
Información de Contacto
Papel / responsabilidad
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
5. Cuál unidad de su organización tiene el mandato para asuntos relacionados con el manejo de
especies invasoras marinas (EIM), incluyendo aguas de lastre?
Nombre de la Unidad
Información de Contacto
Papel / responsabilidad
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
6. Cuántas personas tienen experiencia con el manejo de EIM o aguas de lastre?
Agencia
No. de
personas
No. de años de
experiencia
Nivel(es) de
Educación
Papel /
responsabilidad
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
7. Dentro de su organización, es adecuado el nivel actual de experiencia para manejar los problemas
inminentes relacionados con el manejo de EIM, incluyendo aguas de lastre?
a. En caso afirmativo, se necesitan algunas mejoras adicionales?
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
b. En caso negativo, existen planes para solucionar estos asuntos?
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
8. Dentro de su organización, cuál infraestructura está disponible para el manejo de EIM, incluyendo
aguas de lastre,?
Ítem
Si / No
Laboratorio equipado
Bote(s) adecuado(s) o acceso a los
mismos
Materiales
Equipo (excluyendo el de buceo)
Equipo apropiado de buceo
Redes de comunicación
Otro (especifique por favor)
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
9. Dentro de la región, es adecuada la infraestructura organizacional disponible para
para manejar los problemas inminentes relacionados con el manejo de EIM, incluyendo aguas de
lastre,?
56
a. En caso afirmativo, se ocupan algunas mejoras adicionales?
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
b. En caso negativo, existen planes para solucionar estos asuntos?
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
10. Ha participado su organización en algún programa de manejo de EIM en los últimos cinco años?? Si
( )
No ( )
a. En caso afirmativo, cuáles fueron los títulos de los programas, las especies involucradas, los
socios y cuál es el estatus actual (en ejecución, terminado)
Programa
Especies
involucradas
Socios
Estatus actual
(Agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario o proporcione detalles en una hoja adicional. Por favor
proporcione cualquier enlace electrónico a los programas en sección 11 a continuación)
11. Algunos de estos programas anteriormente mencionados, resultaron en la capacitación local para el
manejo de EIM? Si ( )
No ( )
a. En caso afirmativo, cuál fue el título del programa? Cuántas personas fueron capacitadas?
En cuál área se capacitaron? Y cuál es el estatus actual ( las personas capacitadas siguen
trabajando en esta temática o cambiaron a otro puesto)?
Programa
No. de personas
capacitadas
Temática de la
capacitación
Estatus actual
(agregue filas al cuadro cuando sea necesario)
12. Anote cualquier publicación relevante / enlaces electrónicos (agregue filas cuando sea necesario)
13. Indique cualquier otra información relacionada con el manejo de EIM / aguas de lastre (agregue filas
cuando sea necesario)
57
Annex IV. Organizations with past or ongoing projects / activities in the Wider Caribbean Region
(Of potential relevance to future activities on Marine Invasive Species / Ballast Waters management - based on Internet / website searches)
International / Regional agencies with regional / multi-national focus
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
Caribbean Conservation Association
http://www.ccanet.net/
Community-based coral reef monitoring and
management
Caribbean Coastal co-management guidelines
project http://www.ccanet.net/Cammp/R8317.htm
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute (CANARI):
Caribbean Conservation
Association, "Chelford", The
Garrison, St. Michael, Barbados
Telephone: (246) 426-5373 Fax:
(246) 429-8483
execdirector@ccanet.net
Caribbean Natural Resources
Institute
Fernandes Industrial Centre,
Administrative Building, Eastern
Main Road, Laventille, Trinidad,
W.I.
Tel: 868-626-6062 . Fax: 868626-1788 . info@canari.org
Facilitate the development and implementation
of policies, programmes and practices, which
contribute to the sustainable management of
the region's natural and cultural resources
Promoting responsible behavior and improved
management of the coral reefs and associated
resources through strengthening stakeholder
participation and capacity building
Goal: to promote participatory natural resource
management in the Caribbean. Seeks to create
avenues for equitable participation & effective
collaboration of Caribbean communities &
institutions in managing use of natural
resources critical to development. CANARI’s
programme spans the insular Caribbean and
comprises three main elements - research,
analysis and advocacy on the methods and
institutions required for participatory
management.
Vision: To promote sustainable use of fisheries
and aquaculture resources in and among
Member States, by development, management
and conservation in collaboration with stakeholders to benefit the people of the Caribbean
Mission: Promote and facilitate responsible
utilization of the region's fisheries and aquatic
resources for economic and social benefit to
current and future population of the region
Mission: To promote and foster highest quality
service to the maritime industry through training
development; working with all agencies, groups
and other associations for the benefit and
development of its members and the peoples of
the Caribbean region.
The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity
Programme (CARICOMP): Long-term,
comparative studies of the biodiversity and
productivity of Caribbean coastal ecosystems
region-wide, with a MoU with 19 laboratories in
15 countries.
Monitoring data: coral reef communities,
seagrass ecosystems and mangrove
ecosystems and physical measurements
Protected area management approaches;
Collaborative natural resource monitoring;
Locating livelihood strategies in natural resource
management; Capacity building for participatory
management.
Facilities: 5 technical & 4 support staff. Main
office in Trinidad & Tobago, with catalogued
library collection. Project office in St. Lucia with
modest laboratory facilities. Programs
implemented with financial support from national,
regional & international sources
Fisheries Information System: data collection and
management
Resource assessment and management
Human and institutional capacity building
Development and promotion of aquaculture and
mariculture
http://www.canari.org
Participatory approaches to natural resource
monitoring and management
The Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism
(CRFM): http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/
An output of the Caribbean Fisheries Resource
Assessment and Management Program (CFRAMP),
CRFM is the core of a complex interactive network of
a wide variety of stakeholders in fisheries. Three
bodies together make up CRFM. 1) Ministerial Body;
2) Caribbean Fisheries Forum; and 3) Secretariat Caribbean Fisheries Technical Unit (CFTU)
Caribbean Shipping Association, Jamaica
Supported Ballast Water Convention
Centre for Marine Sciences (CMS)
http://www.mona.uwi.edu/cms/
Manual: methods for mapping/monitoring of physical
& biological parameters in coastal Caribbean zones
http://isis.uwimona.edu.jm/centres/cms/caricomp/met
hods_manual.html
Two offices:
Belize: Headquarters of CRFM
Eastern Caribbean: information
not available
Secretariat, 4 Fourth Avenue,
Newport West, P.O. Box. 1050
Kingston CSO
Tel: 876 923 3491
Fax: 876 923 3421
Center for Marine Sciences
University of the West Indies
(UWI)
Mona, Kingston 6, Jamaica
Tel: 876-927-1609
Fax: 876-977-1037
george.warner@uwimona.edu.jm
CARICOMP Programme: Data Management
Center (DMC) established at UWI Jamaica
coordinates regional investigations of transient
oceanographic, biological, & meteorological
phenomena: serves as clearinghouse for new
ideas and methods
http://isis.uwimona.edu.jm/centres/cms/caricomp/
58
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
Eastern Caribbean Coalition for Environmental
Awareness (ECCEA)
http://www.eccea.org
ECCEA Head Office: P.O. Box
4030; Terres Sainville 97254 Fort
de France Cdx Martinique
Martinique: Galeries de Geologie
et de Botanique, Fort de France.
Dominica: Goodwill, Roseau.
Antigua: PO Box 103 St. John's.
St. Vincent: Rev. Mark de Silva,
Kingstown Cathedral, Kingstown.
Grenada: The Grenadian Voice,
Melville St, St. Georges
St. Lucia: Jamb de Bois, Castries
France - Association pour la
Defense de la Nature, Andelot,
52000 Cardinal Lemoine, Paris
75005
Universidad Nacional de Costa
Rica
Apartado Postal: 86-3000
Heredia, Costa Rica.
Teléfono:(506)277 3977
Fax:(506)277 3978
Develop strategies beneficial to communities,
wildlife & environment; establish mechanisms
to ensure ecological sustainable development;
Strengthen community structure, cross sectoral
relationships and local traditions and cultures;
Design programs to enhance and reinforce
local economy, national conservation policies,
productivity and unique diversity of island
ecosystems; Monitor & evaluate effects of
coastal development, coastal and distant water
fishing fleet activities; Encourage development
of management plans to correspond to regional
needs, rather than international exigencies.
Participatory approach, alternative initiatives (to
those potentially damaging) & sustainable low
impact development projects are high priorities.
Caribbean Community-based Coastal
Resource Management (CBCRM) Program, an
International Development Research Center
(IDRC-Canada) initiative, in collaboration with
CARICOM Fisheries Unit - Belize, IOI - Costa
Rica and Université Laval in Canada. Phase I
(1999-2001) supported 16 projects (Barbados,
Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico,
Nicaragua, St. Lucia, Trinidad, USVI). Phase II
(2002): Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dom Republic,
Grenada, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico,
Panama, Trinidad &Tobago, and Venezuela
Database uses:
Taxonomy: identification keys and information
on fish species, including invasives
Biodiversity: adverse and global introductions,
invasive exotics
Biodiversity Maps: collection points, sites,
history; species by climate zone
Available in 13 languages, including English,
French, Spanish and Netherlands.
Facilitate and secure the long-term sustainable
development and utilization of world’s fisheries
and aquaculture. Committed to working with
members, and to forging closer, more effective
partnerships with national and international
agencies, academia, private sector and civil
society for long-term sustainable results in
fisheries. Commitment to teamwork, spirit of
cooperation & openness for building on past
achievements; fostering stable and communityorientated multi-cultural environment; respect
Programme focus:
reduction of waste
sustainable fishing methods
coral reef surveys
marine mammal / turtle protection through
controlled observation
endangered spp. survival networking
preservation of biological diversity
watershed & wetland conservation
poverty alleviation
nature and heritage tourism
women in development
organic agriculture
environmental education
international conventions
world heritage listing
Phase I: Regional capacity building through
courses, seminars, round tables and short
conferences. Main outcome: Development of a
document entitled “Fundamental Milestones to
Develop and Implement an Integrated CoastalMarine Management Plan” in Greater Caribbean
Phase II: marine resources management
activities such as deep-sea, coastal, inland
fishing and aquaculture, tourism, coastal
agriculture and other activities (coastal mining /
petroleum development)
EECCEA projects engender ecotourism, focusing on
the needs of natural and cultural assets,
communities and partnerships
http://www.eccea.org/projects/index.html
El Instituto Internacional del Océano (I OI) para el
Gran Caribe http://www.una.ac.cr/ioi/
Capacity building in Integrated Coastal Resource Marine Management
Fishbase: a global information system on Fishes
http://www.fishbase.org/home.htm
Fish Datebase: Information includes biodiversity
(introduced (=exotic / alien) species), uses,
identification tools etc.
Fisheries Department of the Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO) http://www.fao.org/fi/default.asp
Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species
(DIAS)
http://www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/fishery/statist/fisoft
/dias/index.htm
Projects:
Fisheries Global Information System (FIGIS)
Cite FishBase itself as: Froese,
R. and D. Pauly. Editors.
2005.FishBase.
World Wide Web electronic
publication.
www.fishbase.org, version
(11/2005)
1
Francisco Pereira Fernandez
Bissessar Chakalall
Regional Fishery Officers for
Latin America and Caribbean
1. Oficina Regional para América
Latina y el Caribe, Av. Dag
Hammarskjold 3241, Vitacura,
Santiago de Chile. Tel: 3372100;
Fax: 3372101
FAO-RLC@field.fao.org
2. FAO subregional office for the
2
1,2.
Database statistics: 29200 Species, 211200
Common names, 40800 Pictures, 37500
References, 1300 Collaborators, 23 million
Hits/month
Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts
http://www.fao.org/fi/asfa/asfa.asp (ASFA): an
abstracting & indexing service covering world's
literature on science, technology, management,
and conservation of marine, brackish water, &
freshwater resources & environments, including
socio-economic & legal aspects
FishBase A Global Information System
http://filaman.ifm-geomar.de/search.php
GLOBEFISH a network of regional marketing
information services:
59
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/static?dom=org&xml=
FIGIS_org.xml&xp_banner=fi
Latin American Network of Women working in
Fisheries (LANWOFI) (WCR: Colombia, Cuba,
Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua,
USA, Venezuela)
http://mujeres.infopesca.org/
Caribbean, UN House, Hastings,
Christchurch, Barbados
Tel: 12464267111; Fax: 4276075
fao-slac@fao.org
INFOPESCA/LANWOFI- Uruguay
Julio Herrera, 1296 Casilla de
Correo 7086, Montevideo; Tel:
(598) 2-9028701; Fax: 9030501
mujerpes@adinet.com.uy
IOCARIBE Secretariat
P.O. Box 1108, Cartagena,
Colombia
Tel: (575) 664 63 99
Fax: (575) 660 04 07
for differences of opinion and minority views;
gender-awareness; and personal trust
http://www.globefish.org/index.php?id=481&easy
sitestatid=1499834795
INFOPESCA (Latin America & Caribbean), in
close collaboration with FAO/GLOBEFISH
promotes trade in fish products by: providing upto-date information on markets, prices; bringing
buyers & sellers together in international
conferences, and training industry & government
on quality requirements of main markets
Participants in CLME Regional project: Barbados,
Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico, Venezuela) (PDF B
Stage)
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projI
D=1032
International Seabed Authority
14-20 Port Royal Street
Kingston
Jamaica
West Indies
Tel: (1 876) 922-9105
Fax: (1 876) 922-0195
postmaster2@isa.org.jm
Programme Coordination Unit
GEF/UNDP/IMO GloBallast
Programme
Marine Environment Division
IMO, 4 Albert Embankment
London SE1 7SR, UK
Tel +44 (0)20 7587 3279
Fax +44 (0)20 7587 3261
Email jmatheic@imo.org
Organization through which States Parties to
the Convention of the Laws of the Sea shall, in
accordance with regime for seabed and ocean
floor and subsoil thereof beyond the limits of
national jurisdiction (the Area) established in
Part XI and the Agreement, organize & control
activities in the Area, particularly with a view to
administering the resources of the Area.
The purposes of IMO are "to provide machinery
for cooperation among Governments in the
field of governmental regulation and practices
relating to technical matters of all kinds
affecting shipping engaged in international
trade; to encourage and facilitate the general
adoption of the highest practicable standards in
matters concerning maritime safety, efficiency
of navigation and prevention and control of
marine pollution from ships". The Organization
is also empowered to deal with administrative
and legal matters related to these purposes
IMO together with relevant technical subcommittees is dealing with problems of harmful
aquatic organisms in BW. In order to help
developing countries understand the problem and
monitor the situation, IMO has implemented the
Global BW Management Programme (GloBallast)
and provided technical support & expertise to
implement the 1997 BW Guidelines & prepare for
IMO Ballast Water Convention. Pilot sites set up
under PDFA in six countries: Brazil, China, India,
Iran, South Africa, Ukraine (2001-2004). Lessons
learnt to be implemented GloBallast Partnerships.
Library and Island Systems
Centre in cooperation with H.
Lavity Stoutt Community College
123 Main Street, Box 3097
Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin
Islands; Tel: 284 494 2723;
irf@irf.org;
Information systems:
1718 ‘P’ Street NW, Suite T-4
The website site contains:
A variety of environmental information
about the Wider Caribbean region
A list of bibliography sources on coastal
zone management in the Caribbean
A list of environmental references,
A list of Caribbean Marine Parks and
Protected Areas.
Information on coastal tourism, GIS and a
IRF supports 39 separate mailing lists (>3K
subscribers; most groups >5 years old). Egroups:
caribbean-biodiversity@yahoogroups.com
carib-ngo-forum@yahoogroups.com
carib-assessment@yahoogroups.com
carib-gis-users@yahoogroups.com
sustainable-tourism@yahoogroups.com
caribbean-lwi-research@yahoogroups.com
san-andres-research@yahoogroups.com
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
(IOC) of UNESCO, provides member states of the
UN with essential mechanism for global cooperation
in study of the ocean. Assists governments address
their individual and collective ocean and coastal
problems via sharing of knowledge, information and
technology & via coordination of national programs
International Seabed Authority (ISA)
http://www.isa.org.jm
Implementation of the Laws of the Sea
International Maritime Organization
http://www.imo.org/
Globallast pilot project funded by GEF/UNDP/IMO
and other partners, PDFA completed; PDFB under
preparation
http://globallast.imo.org/
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=2
261
http://globallast.imo.org/index.asp?page=gef_interw_
project.htm&menu=true
http://globallast.imo.org/index.asp?page=resolution.h
tm
The New (2004) BW Convention:
http://globallast.imo.org/index.asp?page=mepc.htm
Island Resources Foundation (IRF)
http://www.irf.org
IOCARIBE is IOC sub-commission responsible
for programmatic development for Caribbean
Sea and Gulf of Mexico: Executing Agency for
Sustainable Management of the Shared Marine
Resources of the Caribbean Large Marine
Ecosystem (CLME) and Adjacent Regions
The website details information on the organs of
the Authority including a full list of documents
issued at each session, and the full text of
selected documents, press releases and links to
some of the important law of the sea documents.
http://www.isa.org.jm/en/default.htm
60
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Natural Resources Institute
http://www.nri.org
Julian Quan
Tel: +44 (0)1634 883053
Fax: +44 (0)1634 883386
J.F.Quan@gre.ac.uk
Contact information
Washington DC 20036
Phone: 202 265 9712; Fax: 232
0748; bpotter@irf.org
Natural Resources Institute
University of Greenwich at
Medway, Central Avenue
Chatham Maritime, Chatham
Kent ME4 4TB, UK
Tel: +44 (1634) 880088
Fax: +44 (1634) 880077 / 883386
nri@greenwich.ac.uk
Regional Marine Pollution Emergency,
Information and Training Centre (REMPEITCCarib), an IMO agency, Curaçao
http://www.rempeitc.org/
RAC/REMPEITC-Carib
Fokkerweg 26
Curacao, Netherlands Antilles
Tel: + 599-9 461-4012
Fax: +599-9 461-1996
Centre of Documentation, Research and
Experimentation on Accidental Water Pollution
(CEDRE), France
715 rue Alain Colas - CS 41836 29218 Brest Cedex 2, France.
Tel: + 33 (0)2 98 33 10 10
Fax: + 33 (0)2 98 44 91 38
contact@cedre.fr
Base Navale, Fort Saint Louis
BP 619, 97261 Fort-de-France
Marine Cedex
Tel: +33 (0)6 74 79 76 66 or +33
(0)6 96 74 26 10 (mobile)
delcar.cedre@wanadoo.fr
WorldFish Center
ReefBase Project
Jalan Batu Maung, Batu Maung
11960 Bayan Lepas
Penang, Malaysia
Phone: +60 (0)4 626 1606
Fax: +60 (0)4 626 5530
Caribbean delegation of Cedre
Reefbase: online information system on coral
reefs,
http://www.reefbase.org/
Provides information services to coral reef
professionals involved in management, research,
monitoring, conservation and education
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
variety of other environmental issues
NRI provides advice on: cost-effective nondestructive fishing methods; post-harvest
handling, processing, quality management, and
trade; analysis of trade-offs between efficiency
and welfare; and environmental impacts of
fisheries
http://www.nri.org/work/lw-aquatic.htm
Objectives:
Strengthen national & regional
preparedness and response capacity WCR
and to foster & facilitate cooperation &
mutual assistance in cases of emergency in
order to prevent, control and combat major
oil spill incidents.
Provide technical services to strengthen
the operational effectiveness of
implementation of Cartagena Oil Spill
Protocol & Caribbean Islands OPRC (Oil
Preparedness and Response Co-operation)
plan & Convention
To improve preparedness against accidental
water pollution and strengthen the national
response organisation. It is responsible, at
national level, for documentation, research and
experimentation on pollutants, their effects and
the response means and tools to combat them.
Its expertise encompasses both marine and
inland waters. Its budget comes from contracts
and public and private subsidies
Goal: facilitate sustainable management of
coral reefs and related coastal/marine
environments, in order to benefit poor people in
developing countries whose livelihoods depend
on these natural resources
Further information of relevance
MAC-Caribbean@yahoogroups.com
carib-coral-reefs@yahoogroups.com
wcen@yahoogroups.com
NRI managed DFID-funded project to describe &
quantify Caribbean coastal resources, livelihoods
and impacts. The principal output was a regionwide database of current coastal resources state.
Other outputs: stakeholder perception of poverty,
livelihoods, and vulnerability; comparison and
synthesis of small- / large-island and mainland
community resources and problems; proposals
for future support to sustainable development
Cartagena Convention:
http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/legislation/cartxt.ht
ml
Oil Spills Protocol:
http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/legislation/oilspill.h
tml
Government of France through Cedre is currently
supporting the activities of the RAC/REMPEITC
on Oil Spills
Country-level data and information in a logical
series of themes:
Resources: what kind & how many reefs
Status: how are these resources doing
Threats: which negative influences are impacting
coral reefs
Management: what is, or could be done to
monitor and manage these resources
Maps and photos: view maps and photos of coral
reefs
References: access key publications and contact
61
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Reef Care Curacao
http://www.reefcare.org/
Reef Care Curacao
PO Box 676
Curacao / Netherlands Antilles
Email: info@reefcare.org
Sidsnet - Small Island Developing States Network
the global network for small island developing States
http://www.sidsnet.org/
The Water Resources
Management and Small Island
Developing States Branch of the
United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs
(DESA) currently administers the
project
Reef Care Curacao, established in December
1992 by a group of concerned citizens, actively
contributes to the worldwide protection and
preservation of the Coral Reef. The coral reefs
of Curacao are among the best of the
Caribbean and all potential stress factors must
be minimized in order to prevent their
deterioration
The Caribbean Regional Meeting To Follow-Up
On Implementation Of The Mauritius Strategy,
St Kitts and Nevis, 5-7 October 2005: Matrix of
Actions to Operationalize Mauritius Strategy of
Implementation. Biodiversity resources: support
for control of the primary pathways for potential
invasive alien species; support for development
of local capacity to protect and effectively use
traditional knowledge; educate and build
community capacity to protect and conserve
indigenous species and their habitats; and
support the development in SIDS of natural
resource accounting systems.
•
graduate education / professional training
•
applied research and innovative projects
•
involvement in national regional, global
initiatives
Purpose-built premises: staff offices, teaching
& conference room, computer rooms for staff &
students; Marine equipment storage rooms &
specialised research laboratories equipped for
molecular genetics research, marine water
quality analyses & GIS applications. Marine
facilities: a mooring, a small open boat with
outboard engine, rowboat, diving equipment &
access to beach storage facilities
CORAL is a member-supported, non-profit
organization, dedicated to keeping coral reefs
alive by integrating ecosystem management,
sustainable tourism & community partnerships:
works with communities to identify and
solve conservation challenges;
changes attitudes and behavior through
education and training;
- provides resources to strengthen
conservation efforts; and
creates incentives for sustainable
tourism.
Coastal and Marine Resources and Biodiversity
The Centre for Resource Management and
Environmental Studies (CERMES)
www.cermes.cavehill.uwi.edu
Applied research and innovative projects;
Potential partner for marine sector in the regional
proposal on invasive alien species management,
submitted by CABI for funding by GEF
The Coral Reef Alliance (CORAL)
http://www.coral.org/Home.html
CORAL in Bonaire:
http://www.coralreefalliance.org/index.php?option=co
m_content&task=view&id=85&Itemid=127
CORAL in Mesoamerica:
http://www.coralreefalliance.org/index.php?option=co
m_content&task=view&id=82&Itemid=132
Centre for Resource
Management and Environmental
Studies (CERMES)
University of the West Indies
Cave Hill Campus
St Michael, Barbados
Telephone: (246) 417-4317
Fax: (246) 424-4204
cermes@uwichill.uwi.edu.bb
The Coral Reef Alliance
417 Montgomery Street, Suite
205, San Francisco, CA 94104
USA; Tel: (415) 834-0900;
Fax: (415) 834-0999 fax
toll free 1-888-CORAL-REEF
info@coral.org
Further information of relevance
information
Activities:
Research and monitoring of reefs in
Curacao and Netherlands Antilles
Education (mainly children)
Awareness of benefits of reefs
Management (local volunteers)
Six particular themes have been identified sustainable tourism, coastal and marine
resources, biodiversity, climate change, energy
and trade.
http://www.sidsnet.org/docshare/other/20051108
160022_Caribbean_Regional_Meeting_report_v6
.pdf, page 17
UN-system partners: CBD, FAO, UNDP, UNEP,
UNESCO for Biodiversity Resources
implementation
UWI Coastal Management Research Network
(COMARE Net): managed jointly by CERMES
and CANARI: Promote and institutionalise
improved ICM practices and policies in the
Caribbean. COMARE Net combines the
processes and products of Department for
International Development (DFID) Natural
Resources Systems Programme (NRSP) Land
Water Interface (LWI) research projects with
other research initiatives. It facilitates electronic
and physical exchanges of information, create
presentations and develop policy briefs.
Bonaire: CORAL helps maintain/improve
successful management of Marine Protected
Areas (MPAs) and to share achievements by
training managers and facilitating activities:
A proposal for World Heritage site
Educate divers on MPA importance
Microgrants to support education
Mesoamerica: Leads tourism initiative of ICRAN
Mesoamerican Reef Alliance (MAR) via national
workshops, Standards & Codes taskforce & pilot
site workshops
62
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
The Earth Council Institute (ECI) has ceased
operations in Costa Rica and now operates from
Canada
http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/about/
Earth Council Foundation
Tel: (416) 4983150
Fax: (416) 4987296
ecsondra@web.ca
NGO deriving legal status from Earth Council
Foundation in Canada, with following mission:
Support and empower people in building a
more secure, equitable and sustainable future
based on three fundamental objectives
•
promote awareness and support for the
needed transition to more sustainable and
equitable patterns of development;
•
encourage public participation in decisionmaking;
•
build bridges of understanding and cooperation between important actors of civil
society and governments worldwide
Builds networks of hundreds of students and
teachers: The Earthwatch community includes
20,000 global members, 4,000 volunteers each
year, 50 collaborating conservation
organizations, and 50 corporate partners, all of
which work together to make a difference.
Coastal Zone Management Unit created by
Belize government to manage and conserve its
coastal resources. In collaboration with local
conservation partners, the research efforts of
CRI provide important data and monitoring
assistance to help ameliorate human impacts
on this area
Promote exchange of current information on
use & management of marine resources in the
Gulf and Caribbean region. GCFI endeavors to
involve scientific, governmental, commercial
sectors to provide a broad perspective on
relevant issues, & encourage dialogue among
groups operating in relative isolation
Mission: to preserve the plants, animals and
natural communities that represent the diversity
of life on Earth by protecting the lands and
waters they need to survive.
Eastern Caribbean: 3052 Estate Little Princess
Christiansted, St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00820
Tel: 1 (340) 773-5575
easterncaribbean@tnc.org
Jamaica: 32 Lady Musgrave Road
Unit 5, Kingston 5; Tel: (876) 978-0766
Mission: to preserve the plants, animals and
natural communities that represent the diversity
of life on Earth by protecting the lands and
waters they need to survive.
ECI has developed strategic programmes that
are making the Earth Summit Agreements and
sustainable development operational through the
empowerment of civil society. Being carried out in
collaboration with Earth Council members,
partners & sponsors, as elements of a global
campaign entitled 'Making Sustainability Work'.
http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/earth_council_and_cost
a_rica_website.pdf
Strategic programmes for Operationalization of the
Earth Summit Agreements and sustainable
development
The Earthwatch Institute
http://www.Earthwatch.org
Belize Conservation Research Initiative (CRI)
http://www.earthwatch.org/site/pp.asp?c=dsJSK6PF
JnH&b=394119
Diverse community of scientists, educators,
students, businesspeople, and resolute explorers
work together to get the fullest benefit from scientific
expeditions. 150 dedicated staff in the United States,
England, Australia, and Japan, plus support to more
than 130 scientists each year.
The Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute (GCFI)
CAMPAM Network & Forum: A regional Mechanism
for Enhancing Management Effectiveness:
Increasing effectiveness of MPAs by enhancing
communication and strengthening the network of
managers, researchers, planners, and educators.
http://www.gcfi.org/campam/CaMPAM.htm
The Nature Conservancy (TNC) - Caribbean
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/caribbean/
The Nature Conservancy – Central America
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/centralamerica/
Earthwatch Institute International
Headquarters
3 Clock Tower Place, Suite 100,
Box 75, Maynard, MA 01754,
U.S.A.; info@earthwatch.org
Toll-free (US/Can): 18007760188
Phone: (978) 461-0081
Fax (978) 461-2332
Advisors in Latin America
Manfred Max-Neef, Universidad
de Austral and Ira Rubinoff,
Smithsonian Tropical Research
Institute
GCFI, c/o Florida Fish & Wildlife
Conservation Commission
Marine Research Institute
2796 Overseas Highway,
Ste. 119, Marathon, FL 33050
USA; Tel: 305-289-2330
Fax: 305-289-2334
Bahamas: Caves Village, Suite 2,
Building 5, West Bay Street
P.O. Box CB – 11398, Nassau
Tel: (242) 327-2414
Dominican Republic: Calle
Jacinto Mañon, Esquina Federico
Gerardino, Plaza D'Roca, 4to
Piso, Apartamento #401, Santo
Domingo; Tel: (809) 541-7666
Fax: (809) 541-4165
Belize: #4 St. Charles Street
Belize City.
Phone: 011 (501) 223-1747
Costa Rica: De Pops Sabana Sur
. Earthwatch has three projects in the CRI:
-.documenting coral health &conducting
experiments for better understanding of how to
aid coral recovery
- surveying population & habitat of queen conch
& working with local community to sustainably
manage this resource
- ecosystem monitoring in collaboration with local
conservation organizations
CAMPAM Partners: GCFI, UNEP-CEP, TNC,
Environmental Defense (ED), NOAA-NOS
International Programs Office, IUCN Commission
on Protected Areas - Marine, University of Puerto
Rico, Caribbean Conservation Association,
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. World
Resources Institute (WRI)
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/caribbean/ba
hamas/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/caribbean/do
minicanrepublic/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/caribbean/ea
sterncaribbean/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/caribbean/ja
maica/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/centralameri
ca/belize/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/centralameri
ca/costarica/
63
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
The Nature Conservancy – Gulf of Mexico
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/northamerica/gu
lfofmexico/
The Perry Institute for Marine Science Inc. (PIMS)
http://www.perryinstitute.org
Not for profit organization dedicated to improving
and enhancing our understanding of the WCR’s
marine environment
The Caribbean Marine Research Center (CMRC)
http://www.perryinstitute.org/about_cmrc.htm
Provides services and facilities to support undersea
research and scientific exploration through NOAA’s
Undersea Research Program (NURP) Center for the
WCR
The World Bank – Environment – Coastal and
Marine Management – Integrated Coast
Management (ICM)
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPI
CS/ENVIRONMENT/EXTCMM/0,,menuPK:407932~
pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:407926,0
0.html
Assessment of progress in MPA management
effectiveness goals.
The World Conservation Union (IUCN)
http://www.iucn.org
Marine Programme
http://www.iucn.org/themes/marine/#menu
MPA Management Guidelines and capacity building
Guidelines/technical manuals for sustainable
integrated coastal management (ICM)
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
1Km, Oeste ultima casa a la
derecha, antes del puente
San Jose;
Tel: 011 (506) 220-2552
Guatemala: 12 Avenida, 14-41
zona 10, Colonia Oakland,
Guatemala City, 01010
Tel: 011 (502) 2367-0480
Fax: 011(502) 2367-0481
tncguatemala@tnc.org.gt
Rafael Calderon, Director
The Nature Conservancy’s Gulf of
Mexico Initiative, P.O. Box 2563
Corpus Christi, Texas 78403
Tel: 361 882-3584; Fax: 8828561
rafael_calderon@tnc.org
The Perry Institute for Marine
Science Inc. AND
The Caribbean Marine Research
Center;
Suite 202
100 North U.S. Highway 1,
Jupiter, FL 33477-5112
Phone: 561-741-0192
Fax: 561-741-0193
pims@perryinstitute.org
Honduras: Col. Florencia Norte, 2da. Calle, 4ta.
Ave., Casa, Bulevar Suyapa, No.2201/Apdo.
Postal 5744, Tegucigalpa; Tel: (504) 232-3298
Nicaragua: De la Vicky, 2 cuadras al sur, 1
cuadra al oeste y 1 cuadra al sur, mano
derecha al tope, Bosques de Altamira Casa
#318, Managua; Phone: 011 (505) 270-9881
Rep. de Panamá: Clayton, Ciudad del Saber
Calle Principal, Casa # 352 A/B, Panamá
Phone: 011 (507) 317-0328
Mission: to preserve the plants, animals and
natural communities that represent the diversity
of life on Earth by protecting the lands and
waters they need to survive
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/centralameri
ca/guatemala/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/centralameri
ca/honduras/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/centralameri
ca/nicaragua/
http://www.nature.org/wherewework/centralameri
ca/panama/
Research to determine the effectiveness and
design of Marine Protected Areas
Comprehensive monitoring effort on climate
change for NOAA
CMRC is one of six National Undersea Research
Centers and facilitates NURP science priorities
for Caribbean region.
Invasive species among priority area for funding
under NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program
for 2006
http://www.perryinstitute.org/forms/CMRC_RFP_
Announcement_FY_2006.pdf
WB Experts in Latin America/
Caribbean:
Marea Hatziolos - Lead
Coastal/Marine Specialist,
Environment Department. Global
Focus on Coastal and Marine;
Jan Cornelis Post- Senior
Environmental Affairs Specialist;
Maria Isabel Junqueira Braga Environmental Specialist
IUCN – Marine Programme, Rue
Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland,
Switzerland
Tel: ++4122-999 00 01
Fax: ++4122-999 00 20
james.oliver@iucn.org or
cherry.sword@iucn.org
Imène Meliane, Marine
Programme Officer, IUCN Oficina
Regional para América del Sur,
A portfolio analysis indicates rapidly growing
Bank investments in areas within 60 km of the
coastal zone, and many projects, which
currently benefit from an ICM approach ($330
million of coastal management activities).
Given the opportunity and resources, a much
larger pool of projects could also benefit from
use of ICM.
http://www.icriforum.org/mpa/SC2_eng_nocove
r.pdf
The IUCN Global Marine Programme is based
in Gland, Switzerland and provides vital
linkages for the Union and its members to all
the IUCN activities that deal with marine
issues, including projects and initiatives of the
Regional offices and the 6 IUCN Commissions.
Its co-ordination role is above and beyond the
policy development and thematic guidance that
it undertakes to provide to assist governments,
communities and NGOs alike.
WB has been an active member in several
coastal and marine resource related International
Partnerships:
- ICM Global Web Service
- International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI)
- International waters learning Exchange and
Resource Network (IW:LEARN)
- Global Forum on Oceans, Coasts & Islands
Score Card to Assess Progress for MPA
Management Effectiveness Goals
Deep Sea programme: Evaluate MPA
establishment to protect endangered species in
biodiversity hotspots
http://www.iucn.org/themes/marine/pdf/highseas2
.pdf
Design and implement information tools: based
on case studies, develop guideline /technical
manuals: ecosystem approach to marine
biodiversity conservation and sustainable use,
ICM, and sustainable financing of marine
http://conserveonline.org/docs/2001/02/gulf.pdf
64
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
UN Commission on Sustainable Development
(CSD)
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd/review.htm
Established December 1992 for effective follow-up of
UN Conference on Environment and Development
(UNCED) (=Earth Summit)
United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP):
Energy and Environment Practice for sustainable
use of biodiversity – Biodiversity for Development
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP):
Coral Reef Unit, World Conservation Monitoring,
Earth watch
UNEP-Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP):
A conglomerate of legislative, programmatic and
institutional frameworks and entities working together
to assist Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) nations
and territories to protect their marine/ coastal
environment and promote sustainable development
Wider Caribbean Region (WCR)
Under SPAW: Compilation of experiences and
capacities in Marine Invasive Species, including
Ballast Water Management in the WCR (current
study)
Contact information
Av. Shyris 2680 y Gaspar de
Villaroel, Edificio Mita Cobadelsa,
PH, Quito, Ecuador
Tel: ++ 593(2) 226 10 75
imene.meliane@iucn.org
Division for Sustainable
Development, Department of
Economic and Social Affairs
Two United Nations Plaza, Room
DC2-2220, New York, NY 10017,
USA; Tel: + 1 212-963-8102
Fax: + 1-212-963-4260
One United Nations Plaza, New
York, NY 10017 USA
Telephone: (212) 906 5000
Fax: (212) 906 5364
United Nations Avenue, Gigiri
PO Box 30552, 00100
Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: (254-20) 7621234
Fax: (254-20) 7624489/90
UNEP-CAR/RCU
14-20 Port Royal Street
Kingston, JAMAICA
Tel.: (876) 922-9267-9
Fax: (876) 922-9292
URL: www.cep.unep.org
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
conservation
Other projects: http://www.cordio.org/’;
http://www.coremap.or.id/Homepage/
Responsible for:
reviewing progress for the implementation
of Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on
Environment and Development;
providing policy guidance to
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation follow
up at local, national, regional and
international levels.
UN's global development network, advocates
for change & connects countries to knowledge,
experience and resources to help people build
a better life. It links & coordinates global and
national efforts to reach the Millennium
Development Goals.
Mission: To provide leadership and encourage
partnership in caring for the environment by
inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and
peoples to improve their quality of life without
compromising that of future generations
Relevant websites:
Earth watch http://earthwatch.unep.net/
Global Environment Outlook
http://www.unep.org/GEO/index.htm
SIDS Network: http://www.sidsnet.org/
World Conservation Monitoring Centre and
World Atlas of Seagrasses
http://www.unep-wcmc.org/; http://www.unepwcmc.org/marine/seagrassatlas/
Objectives based on Caribbean Action Plan,
Cartagena Convention and its Protocols, 1981
and 1983 agreements among WCR nations.
Role & activities guided and assessed by
designated Governing Bodies. Funded by
Caribbean Trust Fund (voluntary member state
contributions); Caribbean regional coordinating
unit (CAR/ RCU) serves as Secretariat. Subprogrammes:
- Assessment and Management of
Environment Pollution (AMEP)
- Specially Protected Areas & Wildlife
(SPAW)
Agenda 21; Rio Declaration;
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agend
a21/english/agenda21toc.htm
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15
126-1annex1.htm
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/WSSD
_POI_PD/English/POIToc.htm
Biodiversity for Development is a prime focus of
UNDP Energy and Environment Practice, through
capacity development, knowledge management,
policy advice and advocacy for the maintenance
and sustainable use of biodiversity
http://www.undp.org/biodiversity/
Relevant Marine Websites:
Global International Waters Assessment
http://www.giwa.net/
Global Programme of Action for Protection of
Marine Environment from Land-based activities
http://www.gpa.unep.org/bin/php/home/index.php
Coral Reef Unit
http://www.unep.org/depi/special_projects/icran.h
tml
International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN)
http://www.icran.org/
Regional Seas Programme
http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/
UN Atlas of the Oceans
http://www.oceansatlas.org/index.jsp
SPAW Programme supports activities for the
protection and management of sensitive and
highly valuable natural marine resources. It is
responsible for the regionalization of global
conventions and initiatives such as the
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),
International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), Global
Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) and
implementation of the Caribbean component of
the International Coral Reef Action Network
(ICRAN).
Other subprogrammes: AMEP, CEPNET
http://www.cep.unep.org/operational-components
65
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
Information Systems for the Management
of Marine & Coastal Resources (CEPNET)
- Education, Training and Awareness (ETA)
IETC promotes and implements
environmentally sound technologies (ESTs),
including management systems, for disaster
prevention, sustainable production and
consumption and water and sanitation
Projects:
http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/spc/projects.asp
Mission: To provide leadership and encourage
partnership in caring for the environment by
inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and
peoples to improve their quality of life without
compromising that of future generations
Relevant websites:
Natural Resources Unit
http://www.pnuma.org/recnat_ing/index.php
SIDS unit
http://www.pnuma.org/sids_ing/index.php
Caribbean coastal marine productivity program
(CARICOMP): sustaining coastal biodiversity
benefits and ecosystem services. (Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bonaire, Cayman
Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Curacao,
Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica,
Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico,
Saba, Trinidad & Tobago, USA, Venezuela.);
Enhancing coastal and fisheries resource
management through stakeholder participation,
local knowledge and environmental education,
Arcadins Coast, Haiti ;
WCR: Managing beach resources & planning
coastline change: Anguilla, Antigua-Barbuda,
British Virgin Is., Dominica, Grenada, Haiti,
Montserrat, San Andres archipelago [Colombia]
St Kitts-Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the
Grenadines, Turks & Caicos Is., US Virgin Is.)
Socio-economic & environmental evaluation
and management of Havana south zone, Cuba;
Sustainable livelihoods for artisan fishermen
via stakeholder co-management in Portland
Bight Protected Area, Jamaica.
In the past, WCS supported scientific research
in natural history & marine studies: contributed
to conservation planning and priority-setting.
Site-specific work continues today, but iapplied
within a comprehensive framework. Beginning
in 1991, WCS began the innovative concept of
http://www.unesco.org/csi/act/caricomp/summary
14.htm
http://www.unesco.org/csi/act/haiti/summary11.ht
m
http://www.unesco.org/csi/act/cosalc/summary_7.
htm
http://www.unesco.org/csi/act/cuba/summary12.h
tm
http://www.unesco.org/csi/act/jamaica/summary1
3.htm
Complete list of activities / publications:
http://www.unesco.org/csi/region/carimap.htm
-
UNEP International Environmental Technology
Center (IETC), Division of Technology, Industry and
Economics
Lessons from Environmentally Sound Technologies
for Sustainable Development of Cities and
Freshwater Basins
UNEP Regional Office for Latin America and the
Caribbean (ROLAC)
Natural resources and SIDS units
United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) activities in the
Caribbean through the Environment and
Development in Coastal Regions and in Small
Islands platform (CSI): http://www.unesco.org/csi/
CSI is a global platform for environmentally sound,
socially equitable, economically viable & culturally
respectful development in coastal regions and small
islands. Driving force and main goal are mitigation
and management of conflicts over coastal resources
and values. Via the CSI platform, wise coastal
practices for sustainable human development are
exchanged, the voices of small islands amplified,
indigenous knowledge mobilised for equitable
resource governance, and youth given a say
2-110 Ryokuchi Koen, Tsurumiku, Osaka 538-0036
Tel: 81-6-6915-4581
Fax: 81-6-6915-0304
1091 Oroshimo-cho, Kusatsu
City, Shiga 525-0001
Tel: 81-77-568-4581; Fax: 568
4857; ietc@unep.or.jp
Blv. de los Virreyes 155, Col.
Lomas de Virreyes, México, D.F.
11000
Tel: (52-55) 5249-5000 /4841 /
6913 / 6394 , Fax: (52-55) 52020950 / 5520-7768
registro@pnuma.org
Caribbean Cluster:
UNESCO Office
3rd Floor, The Towers
25 Dominica Drive
Kingston 5
Jamaica
Phone: 1 876 929 7087, 929
7089
Fax: 1 876 929 8468
The Caribbean Cluster (UNESCO Office Kingston)
consists of Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados,
Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica,
Saints Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & the
Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad & Tobago
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in Mexico,
Central America and the Caribbean
WCS supports biologists, park planners, and some
politicians to seek ways to link parks and protected
areas with greenways. In some cases, this also
Archie Carr III
Regional Coordinator,
Mesoamerica
4424 NW 13th Street, Suite A-2,
Gainesville, FL 32609
mes@wcs.org
Sustainable production and consumption:
http://www.unep.or.jp/ietc/spc/index.asp
Continue to urge governmental entities in Central
America for ‘regional corridor system’;
Remain active at large, long-term WCS sites:
replicate successful projects, refine landscapescale conservation tools, work with local
community to manage resource
66
Name of organization, relevance and
website (where available)
Contact information
binds neighboring countries together for the welfare
of all
World Resources Institute:
Coastal and marine ecosystems
http://marine.wri.org/index.cfm
Lauretta Burke, lauretta@wri.org,
Tel: +1(202)729-7774
World Wildlife Fund – Central America
http://www.wwfca.org/
Apartado postal 629-2350
San Francisco de Dos Ríos
San José, Costa Rica
Tel: 506 234 7638
Fax: 506 253 4927
Email: info@wwfca.org
www.Marinebio.org
A nonprofit volunteer organization of marine
biologists, students, professors, and conservation
advocates working to share the wonders of the
ocean realm online to inspire education, research,
and a sea ethic
admin@marinebio.org
Projects / Activities of relevance to
MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
integrating conservation initiatives among Meso
America countries & Mexico by incorporating
biological agenda into conventional park
development programs: adopted by agencies
and governments & garnered massive financial
support from the international community.
Mission: Improve coastal resource
management & coral reef protection by
providing information on threats to coral reefs,
value of the goods and services provided by
these ecosystems, and economic losses
resulting from degradation. WRI’s work on
coastal and marine ecosystems seeks to
provide valid and useful information on the
status of and threats to coastal and marine
ecosystems, and offer tools and solutions to
improve the management of these resources.
Objective of WWF work in meso-american reef:
To contribute substantially to conservation and
management of this unique region through:
consolidation of a regional system of
protected areas
promotion of territorial regulations and
sustainable tourism
management of key areas and reduction
of contamination of coastal waters,
appropriate management of fisheries
strengthening local capacity, regional
coordination and communications
Awareness-raising on IAS via website:
http://marinebio.org/Oceans/AlienSpecies.asp
In Nicaragua, work in a 3-way consortium for
plans to develop "Atlantic Corridor";
Expand wildlife conservation programs in coastal
ecosystems of Cuba & other Caribbean islands;
Conserve coral reefs / marine biodiversity in
Caribbean & Mesoamerican ‘hotspots’.
Under the Reefs at Risk project, WRI is working
with many collaborators in the WCR to raise
awareness about causes of coral reef
degradation across the region and economic
losses likely to result. Currently there is neither
the political motivation nor allocation of resources
for action to combat these threats
http://marine.wri.org/topic_content.cfm?cid=2051
Exposure online (>3 million visitors/year)
Database capacity: million+ species.
Plankton Forum with >1,000 members, 21
forums, and >5,500 posts...
Newsletter subscriber list >7,000
WWF International’s Corals Initiative – mesoamerican reef: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras,
Mexico. Promoting efforts at protection and
conservation from threats: tourism, agriculture,
fisheries, commerce
http://www.wwfca.org/php/prioridades/Arrecife.pdf
Extensive web development and online research
capabilities
Experienced scuba divers willing to travel, skilled
in underwater photography/ video production,
extensive knowledge of marine life
Experienced web technical writing/editing
Experience grant-writing and fundraising
67
Regional / National Agencies with primarily National focus
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
The Bahamas
Bimini Biological Field Station
http://www.miami.edu/sharklab/
Contact information
Barbados
Bellairs Research Institute, Barbados (McGill
University, Canada)
http://www.mcgill.ca/bellairs
Research on marine habitats
Research facilities
Belize:
Belize Marine Program of the Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS)
http://www.wcs.org/international/marine
in collaboration with
Glover Reef Atoll Marine Research Station
Glover's Reef Atoll Marine Research Station
Integration of research results into national/regional
planning
Belize:
Institute of Marine Studies, University of Belize
http://www.ub.edu.bz/templeet.php/UB_root/IMS/ind
ex.en.html
Bellairs Research Institute
Holetown, St. James,
Barbados.
Tel.: 246-422-2087;
Fax: 246-422-0692
Research on a wide range of marine habitats
Facilities include large wet and dry labs, holding
tanks, a small library, computers with Internet
access
Glover Reef Atoll Marine
Research Station, PO Box
2038, 3 St. Edward Street
Belize City, Belize
TEL: (501) 223-3271
FAX: (501) 223-3271
Representative: Janet Gibson
Email: jgibson@btl.net
The primary aim of this program is to ensure
that the results of research activities carried out
at the research station are integrated into
national and regional planning, and the
decision-making process. The overall goal is to
expand and strengthen WCS’ marine
conservation activities in Belize and the
Mesoamerican region.
Field Station: Calabash Caye
on the southeastern side of
Turneffe
1) Establish financial self-sustaining field facility
to compliment UB's programs 2) Develop UB's
technical capacity to provide training, research
and education on coastal issues to students,
teachers, Government and NGO 3) Training in
coastal/marine field work & improvement in
environmental awareness 4) Work with NGOs,
Fisheries and Environment Departments in
support of CZMAI's activities for conservation
and sustainable integrated biodiversity and
natural resource management of the Turneffe
Islands atoll, incl designation & implementation
of a protected areas strategy 5) Establish links
(educational & data exchange agreements /
collaboration) with regional/ international
research and educational agencies 6) Conduct
scientific research independently / in
collaboration with other researchers/laboratories
Part of the Sistema Nacional Ambiental of
Colombia (SINA). Function: seek commonalities
among various agencies and to identify ways in
which the capacities among public and private
entities, including universities and NGOs can be
Colombia:
Instituto de Investigación de Recursos
Biológicos
Alexander von Humboldt
Integration towards a common goal: “to promote,
coordinate and undertake research that will
contribute to the conservation and sustainable use
of biodiversity of Colombia”.
Instituto de Investigación
de Recursos Biológicos
Alexander von Humboldt
Cr. 7 No.35-20; From 13
March, address changed to:
DG. 27 NO. 15-09, BX: 316
7880, Bogotá D.C., Colombia
Tel. +57 1 6076500
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
Throughout the year, the BBFS hosts a
number of marine field biology courses.
Additional, specific courses can be
tailored to the needs of other colleges
and high schools
Host to students / scientists from around
the world for field courses, workshops
and research projects involving both
marine and terrestrial environments.
Close association with scientists based at
the Cave Hill campus of the UWI
http://www.wcs.org/international/latiname
rica/mesoamerica/belize
Research:
http://www.ub.edu.bz/templeet.php/UB_r
oot/IMS/Research.en.html
Facilities: Living, kitchen/dining areas;
Lecture hall, Basic equipment, teaching
materials, laboratory space; no wet lab;
two skiffs (small boats)
Among the various responsibilities of the
institute is the provision of scientific and
technological assistance in biodiversity to
the Ministry of Environment, the
Autonomous Regional Corporations and
other entities that comprise the SINA.
http://www.humboldt.org.co/humboldt/mo
strarpagina.php?codpage=1
68
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Colombia:
Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras
José Benito Vives de Andreis
http://www.invemar.org.co/portal/index.jsp
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
David A. Alonso C.
Coordinador línea Técnica e
Instrumentos de Planificación
Programa Gestión en Zonas
Costeras -GEZ-, Ext 129 Cerro
Punta de Betín, Santa Marta.
Apartado aéreo 1016, Santa
Marta
Teléfonos: (+57)(+5) 421 4774
/ 421 4775 / 423 4490 / 421
4413 / 421 1380 Ext. 129
Fax: (+57) (+5) 4211377 / 421
5181
dalonso@invemar.org.co
Integrated analysis of information:
Integrate and consolidate information on
biophysical, socio-economic, policyinstitutional levels, within well-defined
criteria as indicators of the current status
of marine and coastal resources
Technical & planning methods, decisionmaking: Generate conceptual and
methodological basis as well as means
that contribute to planning and decisionmaking in coastal zone, e.g. institutional
capacity building of SINA
Colombia:
Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano
http://www.utadeo.edu.co
Seccional Bogotá:
Cra.4a # 22-61
PBX: (571) 242 7030
Fax: (571) 282 6197
Postal: Apartado Aéreo 34185,
Bogotá D.C.
Seccional Caribe:
Dirección Centro :
Calle de la Chichería # 38-42,
Cartagena de Indias
Tel: (575) 6601655
Fax: (575) 6646372
Campus Internacional:
Kilómetro 13 Anillo Vial,
Cartagena de Indias
Tel: (575) 6554000
Fax : (575) 6554090 / 6554090
Sede Bogotá D.C. Carrera 7
No. 40 - 62 Tel: (571)
3208320. Seccional Cali,
Calle 18 No. 118 - 250
Tel: (572) 3218200
Centro de Investigaciones en
Cìencas del Mar y Limnologia
(CIMAR), Universidad de
Costa Rica, Apartado 2060
San Pedro de Montes de Oca
San Jose, Costa Rica
TEL: (506) 224-9367
FAX: (506) 207-5447
Representative: Jorge Cortes,
Director;
jcortes@cariari.ucr.ac.cr
Vision: Be recognized as international and
national leaders in Integrated Coastal Zone
Management: highly committed, qualified team
Mission: To promote and undertake research
incorporating scientific knowledge in the
management of natural marine and coastal
resources, implementing concepts, methods,
technology and means that contribute to ICZM
in Colombia via interdisciplinary scientific areas
Policy and legislation: Evaluate policy-level
impact of management of coastal zones and
natural resources. Promote & coordinate
processes oriented towards incorporation of the
scientific results into the national, regional and
local policies.
Marine museum
http://www.utadeo.edu.co/dependencias/museo/
To serve as a research arm, for non-formal
education and Extension in the knowledge of
marine (oceanic) resources
Colombia:
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota
http://www.javeriana.edu.co/
Costa Rica:
Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y
Limnología
http://cimar.ucr.ac.cr/
http://cariari.ucr.ac.cr/~cimarucr/ingindx.htm
Research in marine environments
Training courses – national, regional, international –
in marine science research and limnology
Contact: Fabio Gomez Delgado
fg000524@javeriana.edu.co
http://educon.javeriana.edu.co/ofi/paginas/app_
proyectosVerDetalle.asp?cP=1992&ts=1
CIMAR is a multidisciplinary, scientific research
unit linked to the Vice-presidency of Research
of the University of Costa Rica. CIMAR carries
out research projects, programs and support
modules related to the marine and freshwater
environments. Research is focused on aquatic
biodiversity and its sustainable management
and scientific information available for Gulf of
Nicoya, Golfo Dulce, and Costa Rican coral
reefs, mangroves and freshwater environments.
To raise marine awareness, strengthen
conservation & optimize the utilization of
marine resources
Generate scientific knowledge and
technology related to marine resources
and the functioning of ecosystems
Inform and educate the nation’s children
in marine issues through tours of marine
exhibits and information products
Provide the population in the Andean
region, particularly in Santafe of Bogota,
the opportunity of understanding the sea
and its resources via exhibits
Facilitate exchange of scientific
publications via an exchange-service
Produce scientific, technical, illustrated
teaching materials on marine systems
Project: Composition of the reef fish
communities of Isla Fuerte, Caribbean
Colombia
A priority goal of the Center is the
organization of seminars, workshops and
training courses on the national, regional
and international level around issues
related to the research of marine
sciences and limnology. A basic element
of CIMAR's outreach work lies in the
dissemination of information and in the
exchange of knowledge, techniques, and
methodologies developed by the
research projects.
69
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Costa Rica:
Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
http://www.inbio.ac.cr/es/default.html
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
Tel.: (506) 507-8100
Fax: (506) 507-8274
Apdo. postal: 22-3100
Santo Domingo de Heredia,
Costa Rica
Cuba
El Centro de Investigaciones Marinas (CIM Centre for Marine Research) http://www.iga.cu/icm
Calle 16 No. 114 entre 1 y 3
Miramar, Playa, CP 11300
Ciudad Habana, Cuba
Tel: (537) 203 0617, 202 5223
Fax: (537) 203 0617
Representative: María Elena
Ibarra Martín, Director
cim@cim.co.cu
Mission: Awareness raising on the value of
biodiversity, aimed at conservation and
betterment of human life
Vision: A science and technology agency,
recognized for excellence and leadership, that
generates information and promotes initiatives
towards sustainable use of biodiversity in
everyday life.
Relevant multidisciplinary research groups:
•
Marine aquaculture
•
Ecology
•
Management and conservation of coastal
resources
•
Genetic, nutritional and molecular
systematics
•
Lobster research
Evaluate fish resources and their fluctuation
Develop and fine-tune production methods for
marine species as well as large-scale
processing technologies
Build human capacity in fishing, production,
aquatic health, integrated coast management
and technology of fishery products
Develop software and provide technical /
scientific information services
Research on marine biological, physical,
chemical and geological processes
Monitoring and consultancy on biodiversity,
environmental quality and health
Develop biotechnology and mariculture
Inventory and monitoring of ecosystems
Conservation
Communication and education
Bioinformatics
Bioprospecting
http://www.inbio.ac.cr/es/inbio/inb_queinb
io.htm
http://atta.inbio.ac.cr/atta03.html
Contribute to the conservation of the
environment and sustainable
development through the integration of
scientific research and continued training
in the areas of marine biology,
aquaculture and coastal management
focused on multidisciplinary aspects and
excellence
Multidisciplinary research in marine ecology and
management & conservation of coastal resources
Cuba:
Centro de Investigaciones Pesqueras (CIP)
http://www1.cubamar.cu/cip/cip.htm
Capacity building
Information services
ra
ra
ta
5 ave y 248, Barlovento,
Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba
Teléfono : 537 - 2097875
Fax : 537 – 2049827
centro@cip.telemar.cu
Cuba:
Instituto de Oceanologia de Cuba
http://www.cuba.cu/ciencia/citma/ama/oceanologia/
Default.html
Provide scientific basis for sustainable development
of coastal and marine resources in the waters
surrounding Cuba
Gulf of Mexico:
Gulfbase
http://www.gulfbase.org
To cite GulfBase, use: M. Nipper, J.A. Sánchez
Chávez, and J.W. Tunnell, Jr., Editors. 2006.
GulfBase: Resource Database for Gulf of Mexico
Research. World Wide Web electronic publication
Ave. 1a, No. 18406
Rpto. Flores Playa
La Habana, Cuba
TEL: (537) 21-0342
FAX: (537) 33-8054
Representative: Jorge Foyo
Oceano@ceniai.cu
GulfBase is a project of the
Harte Research Institute for
Gulf of Mexico Studies at
Texas A&M University-Corpus
Christi. Cite information taken
from GulfBase by the original
source as displayed.
Honduras:
Honduran Coral Reef Foundation: MPA
comprising
Cayos Cochinos - a group of two small islands
(Cayo Menor and Cayo Mayor) and 13 small coral
cays l19 miles northeast of La Ceiba on the northern
Honduran coast
http://www.cayoscochinos.org
Honduras Coral Reef Fund
Colonia El Naranjal
Avenida Victor Hugo
Calle 13,Casa #1175
Apartado Postal 1053
La Ceiba,Atlántida
Honduras
Tel: +504 443-4075 or
GulfBase is a database of resources about the
Gulf of Mexico. Goal: to regroup, synthesize,
and make freely available Gulf of Mexico
research information. Vision: to help
researchers, policy makers, and general public
work together to insure long-term sustainable
use and conservation of the Gulf of Mexico
The protected area covers 489.25 km2 and
HCRF is responsible for its management. The
Management Plan, involving a range of stakeholders has the following objectives:
- Establish and maintain an annual biodiversity
monitoring program to enable derogations or
improvements to the reefs
- A fish monitoring program to determine
Provide research and scientific, technical
services, transfer of technology on the
management, production and industrial
processing of aquatic organisms of socio
economic benefits using sustainability
criteria in terms of food and quality
Establish programs for conservation of
marine turtles in the Cuban archipelago
Manage the health of aquatic organisms
http://www.cuba.cu/ciencia/citma/ama/oc
eanologia/resultados1.html
http://www.cuba.cu/ciencia/citma/ama/oc
eanologia/proyectos1.html
http://www.cuba.cu/ciencia/citma/ama/oc
eanologia/productos%20y%20servicios1.
html
Database on:
Bays and Estuaries
Reefs, Banks and Islands
Institutions, organizations and people
Environmental issues
Research facility at Cayo Menor has
restricted access to HCRF scientists and
volunteers. Uses (1) research, monitoring
and evaluation of island biodiversity (2) a
base of reef-monitoring operations,
aggregation fish spawning sites, and
related activities. Facilities: Communal
dining and camping areas. A large air-
70
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Partners:
World Wildlife Fund, Reef Check, The Nature
Conservancy, Avina, MarViva, Biosphere
Expeditions, Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Systems
Project, Wallacea
Jamaica:
Centre for Marine Sciences (CMS), UWI, Mona
Jamaica (Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory now
integrated into the CMS)
http://www.mona.uwi.edu/cms/
Coastal Area Management
Marine Ecosystem studies
Jamaica:
The Port Royal Marine Laboratory (PRML)
http://www.mona.uwi.edu/lifesciences/Projects/portr
oyalmarinelab.htm
Laboratory facilities and equipment for marine
research
Mexico
Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios
Avanzados de IPN - Unidad Merida – CINVESTAV
http://www.mda.cinvestav.mx/rm01.htm
Research and laboratory facilities
Nicaragua: Red de Desarrollo Sostenible (RDS)
http://www.sdnnic.org.ni/
Panamá: La Asociación Nacional para la
Conservación de la Naturaleza (ANCON)
http://www.ancon.org/xoops/html/modules/xt_conteu
do/?id=1
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
+504 443-4076
aeoviedo@cayoscochinos.org
necessary management actions
- Research for assessment of reef ecosystem
functions
- Assessment of potential for developing
alternative sustainable incomes for communities
in or around MPA
- Assess cultural & environmental impacts of
development in or adjacent to MPA
- Assist in funding applications for HCRF
•
marine ecosystem studies
•
coastline management
•
pollution monitoring and mitigation
•
fisheries / mariculture
Research and graduate training in above areas
Undergraduate training in underwater
photography and diving technology
Facilities: 6 laboratories and an aquaculture
2
facility of ~ 186 m area
Two large concrete docks and a small wooden
dock; 4 m wide slipway for removing small boats
Four boats with necessary safety equipment: a
25 w VHF Marine radio, 5w handheld radios
conditioned dry lab with computers and a
wet lab on the jetty with constantly
pumped seawater filling a series of
aquaria, a well-equipped dive centre and
boats with necessary safety equipment
and trained personnel. A helicopter
landing pad and a decompression
chamber on nearby Roatan Island.
22 areas of research, of relevance are:
Coral reef, Marine Biology and Ecology,
Toxicology, Coastal Management
Contribute to the science and technology
for enhancing the quality of life of the
inhabitants in the coastal regiona through
the sustainable use of marine and
coastal resources
Mission and Vision: Sustainable development is
a process of progressive change in the quality
of human life, in which development is the main
focus for economic progress with social equality
and the transformation of production methods
and consumption patterns; and which sustains
ecological equilibrium and vital support to the
region. The process implies respect for ethnic,
cultural, regional, national and local diversity,
while strengthening and encouraging public
participation in peaceful harmony with nature
without compromise, and guaranteeing the
quality of life for the future generations
ANCON is a private, non-profit organization,
funded by businessmen, scientists & community
leaders. It’s mission is to conserve biodiversity
and natural resources for the benefit of present
and future generations. ANCON works with
The RDS has several list-serves and
discussion forums on various topics
related to sustainable development
http://www.sdnnic.org.ni/listas.htm
http://www.sdnnic.org.ni/foro.htm
Centre for Marine Sciences
Faculty of Pure and Applied
Sciences
University of the West Indies
Mona Campus, Jamaica
Tel:(876) 977-0262
Fax: (876) 977-1033 927-0997
Tele: 876-967-8344; 876-9271202 (messages only)
Fax: 876-977-1075
Representative: I. Goodbody
Ivan.Goodbody@uwimona.edu
.jm
prml@uwimona.edu.jm
CINVESTAV, Km 6 Cassetesa
Antigua a Progreso, Merida,
97310, Yucatan, Mexico
TEL: (99) 981-2960
FAX: (99) 981-2334
Representative: D.A. Aranada;
daldana@mda.cinvestav.mx
Altamira D'este, casa No. 453,
de Ferretería SINSA 75 varas
abajo
Tel./fax: 2782257
Email: rds@sdnnic.org.ni
Cerro Ancón, Calle Amelia
Denis de Icaza Edificio N° 153,
Quarry Heights. Apdo. 1387,
Panamá 1.
Tel.:(507) 314-0060
Pure and applied research on the biology
of marine organisms including fish,
corals, marine plants and plankton
As a result of the generosity of the public
and various local and international
institutions, ANCON has been able to
establish concrete programmes on
conservation, sustainable development,
71
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Panama:
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI),
Panama; http://www.stri.org
Galeta Marine Laboratory
http://www.stri.org/english/research/facilities/marine/
galeta/index.php ; galeta@tivoli.si.edu
Marine Environmental Science Project
Short-term survey project for exotic marine species
Bocas del Toro Research Station
http://www.stri.org/english/research/facilities/marine/
bocas_del_toro/index.php
jacomeg@si.edu Station Manager
ochoae@si.edu Diving Officer
Marine Research and Facilities; Marine Monitoring
Trinidad and Tobago
Institute of Marine Affairs (IMA), Trinidad and
Tobago
http://www.ima.gov.tt/
Monitoring of Coastal and Marine Environment
Established regional centre for marine
environmental research (marine ecology, analytical
laboratory)
Trinidad and Tobago: Environment Tobago
http://www.scsoft.de/et/et2.nsf
Awareness and education of exotic (=invasive alien)
species as a threat to the environment
USA:
The Florida Institute of Oceanography (FIO)
http://www.marine.usf.edu/FIO/
Keys Marine Laboratory (KML)
http://www.marine.usf.edu/FIO/keysmarinelab.htm
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
Fax.: (507) 314-0062
Email: ancon@ancon.org
national and regional organizations, as well as
academic, commercial and community entities.
Diverse projects are undertaken throughout the
country in collaboration with local arm of the
national environment agency (ANAM). These
include national parks for the protection of the
extraordinary natural heritage of Panamá
Galeta’s Research Projects:
http://www.stri.org/english/research/facilities/ma
rine/galeta/research_projects.php
Short term project: survey for exotic marine
species on the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts
(See Appendix 1 below for scientific
partnerships between STRI and countries of the
Wider Caribbean)
Bocas del Toro research station: Colon island,
Caribbean: a site for education & research,
providing scientists & students with access to
extraordinary diversity of marine biota: situated
on remarkable coastal lagoon system, and
numerous islands and reefs
Environmental Research programme: Monitor
coastal and marine environment by carrying out
research (investigations, studies, surveys and
analyses) relating to marine organisms, the
ecological systems in which they live, the
oceanographic dynamics which directly affect
them and the morphological changes of the
shorelines
Facilities:. Analytical Laboratory with a wide
range of analyses in various sample matrices.
Analytical methodologies continuously revised
for advances to ensures data of internationally
acceptable standards
Environment TOBAGO, a non-government
organization committed to the conservation and
restoration of Tobago's environment.
Mission: Environment Tobago conserves natural
and living resources and advances knowledge
and understanding of such resources, their wise
and sustainable use, and their essential
relationship to human health and quality of life.
The Florida Institute of Oceanography (FIO):
established by State University System to
support and enhance Florida's coastal marine
science, oceanography and related
management programs through education,
research, and public outreach. FIO facilitates
environmental education and scientific
field research, capacity building to
indigenous persons and farmers in
remote areas of the country
Smithsonian Tropical
Research Inst.
Roosvelt Ave.
Tupper Building – 401
Balboa, Ancón
Panamá, República de
Panamá
Tel: +507 212-8000
Fax: +507 212-8148
Institute of Marine Affairs
Hilltop Lane, Chaguaramas
P.O. Box 3160
Carenage,
Trinidad & Tobago, W.I.
Phone: (868) 634-4291-4
Fax:
(868) 634-4433
director@ima.gov.tt
Environment TOBAGO
PO Box 503, Scarborough
Office: 11 Cuyler Street,
Scarborough
Phone: 868-660-7462
Fax: 868-660-7467
E-mail: envirtob@tstt.net.tt
830 First Street South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
Phone: 727/553-1100
Fax: 727/553-1109
KML:
Galeta Marine Laboratory: in Colon on
Caribbean Coast. A site of intense study
of the biological effects of a major oil spill
-adjacent to fringing coral reef, protected
by mangrove forest and crowded with
other marine organisms that live in
seagrass communities; also location for
STRI's marine environmental monitoring
program: new technological tower to
measure physical parameters (air
humidity; wind direction, temperature;
precipitation; temperature, sea water
level, salinity and solar radiation).
Other research areas:
Fisheries and aquaculture
Legal Research programme
Marine Chemistry
Develop strategies to deal with issues:
- environmental education
- protecting of our flora and fauna
- re-introduction of extirpated wildlife
- beach and river mining
- lobbying for protective legislation
- establishment of Protected Areas
- sustainable tourism development
FOI works with about 20 Universities and
Agencies to support, and promote Marine
Science Education and Research
http://www.marine.usf.edu/FIO/members.
htm
KML facilities: 30" deep interconnected
72
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Venezuela: Fundacion para la defense de la
naturaleza FUDENA
http://www.fudena.org.ve
Venezuela: Terrequatica
http://www.terraquatica.org/index.htm
http://www.terraquatica.org/website/terraquatica.htm
Contact information
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS / BW
Further information of relevance
1. Dr. Sandra Vargo
FIO program coordinator
Tel: (727) 553-1100
Fax. No. (727) 553-1109
2. Facility site manager
Tel: (305) 664-9101
Fax: (305)664-0850
activities of educators, scientists, and agencies
responding to state, regional, national and
international issues through provision of
centralized facilities and research vessels. FIO
coordinates an infrastructure to address the
marine concerns of state and federal agencies,
and the public
Av. Principal de los Cortijos de
Lourdes con 2º transversal /
Edif.Centro Empresarial
Senderos Piso 6, Ofic. 611 .
Caracas
Apartado Nº 70776 - Caracas
1071 - A – Venezuela
Tel: 0212 238.2930 / 238.1793
/ 232.0866 / 235.9454
Fax: 0212 239.6547
mailto: fudena@fudena.org.ve
Ave. Sucre de Los Dos
Caminos, Torres Yutaje C-133
Telf.: 0212-284.1253 / 0414316.8844 / 0416-402.5516
info_site@terraquatica.org
A non-governmental organization, FUDENA
undertakes national projects in four
developmental and six thematic areas, with the
objective of executing conservation activities
with an integrative, multidisciplinary vision
complementary to our mission
research & holding pool series totaling
548K gallons of seawater with pumping
capability >162K gph. A 15K gallon
observation tank and assorted other
tanks ranging in size from 1K to 5K
gallons also maintained.
Classroom/meeting room; wet lab/dry lab
facilities; limited sampling gear and
laboratory equipment; special analytical
equipment ; a fleet of small boats
. FUDENA assists in seeking viable
solutions to combat environmental
problems and their effects on the eastern
coast of the state of Falcón, in harmony
with the economic exploitation of natural
resources and development of tourism
http://www.fudena.org.ve/experienciascof
.pdf
Useful links:
http://www.fudena.org.ve/enlaces.htm
A non-profit NGO that plans and implements
projects and scientific research, conservation
and protection of environment and biodiversity
in its broadest sense; Collaborate with national,
international and private agencies for research,
project development, human resource capacity
building execute national / international
conventions involving environment protection
A computerized database: PRONACEI, under
construction, provides information on native and
exotic marine species. Structure of PRONACEI
comprises:
1.- Identification of species
2.- Information on the species or parasites
3.- Geographical distribution
4.- Control methods
Currently, the database of macroscopic algae
comprises 157 species, with synonyms, images,
distribution on Venezuelan coast, habitat etc.
Information is updated periodically.
Not yet available on the Internet
MPA protection from exotic
species.
•
Ecological solutions to
degradation of fragile coasts
•
Training of divers in
identification of species and state of the
reefs
•
Training workshops for coastal
communities
http://www.terraquatica.org/sinacei/que_e
s_pronacei.htm
Partnerships / alliances: AWARE project,
WWF, Earth Day Network (EDN), Coral
Reef Alliance
•
73
Governmental agencies (SPAW focal points, where information not available)
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Anguilla: SPAW
Chief Minister
Antigua and Barbuda: SPAW
Ms. Cheryl Jeffrey-Appleton , Chief Fisheries Officer
The Bahamas: SPAW
His Exc. Mr. Koed Smith, Ambassador for the
Environment
www.best.bs
Barbados: SPAW
Ms. H. Elizabeth Thompson-McDowald , Minister of
Environment
envirobdos@gob.bb
Contact information
Karim Hodge
Director of Environment
Office of the Chief Minister
PO Box 60, The Valley,
Anguilla
Tele: (1-264) 497-3089-2518
Fax: (1-264) 497-3389
karim.hodge@gov.ai
Mr. Philmore James , Senior
Fisheries Officer, Fisheries
Division, Ministry of Agriculture
Lands & Environment, Perry
Bay, St. John’s.
Tel: (1-268) 462-1372/1213
Fax: (1-268) 462-1372
fisheries@antigua.gov.ag
Dr. Donald Cooper, UnderSecretary, Bahamas
Environment, Science &
Technology (BEST
Commission), Ministry of Health
and the Environment
P.O. Box N3730, Nassau Court,
Nassau, The Bahamas
Tel: 1242 322-4546, 322-2576
Fax: (1-242) 326-3509
bestbs@hotmail.com
Dr. Lorna Inniss, Senior
Environmental Offier
Ministry of Physical
Development and Environment
1st Floor, Musson Building
Hincks Street
Bridgetown
Tel: (1-246) 467-5700
Fax: (1-246) 437-8859
linniss@coastal.gov.bb
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
Further information of relevance
Coastal Zone Management paper by
Sharon Roberts-Hodge
http://www.unesco.org/csi/pub/papers2/d
omp21.htm
Anguilla National Trust
http://www.ant.ai/
Integrated Coastal Management Profile:
http://www.globaloceans.org/country/Anti
gua.html
BEST Commission’s mandates (Appendix 2):
Five Marine Research Centres:
Caribbean Marine Research Center, Lee
Stocking Island, Exuma;
Forfar Field Station, Andros;
Bimini Biological Field Station;
Bahamian Field Station, San Salvador;
Bahamas Environmental Research Center,
Andros (latter two now part of Bahamas)
Bahamas National Biodiversity Strategy and
Action Plan (NBSAP)
http://www.biodiv.org/doc/world/bs/bs-nbsap01-en.pdf
The Coastal Zone Management Act calls for a
specific ministerial committee comprised of
individuals from various organisations, and
headed by the Director of the Coastal Zone
Management Unit. The following agencies are
responsible for decision-making with respect to
integrated CZM and sustainable development:
- Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Unit
- Town and Country Department
- Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs
- Fisheries Division
- Coast Guard
- Environment Division
- Environmental Engineering Division
- Government Laboratory
- National Conservation Commission
National Strategy for Management of
Invasive Species
http://www.iabinus.org/projects/i3n/i3n_products_after_pil
ot/bahamas_nationalstrategy.doc
Coastal Zone Management Programme
under consideration
http://www.best.bs/Webdocs/coastal%20
zone%20management.pdf
Integrated Coastal Management profile
http://www.globaloceans.org/country/Bah
amas.html
Integrated Coastal Management Profile:
http://www.globaloceans.org/country/Bar
bados.html
Barbados National Biodiversity Strategy
and Action Plans
http://www.biodiv.org/doc/world/bb/bbnbsap-01-en.pdf
Reefs at risk – case study
http://reefsatrisk.wri.org/casestudy_text.cf
m?ContentID=3332
Folkstone Marine National Park case
study: http://www.canari.org/folkstone.pdf
74
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Belize: SPAW
Ms. Beverly Wade
CZM Authority: an autonomous public statutory body
mandated to implement and monitor CZM and
development policies.
Coastal Zone Management Authority and Institute www.coastalzonebelize.org
Cayman Islands: SPAW
Mrs. Gina Ebanks-Petrie , Director of Environment
Colombia: SPAW
Sra. Carolina Barco , Ministra de Relaciones
Exteriores
www.minrelext.gov.co
Colombia:
Ministerio de Ambiente (Ministry of Environment)
http://www.minambiente.gov.co/
Contact information
Mr. James Azueta
Fisheries Department
Princess Margaret Drive
Belize City
Tel: (501) 223-2187 or 2244552
Fax: (501) 223-2983
species@btl.net
Mrs. Gina Ebanks-Petrie
Cayman Islands Department of
Environment, P.O. Box 486, GT
Marco Giglioli, North Sound
Round, George Town, Grand
Cayman; Tel: 345 949-8469;
Fax: 345 949-4020
Gina.Ebanks-Petrie@gov.ky
Dr. Jaime Girón Duarte ,
Viceministro de Asuntos
Multilaterales
+Sr. Yesid Fernando Castro
Forero , Director de Asuntos
Ministerio de Relaciones
Exteriores, Palacio de San
Carlos, Calle 10 #5-51, Bogotá
Tel: (571) 562-8292/566-2008
ext. 2522, 2533
Fax: (571) *562-7822/5903;
566-6081/6444
yesid.castro@minrelext.gov.co
Ministerio de Ambiente,
Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial
Calle 37 No. 8-40
Tel: (57-1) 3323400
Fax: (57-1) 2889892
Bogotá, D.C
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
Major functions:
- Advise Minister on all matters related to the
coastal zone, and on the formation of policies;
- Assist in developing programmes / projects;
- Foster regional & international collaboration;
- Commission research and monitoring;
- In consultation with stakeholders, assist in
preparation of development guidelines and
review CZM Plan in accordance with the Act;
- Maintain the national coral reef and coastal
water quality monitoring programmes.
The Authority engaged in 5 programmatic
areas
1) Coastal Water Quality and Monitoring
2) Manatee Research
3) Coastal Planning
4) Data Collection and Analysis
5) Reef Monitoring
http://www.artificialreefs.org/ScientificReports/
GCM%20Marriott%2005Oct%20coral%20work.
pdf
http://www.artificialreefs.org/ScientificReports/0
3May%20Tamirand.pdf
Vision: Lead creation of a policy for sustainable
development integrating decisions at various
levels for economic, social and environmental
development with a cohesive National
Environmental Plan, institutionally strong and
transparent in execution in response to needs,
promoting social partnership, leading to
economic growth, employment generation and
national development.
Further information of relevance
Integrated Coastal Management Profile:
http://www.globaloceans.org/country/beliz
e.html
Reefs at risk – case study
http://projects.wri.org/project_description.
cfm?ProjectID=219
Website on Coastal Zone Management:
http://www.belizenet.com/coastal/1.html
Glover Reef Marine Research Station:
http://www.wcs.org/international/marine/
marinelacaribbean/grmrs
Cay Caulker Marine Reserve
www.gocayecaulker.com/marine.html
Hol Chan Marine Reserve:
http://www.holchanbelize.org/
Red Mesoamericana (network of Central
American Universities for Management of
biotic resources). www.redmeso.net
http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/Techreport
s/tr36en/countries/cayman.html
http://www.johngrayrecyclers.org/id16.ht
ml
http://doe.8m.com/index.html
http://www.pls/portal30/docs/Folder/SITE
83/PRESSRELEASES/200603PRESSRE
LEASES/DARWINDOE.PDF'
http://www.darwin.gov.uk/field/articles/sc
holar.html
Mission: provide environmental services
and goods; an enabling environment for
socially and economically sustainable
development via expediting policies and
regulations and promoting sharing and
integration of activities, coordinated at
local, national and regional levels to
enhance the quality of life of the
population
75
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Costa Rica: SPAW
*Ing. Carlos Manuel Rodríguez Echandi , Ministro
www.sinac.go.cr, www.minae.go.cr
Cuba: SPAW
Sr. Jorge Luis Fernández Chamero
http://www.cubagob.cu/des_soc/sitio-citma/cienciaindex.htm
Dominica: SPAW
Mr. Colmore Christian , Permanent Secretary
Environmental Coordinating Unit
Dominican Republic: SPAW
Dr. Maximiliano Ruig , Secretario
Lic. Daneris Santana , Subsecretario de Estado de
Areas Protegidas
http://www.ceiba.gov.do/
France: SPAW
*Mme Roselyne Bachelot , Ministre
http://www.ecologie.gouv.fr/sommaire.php3
Contact information
**Ing. Edwin Cyrus Cyrus ,
Director, Area Conservacion
Amistad Caribe, Ministerio de
Ambiente y Energía, Apartado
1077-7300, Limón
Tel: (506) 795-4855/ 798-3170
Fax: (506) 795-3996
edwin.cyrus@sinac.go.cr
Ministerio de Ciencia,
Tecnología y Medio, Dirección
de Colaboración International
Havana
Tel: (53-7) 670-606, cell. (537)
885-8992
Fax: (53-7) 866-8054/ 338-054
chamero@citma.cu
Mr. Eric Hypolite,
Director of Forestry & Wildlife
Forestry, Wildlife and Parks
Division, Ministry of Agriculture
and Forestry, Government
Headquarters, Botanic Gardens,
Roseau
Tel: 1-767 448-2401 Ext. 3417
Fax: (1-767) 448-7999
forestry@cwdom.dm
*Ing. Roberto Sánchez ,
Director, Areas Protegidas y
Biodiversidad, Secretaría de
Estado de Medio Ambiente y
Recursos Natural, Ave. Maximo
Gomez, Edif. Antigua
Cementera, Santo Domingo
Tel: (809) *472-4024; 383-2915c / 547-3888 x2207/8
Fax: (809) 227-6550
vida.silvestre@codetel.net.do
**M. Jean Marc Michel,
Directeur Adjoint , Direction de
la nature et Ministère de
l'écologies et du
développement, 20, avenue de
Ségur, 75302 Paris 07 SP
Tel: 331 01 *4219-2021 **1935
Fax: 331 *014219-2021 **1977
jeanmarc.michel@ecologie.gouv.fr
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
Further information of relevance
http://www.sinaccr.net/corrmarino.php
http://www.sinaccr.net/corrbilogico.php
Environment portal provides information: (1)
database - institutions, legislation, terminology;
(2) catalogue of publications (3) Program
documents (4) Official documents
Likewise, the Science portal provides
information on (1) Institutions & establishments
(2) scientific activities (3) Library and other links
http://www.medioambiente.cu/
http://www.cubaciencia.cu/
Objective: to protect the maritime, terrestrial
and coastal regions from destruction,
degradation, contamination and modification in
order to preserve marine ecosystems
The main mission is to establish management,
conservation and sustainable use of the coastal
and marine resources, likewise inland water
systems of the Dominican Republic through its
Departments and Directives and in coordination
with other activities of the Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources
http://www.ceiba.gov.do/costerosymarino
/
Focus on:
Climate change
Sustainable Development
Water and aquatic medium
Economic / environmental research
and assessments
Biodiversity and Landscape
Risk and pollution
76
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
(Guadeloupe):
M. Dominique Deviers , Directeur Régional de
l'Environnement
Grenada: SPAW
Ms. Nadica McIntyre , Permanent Secretary
Guatemala: SPAW
Lic. Noé Adalberto Ventura Loyo , Secretario
http://www.conap.gob.gt/?&sitemap
Guyana: SPAW
Mrs. Sheranne Wickham , Senior Environmental
Officer
Haiti: SPAW
M. Yves-André Wainright , Ministre
Honduras: SPAW
Asistente del Canciller
Contact information
Direction
Regionale
de
l'Environnement (DIREN)
Allée des Lauriers Circonvallation, BP 105 –
97102, Basseterre
Tel: (590) 993-560
Fax: (590) 812-633, 993-565
dominique.deviers@guadeloupe
.ecologie.gouv.fr
Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Finance & National
Botanical Gardens
Office of the Prime Minister
St. George’s
Tel: (473) 440-2712 / 25640
Fax: (473) 440-4181 / 4116
foreignaffairs@gov.gd
Sr. Ignacio Galvez , Asistente
(igalvez@conap.gob.gt)
Consejo Nacional de Areas
Protegidas (CONAP)
Via 5, 4-50 Zona 4
Edificio Maya, 4to Nivel
Ciudad de Guatemala
(502-2) 422-6718 / 230-0871
Fax :(502-2) 238-3118
seconap@guate.net/
asistentesecretaria@conap.gob.
gt
Guyana EPA
1 AST Building, Turkeyen
Greater Georgetown
Tel: (592-2) 222-277/ 225-783/
225-784
Fax: 592-2) 225-785 / 222-442
epa@sdnp.org.gy
M. Exil Lucienna, Ministère de
l'Environnement, 181, Haut
Turgeau, Avenue Jean Paul II
Port-au-Prince
Tel : (509) 245-7585 / 72
Fax : (509) 245-7360
exillucienna@yahoo.fr
Ministerio de Relaciones
Exteriores, Palacio Cecilio del
Valle, Boulevard Juan Pablo II
Teguicgalpa; Tel: 504 234-8988;
Fax: 504 234-1484 / 1477
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
Further information of relevance
http://www.gov.gd/
http://pmoffice.gov.gd/
El Consejo Nacional de Áreas Protegidas –
CONAP – is a public entity established in 1989,
to undertake activities related to the Law for
Protected Areas. It is the arm of coordination of
the Sistema Guatemalteco de Áreas
Protegidas (SIGAP), with jurisdiction for the
national territories, its maritime coastline and
airspace.
http://www.ecoindex.org/search/results.cfm?projectID=3
42
http://www.unep.ch/biosafety/developme
nt/Countryreports/GTNBFInventario.pdf
http://www.biodiv.org/doc/world/gt/gtnbsap-01-es.pdf
77
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
Mexico: SPAW
Sr. José Manuel Bulas Montoro , Coordinador de
Asuntos
http://portal.semarnat.gob.mx/semarnat/portal
Montserrat: SPAW
Mr. Gerard Gray, Chief Forestry & Environment
Officer
Netherlands: SPAW
Ms. Jacqeuline B. Broerse , Environment
Programme (DST/ML)
Netherlands Antilles:
Mr. Ben D. Whiteman , Director
www.mina.vomil.an
Contact information
Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y
Recursos Naturales
(SEMARNAT)
Anillo Periférico Sur No. 4209
14210, Tlalpan D.F
Tel: (52-555) 628-3906
Fax: (52-555) 628-0694
Email:
enunez@semarnat.gob.mx
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
Main purpose: to create a State environmental
protection policy reversing the tendencies of
ecological damage and establishing the bases
for sustainable development. Environmental
protection policy aimed at responding to
national expectations of protecting natural
resources, by addressing pollution, loss of
ecosystems and biodiversity, consistent with
political welfare, where environmental problems
are an important and priority issue; recognize
the hazards arising from a lack of care for the
environment and the need to preserve and
improve the quality of life
Further information of relevance
•
•
•
•
Strategic Programs:
Ecosystem/biodiversity conservation
Sustainable development promotion
Halt/reverse loss of natural capital
Halt/reverse pollution of life-supporting
ecosystems (water, air and soil)
Ministry of Agriculture, Trade &
the Environment
P.O. Box 272, Brades
Tel: (1-664) 491-2075
Fax: (1-664) 491-9275
malhe@candw.ag
Directorate General for
International Cooperation
(DGIS)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Bezuidenhoutseweg 67
P.O. Box 20061
2500 EB The Hague
Tel: (31-70) 348-4329
Fax: (31-70) 348-4303
broerse.jacqueline@minbuza.nl
Ministry of Public Health and Social Development –
Department of Environment and Nature
*Mr. Paul C. Hoetjes
Policy Advisor, Directorate of
Public Health of the Netherlands
Sta. Rosaweg 122
Willemstad
Curaçao
Tel (599-9) 736-3530
Fax: (599-9) 736-3505 / *4612154; 0254
E-Mail: milvomil@cura.net
Netherlands:
NetCoast: A Guide to Integrated Coastal
Management
Coastal Zone Management
Centre (CZM-C)
National Institute for Coastal &
MINA is part of Ministry of Public Health &
Social Development of Netherlands Antilles
(NA). As a federal government department
encompassing all five islands of NA, MINA’s
tasks are set out in the NA Island Regulation
(ERNA, 1998, art. 2.e. 10): “environmental &
nature management and conservation as
derived from treaties”. MINA’s tasks are limited
to setting general guidelines for the islands &
ensuring appropriate implemention. It also
facilitates and encourages implementation of
the internationally agreed standards for
biodiversity conservation and environmental
care, and their sustainable development.
NetCoast is produced by CZMC an
international Centre located in Ministry of
Transport, Public Works & Water Management
Biodiversity database
DCNA (Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance)
Nature Fora (1996-2005)
NANCI (Netherlands Antilles Nature
Conservation Initiative)
NACRI (Netherlands Antilles Coral Reefs
Initiative)
Saba Bank – Integrated Management
Plan
Fisheries (Saba Bank, Curaçao, National
Legislation, Legislation Saba)
Sea Turtle monitoring (Bonaire, Statia)
Marine mammal monitoring (Curaçao)
Features:
ICZM simulation models / modelling
systems developed by RIKZ
78
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
http://www.netcoast.nl/
Nicaragua: SPAW
Ing. Arturo Harding Lacayo , Ministro
Panama: SPAW
St. Kitts / Nevis: SPAW
St. Lucia: SPAW
Mr. Martin Satney , Permanent Secretary (Ag.)
Chief Fisheries Officer/Chief Forestry Officer
Contact information
Marine Management (RIKZ)
Ministry of Transport, Public
Works & Water Management
The Hague, The Netherlands
*Sr. René Salvador Castellón
Especialista de la Oficina
(CITES), Ministerio del
Ambiente y los Recursos
Apdo. 5123, Km. 12½ Carretera
Norte, Managua
Tel: *(505-2) 331-173/ 632-088/
*331-112-3
Fax: (505-2) 331-795 /631-274
renycaste@hotmail.com
Sr. Ricardo Rivera, Director
Nacional de Patrimonio Natural,
Autoridad Nacional del
Ambiente, Apartado 08 43 Zona
C, Balboa, Ancón, Ancón
Tel: 507315-0951/0855 ext. 176
Fax: (507) 315-0573
r.rivera@anam.gob.pa /
confebio@sinfo.net/
Mr. Ralph Wilkins , Fisheries
Officer, Fisheries Management
Unit, Ministry of Agriculture,
Fisheries, Forestry &
Environment, Government
Headquarters, P.O. Box 186
Basseterre
Tel: (1-869) 465 8045
Fax: (1-869) 465-2635
Ms. Dawn Pierre-Nathaniel,
Fisheries Dept. ,
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry
and Fisheries
5th Floor, Stanislaus James
Building
The Waterfront, Castries
Tel: (1758) 468-4135, 450-231
Fax: 1758 453-6314/ 452 3853
deptfish@slumaffe.org /
chiefforest@slumaffe.org
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
and supported by six Ministries. CZMC
provides a platform for cooperation and transfer
of information on the sustainable management
of coastal resources and has been set up in
response the 1992 UN conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED) call
for exchange of know-how and technology to
enhance implementation of ICZM Programmes
by nations around the world
Further information of relevance
-
-
participation
Projects in which CZMC is involved:
http://www.netcoast.nl/projects1/projec
ts.htm
Coastal Adaptation Strategies
http://www.netcoast.nl/news/coastal
_adaptation_strategies.pdf
79
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines: SPAW
Ms. Pamela Browne, Permanent Secretary
Mr. Brian Johnson, Director of Forestry
Suriname: SPAW
The Hon. Clifford P. Marica , Minister
http://www.nimos.org/
NIMOS is the focal point for environment-related
conventions to which the Republic of Suriname is a
party (e.g. the Convention on Biological Diversity
and the UN Framework Convention on Climate
Change) and international or regional environmental
organizations or other bodies
Trinidad & Tobago: SPAW
Dr. Dave McIntosh , Chief Executive Officer
http://www.ema.co.tt/
Turks and Caicos Islands: SPAW
Mrs. Judith Garland-Campbell
United Kingdom
Contact information
Mr. Leslie Straker, Fisheries
Officer, Ministry of Agriculture
Forestry & Fisheries AND
Environmental Unit, Ministry of
Health and Environment
Kingstown
Tel: (784) 457-8502 / 456-1111
ext. 304, 306
Fax: (784) 457-1688
agrimin@caribsurf.com
S. Ang, National Institute for
Environment and Development
of Suriname
Tamaridelaan #2, Paramaribo
Tel: (597) 520-045
Fax: (597) 520-042
E-Mail: info@nimos.org
Mr. Kishan Kumarsingh,
Environmental Management
Authority (EMA), Ministry of
Public Utilities & Environment
(copy), 8 Elizabeth Street
St. Clair, Port of Spain
Tel: 1-868 628-8042 ext. 257
Fax: 1-868 628-9122
ema@ema.co.tt ;
dmcintosh@ema.co.tt
Director of Environment and
Department of Environment &
Coastal, c/o National
Environment Centre
Providenciales
Tel: 649 941-5122 / 946-2801
Fax: (649) 946-4793
JLCampbell@gov.tc /
mfgardiner@tciway.tc
Ms. Annabelle Malins,
Technologist & Training
Specialist, National Resources
Institute, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, King Charles
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
Further information of relevance
National Council for the Environment (NMR) is
an innovative and promising structure for
environmental management, based on regional
structures and national consultations. The
executive and research arm of NMR is the
National Institute for Environment and
Development in Suriname (NIMOS).
- advise the government of Suriname on the
implementation of environmental policies
- realize national environmental legislation
- prepare and realize regulations regarding
environmental protection
- coordinate and monitor compliance with those
rules and regulations
A General Director heads NIMOS. There
are eight specific offices:
- Administration
- Environmental and Social Assessment
- Environmental Monitoring and
Enforcement
- Environmental Legal Services
- Environmental Planning and Information
- Environmental Public Education and
Outreach
- Environmental Funding and
Investments
- Environmental Research.
80
Name of organization, relevance and website
(where available)
USA: SPAW
Vice Admiral Conrad Lautenbacher, Jr. ,
http://www.nos.noaa.gov
http://www.noaa.gov/research.html
Venezuela: SPAW
Dr. Jésus Ramos Oropeza, Director General de
Diversidad jramos@marnr.gov.ve
Attention: Director de Gestion Internacional
Contact information
Street, London, SW1 2AH
Tel: 44 207-2703485
Fax: 44 207-2703731
Mr. Thomas L. Laughlin
Director, Office of International
Affairs
Mr. Arthur Paterson
International Programme
Officer, NOAA/NOS
National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Agency
U.S. Department of Commerce
Main Comm. Bldg-Room 5811
14th & Constitution Ave., N.W.
Washington, DC 20230
Tel: **301-713-3078 ext. 112 /
*202-482-5118
Fax: **30-713-4263; *202-4824307
Email:
Arthur.E.Paterson@noaa.gov;
tom.laughlin@noaa.gov
Sra. Jacquelin Mendoza ,
Directora General de Gestión
Oficina Nacional de Diversidad
Biológica, Ministerio del
Ambiente y de los Recursos
Naturales (MARNR)
Torre Sur, Piso 9, Centro Simon
Bolivar, A.A. 6623
Caracas 1010
Tel: 58-212 408-1501/2; 4755
Fax: 58-212 408-1503; 4276
jmendoza@marnr.gov.ve
Projects / Activities of relevance to MIS /
BW
Further information of relevance
Vision
“An informed society that uses a
comprehensive understanding of the role of the
oceans, coasts and atmosphere in the global
ecosystem to make the best social and
economic decisions”
Mission
“To understand and predict changes in the
Earth’s environment and conserve and manage
coastal and marine resources to meet our
nation’s economic, social and environmental
needs”
NOAA Sites
OAR: http://www.coral.noaa.gov/oar/
NESDIS
National Ocean Service:
http://www.nos.noaa.gov/
National Marine Fisheries Services:
http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/
NODC
CoRIS
Coral Reef Online
Marine Protected Areas
NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Homepage
NOAA's Coral Reef Information System
Objective: to facilitate and support the rational
use of natural resources and enhancing the life
and quality of the environment by exercising
caution, supervision and control against overutilization and deterioration of the resources.
The various divisions fo the Ministry have
relevant competencies to undertake their tasks
in complementarity with the objectives
NOAA is a federal agency focused on the
condition of the oceans and the
atmosphere. It plays several distinct roles
within the Department of Commerce:
supply environmental information
products pertaining to the state of
the oceans and atmosphere
provide environmental stewardship
services, coordinating with federal,
state, local and international
authorities towards management of
these environments, regulating
fisheries and marine sanctuaries as
well as threatened and endangered
marine species.
A leader in applied scientific
research in ecosystems, climate,
weather and water and commerce
and transportation.
Capacity building and Technical
Assistance from Cuba for an Integrated
Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)
Action Plan in the states of Miranda,
Falcón, Nueva Esparta, Sucre, Vargas
and Zulia. Action plans developed to set
up pilot sites in each state (April to Nov
2005)
81
Appendix 1 Scientific Cooperative Agreements between the STRI and countries of the WCR
STRI - Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama
WCR - Wider Caribbean Region
Country
Institution
Objective
Brasil
Universidad Estadual de Campinas
Scientific /cooperation agreement in the fields of biology/ecology
Colombia
STRI/ INVEMAR ( Instituto de Investigations
Marinas y Costeras, José Benito Vives de
Andreis)
General agreement for scientific cooperation for development of
technology, science, training and education.
Colombia
STRI/ University of Bogotá – Jorge T. Lozano Collaborative agreement to reinforce training among investigators in the
Foundation (Sea Museum)
field of limnology and marine science.
Colombia
Instituto Humboldt
Scientific long term collaboration for ecology studies
Costa Rica
STRI/ CIMAR
Scientific research and collaboration with the Costa Rica University ,
Research Center for Limnology an Marine Science
University of Costa Rica
Cuba
STRI / National Museum of Natural History
Cuba
SI / Washington / Cuba Academy of Sciences MOU - for technical and scientific cooperation
Cuba
Institute of Ecology
Ecuador
STRI/PUCE (Catholic Pontifician University of Cooperation agreement for the development of scientific research
Ecuador)
projects in the Yasuni.
Mexico
STRI / The Veracruz Aquarium
Agreement for cooperation for exchange of information related to
conservation, education of marine habitats, technical information, etc.
Panama
Bahia Honda
Scientific cooperation agreement to participate along with STRI in the
operation of a Field Station in Sona, Prov. of Veraguas
(Fundación Ecológica Isla Canales de Tierra)
Panama
Scientific agreement for interchange, cooperation, and development of
projects.
(Inter-american Tropical Tuna Commission)
Non-exclusive scientific cooperation agreement intended to facilitate
access to the IATTC Achotines Lab research facilities by STRI
researchers and students.
USA
STRI / ICBG / NOVARTIS
MOU for material transfer, patent, and licensing agreement
USA
STRI / ICBG / Oregon State University (OSU) MOU for material transfer, collection, export and use of biological
material
STRI / Yale School of Forestry &
MOU for cooperation in the field of tropical forest restoration
Environmental Studies
USA
Venezuela
IATTC
Cooperative agreements for the interchange and development of
scientific projects.
STRI / Simon Bolivar University
MOU to promote scientific cooperation, education with special emphasis
on marine coastal environments
82
Appendix 2: Mandate of BEST
BEST - The Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology (BEST) Commission:
a. serve as national focal point for environment, science and technology (EST);
b. coordinate matters on international environment-related treaties, conventions, protocols and
agreements to which The Bahamas is, or will become, party or signatory;
c. to coordinate the national effort to:
i.
protect, conserve & responsibly manage environmental resources of The Bahamas;
ii.
develop national environmental strategies and related action plans;
iii.
identify suitable scientific & technological advances to contribute to national development
iv.
propose legislation to enforce provisions of national environmental plans & policies
v.
To identify & apply for technical assistance and financial grants to meet national
obligations under international environment-related conventions, treaties, protocols &
agreements
d. to represent the Government in discussions and negotiations with representatives of regional /
international organizations and foreign governments on EST matters as appropriate;
e. to serve as a forum for encouraging open dialogue, facilitating information exchange and improved
communication among Government agencies and private sector in matters of EST;
f. to process administrative arrangements for Bahamas' representation in training seminars /
international meetings in EST;
g. to keep Government informed of the progress of the Commission's work and the outcome of its
deliberations with international organisations;
h. to explain and publicize policies and activities of The Bahamas Government in EST;
i. to advise Government in a timely fashion on environmental impact of various development proposals
submitted for BEST's review;
j. to prepare papers on various issues to assist in national policy formation.
k. To conduct site visits for projects under environmental impact assessment (EIA) review.
83
Annex V. Project / programmes on, or with potential relevance to, MIS and Ballast Waters management
Title and details (where available)
Implementing
agency(s)
Executing
agency(s)
Objectives and further information of relevance to
MIS
Global: Building partnerships to assist developing countries
to reduce the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms in
ship’s ballast water (GloBallast Partnerships)
GEF – PDF B; not
yet approved
UNDP and IMO
GEF – PDF A:
2000-2004;
Evaluation
completed in 2005
UNDP and IMO
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=2261
The overall objective: promote the development of regional
partnerships that will implement coordinated long-term measures to
minimize the adverse impacts of aquatic invasive species transferred
through ships’ BW on coastal and marine ecosystems, economy,
human health and well-being in accordance with the relevant IMO
international Convention. Two related development objectives:
·promote regional partnerships, based on existing regional structures
and programmes, for the effective implementation of the International
Convention for the Control and Management of ships’ Ballast Water
and Sediments, building on the experience and through the expertise
accumulated in the Pilot Countries. ·To integrate regional BW
programmes with other marine and coastal environmental
management strategies.
Barriers to be overcome, as identified in the PDF-B project phase,
include those of an educational, informational, technical, institutional,
financial, political, cultural, and legal nature. There are six (6) major
project objectives. The objectives address the need for effective
project management and coordination, stakeholder and public
awareness and educational activities, barrier removal efforts in
targeted countries, monitoring activities, regional involvement and
identification of opportunities for self-financing and the recruitment of
additional donors to ensure long-term sustainability
UNEP / GEF;
approved
September 2005
World Fish Center,
Indonesia
The objectives should be a logical expansion of the pilot
phase (PDF A – Globallast – see below), with a greater
regional focus and more emphasis on integrated
management. The project is designed to build on the
regional approach established during the pilot phase and is
based on the principle of integrated implementation.
Global: Removal of Barriers to the Effective Implementation
of Ballast Water Control and Management Measures in
Developing Countries (Globallast)
Long-term objective: assist developing countries in
reducing transfer of harmful organisms from ship BW. The
project increased the extent to which ships calling on
developing country ports adhered to the voluntary
international Guidelines of the IMO. Further, assistance
was provided in the development of programs necessary to
implement the expected IMO international regulatory
framework. Effective, country based Pilot Demonstration
Projects within six developing nations, representative of
each global development region, were supported:
Brazil/port of Sepetiba, China/port of Dalian, India/ port of
Mumbai (Bombay), Iran/Kharg Island, South Africa/port of
Soldanha, Ukraine/port of Odessa. Regional Involvement
was effected through Regional Task Forces.
Global: Knowledge Base for Lessons Learned and Best
Practices in the Management of Coral Reefs
http://tinyurl.com/oo7v4
The overall goal of the project is enhanced capacity within country
institutions to learn from previous experiences of other projects and
develop and implement coral reef projects which deliver key
outcomes effectively and efficiently
84
Title and details (where available)
Implementing
agency(s)
Executing
agency(s)
Objectives and further information of relevance to
MIS
Global: International Coral Reefs Initiative (ICRI)
http://www.icriforum.org/
Objectives:
- Governments & international organizations to strengthen
commitment to and implementation of programs at the
local, national, regional & international levels to conserve,
restore and promote sustainable use of coral reefs and
associated environments (CRAE);
- each country / region to incorporate into existing local,
regional, and national development plans, management
provisions for protection, restoration, and sustainable use
of the structure, processes and biodiversity of CRAE;
- strengthen capacity: research; management; monitoring
of CRAE; policy development and implementation
- establish & maintain coordination of international, regional
& national research & monitoring programs incl Global
Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN), in association
with the Global Ocean Observing System, for efficient use
of resources and information flow relevant to CRAE
Global: IUCN Global Marine Programme
http://www.iucn.org/en/projects/chile_invasives.htm
Governments
Small, temporary
Secretariat
ICRI is a voluntary partnership among governments, international
organizations, and NGOs, formed during the first CoP of CBD. It
strives to preserve coral reefs and related ecosystems by
implementing Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and other relevant
international conventions and agreements.
http://www.icriforum.org/router.cfm?show=secretariat/sec_home.html
&Item=1 Coordination of Secretariat funded by the government of one
country, but often with assistance of others.
Global: Reefcheck
http://www.reefcheck.org
Reef Check is a volunteer, ocean conservation organization
designed to save coral reefs globally and temperate reefs
in California. Reef Check is active in over 82 countries and
territories throughout the world, including most countries in
the WCR
Global: Score Card to Assess Progress in Achieving
Management Effectiveness Goals for MPAs
IUCN
Collaboration:
Worldfish Center
(Reefbase www.reefbase.org),
University of Rhode
Island & University
of Southern
California
WB / WWF –
completed 2004
http://www.icriforum.org/mpa/SC2_eng_nocover.pdf
Available in Spanish and French
Regional: The Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment
(AGRRA) Program is an international collaboration of
scientists and mangers aimed at determining the regional
condition of reefs in the Western Atlantic and Gulf of
http://www.agrra.org
/sponsors.html
IUCN
Partners:
- Total Foundation
- Government of Chile
- Under-Secretariat
for Fisheries
- New Zealand Biosecurity Department
Ministry of Fisheries
Projects relevant to Wider Caribbean Region (WCR):
GCRMN - partnership of existing monitoring programs including Reef
Check, a global program and CARICOMP in the WCR.
http://www.gcrmn.org/
International Coral Reef Action Network: 1. reef management, 2.
global coral reef monitoring and assessment, and 3. communications
and knowledge dissemination. UNEP, through its Regional Seas
Programmes, co-ordinates the reef management component of
ICRAN in WCR. http://www.icran.org/
ICRI News, Events and discussion forums
Reduce the threats posed by IAS in aquaculture systems by providing
methodologies to assess the risk of invasions, and to control and
manage invasive species when they occur, and by raising awareness
within the aquaculture community about the threats posed by IAS on
native biodiversity, but also on socio-economic activities
Reefcheck database: WRAS is an online application to input, view,
and analyse Reef Check survey data. Calculates indicators of how
good or bad a shape a particular reef is in, and what the underlying
causes may be, based on Reef Check surveys.
Reefcheck GIS: Survey results on interactive maps
Score Card purpose: help MPA managers and local stakeholders
determine their progress along management continuum: a short,
straightforward self-assessment tool to help managers identify where
they are succeeding and where they need to address gaps. Intended
to be completed by MPA staff and other stakeholders - a useful team
building exercise. Revised August 2003 publication. Major changes sections on outputs and outcomes.
Preliminary findings have provided valuable baseline data for
scientists and government officials responsible for selecting and
maintaining MPAs. Over 100 scientists / resource managers have
joined AGRRA to conduct capacity training workshops, field
85
Title and details (where available)
Implementing
agency(s)
Executing
agency(s)
Mexico. http://www.agrra.org/
The first and only program to develop an extensive regional
database on Caribbean coral reef condition. Using an
innovative regional approach to examine the condition of
reef-building corals, algae and fishes, reef scientists teams
have assessed some 400 reef areas at 25 sites throughout
the region
Regional: Caribbean coastal marine productivity program
(CARICOMP): sustaining coastal biodiversity benefits and
ecosystem services. (Bahamas, Barbados, Belize,
Bermuda, Bonaire, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Cuba, Curacao, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras,
Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saba,
Trinidad & Tobago, USA, Venezuela.)
Regional: The CARICOM Fisheries Resource Assessment
and Management Program (CFRAMP): sustainable
development initiative of CARICOM States. A series of
national consultations, workshops and working group
activities were expected to lead to a seamless transition
from CFRAMP to the a Regional Fisheries Mechanism (see
below)
Regional: The Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism
(CRFM): http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/
An output of CFRAMP, CRFM is the core of a complex
interactive network of a wide variety of stakeholders in
fisheries. Three bodies together make up CRFM. 1) the
Ministerial Body; 2) the Caribbean Fisheries Forum; and 3)
the Caribbean Fisheries Technical Unit (CFTU) or
Secretariat
Regional: Conservation and Sustainable Use of the
Mesoamerican Barrier Reef (MBRF)
http://www.mbrs.org.bz/english/en_index.htm
Regional (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico)
Standardizing ecosystem monitoring for development of a
regional information system
Regional: Coral Health and Monitoring Program (CHAMP).
http://www.coral.noaa.gov/
Mission: to provide services and information sources for
researchers and the public in order to help improve and
sustain coral reef health throughout the world.
Coral List Serve with >2000 members worldwide.
Seakeys data and Integrated Monitoring Network Database
http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/
Regional: Integrating Watershed and Coastal Area
Management (IWCAM) in the Small Island Developing
In partnership with
GCRMN
Center for Marine
Sciences, University
of the West Indies
Mona, Kingston 6,
Jamaica
Tel: 876-927-1609
Fax: 876-977-1037
CIDA / CARICOM,
Phase I : 1991-1998
Phase II: 1999-2003
assessments, data analysis and prepare results for publication and
press releases
Project Goals:
Complete the regional assessment of the health of coral reefs
throughout the Western Atlantic;
Analyze the results and develop a database so as to establish a
practical scale of comparative reef condition; and
Promote transfer of information to government officials, policy makers
resource managers, tourist operators, students & general public.
Enhancing coastal and fisheries resource management through
stakeholder participation, local knowledge and environmental
education, Arcadins Coast, Haiti
E-mail: george.warner@uwimona.edu.jm
CFRM Agreement: http://www.intfish.net/treaties/crfm.htm
CARICOM
Governments,
Ongoing
Caribbean Fisheries
Technical Unit
(=Secretariat)
IBRD - The World
Bank / GEF -
Comisión
Centroamericana de
Ambiente y Desarrollo
(CCAD) Sistema de
Integracion CentroAmericano (SICA)
NOAA
UNEP/UNDP / GEF
Objectives and further information of relevance to
MIS
The Secretariat of the
Cartagena
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=837
Enhance protection of the unique and vulnerable marine ecosystems
comprising MBRS, and to assist with strengthening and coordination
of regional policies, regulations, and institutional arrangements for the
conservation and sustainable use of this global public good
NOAA/OAR's CHAMP is in the process of installing Coral Reef Early
Warning System (CREWS)
http://www.coral.noaa.gov/crews/index.shtml monitoring stations at
all major US coral reef areas, as recommended by the Coral Reef
Task Force http://www.coralreef.gov/. These stations, along with
SEAKEYS Network http://www.coral.noaa.gov/seakeys/index.shtml,
provide near real-time data and information products. CREWS is part
of a NOAA partnership called Coral Reef Watch
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=1254
Long-term sustainable management of (watershed and coastal)
86
Title and details (where available)
States of the Caribbean
Regional (Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados,
Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti,
Jamaica, St. Lucia, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and
Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago)
Regional: OECS Protected Areas and Associated
Sustainable Livelihoods
Regional (Antigua And Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, St.
Kitts And Nevis, St. Vincent and Grenadines, St. Lucia)
Implementing
agency(s)
IBRD - The World
Bank / GEF – PDF
B
Regional: UNEP-CEP Assessment and Management of
Environmental Pollution (AMEP)
http://www.cep.unep.org/operationalcomponents/amep/plonearticle.2005-10-03.0339023324 or
http://tinyurl.com/gu63q
Nations and
territories in the
Wider Caribbean
Region (WCR)
Regional: UNEP-CEP Specially Protected Areas and
Wildlife (SPAW) Programme
Nations and
territories in the
Wider Caribbean
Region (WCR)
http://www.cep.unep.org/operationalcomponents/plonearticlemultipage.2005-1003.4690343384/plonearticle.2005-10-03.4390688397 or
http://tinyurl.com/n7egs
National: Belize: Sustainable Development and
Management of Biologically Diverse Coastal Resources
Comprehensive planning of coastal resource management
to preserve globally-significant and economically-vital
marine ecosystem. This innovative project includes training,
laying groundwork for zoning plans, and assistance with
developing permanent statutory authority charged with
preserving and managing littoral zone nationwide
http://tinyurl.com/m224s
National - Belize: Conservation And Sustainable Use of the
Barrier Reef Complex
This Full-size project which builds on the achievements of
the GEF-funded pilot phase project seeks to operationalize
the recently passed Coastal Zone Management Act. This
Executing
agency(s)
Objectives and further information of relevance to
MIS
Convention; The
Caribbean
Environmental Health
Institute
biological resources and ecosystems, while mitigating or eliminating
regional transboundary threats to those resources and ecosystems.
Environment and
Sustainable
Development Unit
(ESDU): Organization
of Eastern Caribbean
States (OECS).
UNEP-CAR/RCU –
AMEP subprogramme
RAC CIMAB,
RAC IMA and RAC
REMPETEIC as LBS
and Oil Spills RACs
UNEP-CAR/RCU SPAW subprogramme
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=1204
Improving institutional capacity to manage Protected Areas in the
region
UNDP / GEF
Completed
Belize Coastal Zone
Management Plan
UNDP / GEF
Completed
Ministry of Agriculture,
Fisheries and
Cooperatives Coastal
Zone Management
Authority
Relevant sections of AMEP subprogramme workplan for 2006-2007
- Management of oil spills, strengthening of maritime organizations in
Central America and the management of ballast waters from ships
in collaboration with RAC REMPEITC
- Development of a Regional Strategy for the Management of Marine
Litter
Relevant sections of SPAW subprogramme workplan for 2006-07
Strengthen Protected Areas in the Wider Caribbean Region
Support invasive species management in MPAs
Develop Guidelines for Protected Areas & Species Management
Develop criteria and guidelines to prevent species from
becoming threatened or endangered
Conservation of Threatened and Endangered Species
Control of alien and invasive species (in collaboration with GISP,
UNEP, CBD, IMO)
Conservation and Sustainable Use of Coastal & Marine Ecosystems
ICRAN-USAID/UNF International Coral Reef Action Network
(ICRAN) MAR Project; Support to the International Coral Reef
Initiative (ICRI)
Some activities, extending across several time periods, are
accomplished by SPAW Programme in coordination with other CEP
sub-programmes or national/regional/international organisations
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=358
Project completed. Final evaluation conducted in June 1998,
document available
The final draft Strategy document, entitled National Integrated
Coastal Zone Management Strategy for Belize, has been completed
and formally submitted to the Ministry for endorsement. The work of
the CZM Institute continues with programmes in water quality and
coral reef monitoring, manatee research, and coastal planning. The
87
Title and details (where available)
Act provides the institutional framework for the
implementation of targeted interventions for biodiversity
protection. Belize's coastal zone is made up of globally
significant diversity of ecosystems and organisms, including
the longest barrier reef (220 km long) in the Western
Hemisphere. Five of the marine protected areas (MPAs)
targeted in this project are World Heritage Sites
http://www.gefweb.org/wprogram/Oct98/UNDP/belize.pdf
http://www.gefweb.org/wprogram/Oct98/UNDP/belize2.pdf
National - Colombia: Caribbean Archipelago Biosphere
Reserve: Regional Marine Protected Area System
The Medium-sized project supports conservation of critical
habitats in the Archipelago as a means to protect and
restore species diversity, sustainable marine and coastal
resource use, and equitable benefit distribution to local
populations. Achievement of these objectives is vital to the
survival of the native culture, both socially and
economically. http://tinyurl.com/f8w2y
National - Cuba: Protecting Biodiversity and Establishing
Sustainable Development of the in Sabana-Camaguey
Region
Project enhances current surveys of biodiversity by
providing equipment and resources and assisting with rapid
ecological inventories. Includes facilitating creation of GIS,
ongoing monitoring and analysis, and translation of data
into procedures and guidelines for eco-tourism
development http://tinyurl.com/gfnqa
National - Cuba: Priority Actions to Consolidate Biodiversity
Protection in the Sabana-Camaguey Ecosystem
The project is aimed at supporting the incorporation of
biodiversity concerns into integrated coastal zone
management. This consolidation phase project focuses on
the northern archipelago of the Sabana-Camaguey
Ecosystem (SCE) in central Cuba, which harbors marine
and terrestrial biodiversity of global significance.
http://www.gefweb.org/wprogram/Oct98/UNDP/cubamain.p
df
http://www.gefweb.org/wprogram/Oct98/UNDP/cuba1.pdf
http://www.gefweb.org/wprogram/Oct98/UNDP/cubannx.pdf
National - Cuba: Mainstreaming and Sustaining Biodiversity
Conservation in three Productive Sectors of the Sabana
Camaguey Ecosystem
Pipeline entry for the current Concept to complete the
sequentially phased intervention, in recognition of the
critical role that GEF support and technical assistance from
Implementing
agency(s)
Executing
agency(s)
IBRD - The World
Bank / GEF
Approved in 2000;
implementation
underway
Corporation for the
Sustainable
Development of the
Archipelago of San
Andres, Old
Providence, and
Santa Catalina
(CORALINA)
UNDP / GEF 19931997
Academy of Sciences,
Government of Cuba
UNDP / GEF
Implementation
commenced in 2000
Ministry of Science
Environment and
Technology,
Government of Cuba
Objectives and further information of relevance to
MIS
Project is actively supporting the concept of co-management and
assisting in arrangements for NGOs and CBOs to be involved in the
day-to-day management of the marine protected areas. The
demonstration project is located on the island of Caye Caulker, with a
community located in the buffer zone of a marine protected area.
Many community meetings have been held and public awareness
campaigns carried out, and a good rapport has developed between
the community and the project
Final evaluation first draft (2005): http://tinyurl.com/muzf5
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=773
MPAs are being established as part of a comprehensive system that
includes representative strategic marine and coastal ecosystems of
the region: a variety of coral formations, seagrass beds, mangroves,
beaches and deep water areas. Thus, the widest goals of biodiversity
conservation and recovery can be met as habitats that support both
coastal and marine plants (mangroves, ferns, epiphytes, seagrass,
seaweed, algae) and endemic, resident & migrant animals (fishes,
reptiles, birds, invertebrates, fungi, micro-organisms) are included in
protected areas. Particular attention to community involvement and
both formal and informal training in multiple-use MPA management
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=363
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=591
The diversity is threatened principally by conventional tourism
development, and more locally and to a much lesser extent, from
over-fishing and agro-industrial pollution. The successfully completed
of the first stage of the GEF-funded project (1993-1997) established
the scientific and institutional foundations for biodiversity conservation
through integrated management of the entire3 SCE
Current status not clear
UNDP / GEF
PDF B, not yet
approved
Ministry of Science
Environment and
Technology,
Government of Cuba
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=2633
The proposed FSP would promote operational changes within the
tourism, fisheries and agriculture sectors to ensure biodiversity
conservation across the sea and landscape that make up 80% of the
archipelago
88
Title and details (where available)
UNDP can provide in enabling them to advance these
sectoral reforms. http://tinyurl.com/ov6ch
National - Dominican Republic: Integrated Management of
the Coastal and Marine Zone of the Samana Region
Objective: to establish a socially, economically, and
ecologically viable operational framework for integrated
planning and management of coastal and marine
ecosystems in the Samaná region.
National - Biodiversity Conservation and Management in
the Coastal Zone of the Dominican Republic
The project assisted in protecting two important coastal
regions through addressing regional landshed issues and
developing buffering strategy. Activities including training,
public awareness raising, data collection into a GIS for
assessment of priority protection areas, monitoring of
environmental change, and assessment of socio-economic
impact on environmental policy.
National - Panama: Second Rural Poverty, Natural
Resources Management and Consolidation of the
Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Project
The global objective of the proposed project supports the
efforts of the Government of Panama to integrate
environmental and social sustainability into development
and poverty reduction strategies in the Pacific and Atlantic
municipalities. It will do so through the following objectives:
(a) enable decentralization of environmental management
by strengthening local governments; (b) strengthen and
train local government authorities in environmental
management; and (c) support poor communities to adopt
biodiversity friendly income generating activities.
http://tinyurl.com/qxotb
National - Venezuela: Strengthening Capacities for
Mainstreaming Biodiversity Conservation into Integrated
Coastal Zone Management
http://tinyurl.com/pw8wp
Implementing
agency(s)
Executing
agency(s)
Objectives and further information of relevance to
MIS
GEF and others
Pending PDF B
approval
IADB
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=2790
UNDP / GEF
CEBSE, Grupo
Jaragua and Other
NGOs
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=195
1994-1997
(technical evaluation
1998)
IBRD – The World
Bank / GEF
Approved June
2005
Autoridad Nacional del
Ambiente (ANAM) -National
Environmental
Authority
UNDP / GEF
Pipeline entry, not
yet approved
Ministry of
Infrastructure
(National Institute of
Aquatic Spaces INEA)
Proposal:
http://www.gefonline.org/ProjectDocs/Biodiversity/Dominican%20Rep
%20-%20Coastal%20Zone%20Mngmt/Dominican%20Rep%20%20Coastal%20Zone%20Mngnt%20Proj%20Doc.pdf
Technical evaluation:
http://www.gefonline.org/M&E/TER/1998/UNDP%20BD/Dominican%2
0Rep-Coastal%20Management%20Biodiv..doc
http://www.gefonline.org/projectDetails.cfm?projID=2102
Building on pilot activities to be carried out in the Gulf of Paria,
capacities of national institutions will be strengthened, permitting the
effective mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation and sustainable
use principles into planning frameworks and decision-making
processes in marine and coastal areas of Venezuela
89
Annex VI: Additional / relevant information from responses to questionnaires
National questionnaires
Anguilla (U.K)
While there is awareness of MIS, there is currently no capacity in MIS management or any management
programmes. There are no laboratory facilities, however other infrastructure, including communication
networks, is in place.
Antigua
Human resource and capacity needs include: (1) Risk Assessment Training (2) In-service Training on the
type(s) species that might be at risk (3) Establishment of Management Strategies/ Development of
Management Plans. The need for infrastructural capacity building, in particular laboratory facilities and
necessary equipment, is also recognized. Antigua and Barbuda is guided by international / local laws including:
Regulations related to IMO, MARPOL, etc
Various International Health Regulations
Antigua and Barbuda Waste Management Act 2005
Antigua and Barbuda Litter Amendment Act 2005
The Bahamas
It is difficult to quantify current levels of expertise. However, there is scope for improvement. Likewise, existing
infrastructure can be improved. While The Bahamas has not participated in any MIS programmes, it is hoping
to become involved with the GloBallast programme in 2006.
Barbados
Overall, knowledge on MIS / BW in the various national agencies is ‘cursory’. One staff member of the Coastal
Zone Management Unit has attended BW Meetings for 2 years and has some information gleaned from that
group. While there is interest in attending relevant training courses, lack of availability of capacity building
programmes on MIS / BW is acknowledged. Basic physical infrastructure is available, however more
information is necessary on specific requirements to deal with MIS / BW in order to devise appropriate capacity
building plans.
Bermuda (U.K)
Please note that although there are processes in place to reduce the potential of invasive species introduction
there are only two documented case of marine invasive species arriving at Bermuda and both of these almost
definitely arrived via ocean currents. These are: lionfish and the pathogen that wiped out much of the Diadema.
The Diadema pathogen was not isolated nor could it be controlled. Lionfish continue to proliferate but their
impact remains unquantified. Another potential invasive species was never conclusively demonstrated to have
been a new arrival to Bermuda was Cladophora prolifera which formed huge mats over much of the inshore
waters in the 70’s and 80’s.
Current policy prohibits the discharge of ballast waters from visiting ships while in Bermuda’s territorial waters.
Yes – Steps are being taken to formally adopt the IMO recommendations and to institute appropriate
monitoring to ensure compliance
Cayman Islands (U.K):
Human resource and infrastructural capacities are considered adequate to deal with current problems; however
it is necessary to obtain training and education on new threats and technology. Several trained (first or higher
university degrees) scientists with many years experience in marine biology and related fields are available to
deal with issues arising. Since all shipping was local to the Caribbean, it is generally felt that ‘any species
introduced are equally likely to be introduced through natural transport as well’. Regulations for the control of
ballast water discharge in Cayman waters have been written and are awaiting adoption.
Colombia
Since the two agencies – INVEMAR and DIMAR – each responded to two completely separate issues –
research and BW – respectively, the responses were collated separately.
INVEMAR: There is evidently limited awareness of MIS / BW issues, as a result of which these are not as yet a
priority at both research and / or policy levels. With regard to human capacity, there is dispersed information
90
and scientific research being undertaken by different institutions in several geographical areas, but there is no
real collaboration or dialogue among the various institutions. There is no expertise to deal with potential MIS /
BW problems, per se, although significant human capacities are available at INVEMAR and two universities (7
marine scientists with 3-6 years of experience and University-level education - B.Sc.-Ph.D.). There is a general
lack of equipment as well as institutional cooperation, which makes it difficult to provide an effective,
collaborative response.
DIMAR response: Colombia is the only country in the WCR that benefited through participation in the pilot
Globallast programme (in Brazil) via attendance at seminars and training workshops as observers. Training
thus received in some techniques on ship monitoring, sampling and other relevant topics is, however, not
adequate. An update on new techniques and methodologies used for monitoring and information management
of BW and sediments is necessary. This would result in the use of established and more current management
procedures and techniques for component monitoring (biological, physico-chemical and microbiological). The
aim of such standardization is (1) to determine with maximum accuracy those species that are possibly
invasive and (2) to be able to compare data at local, regional and even global levels. The infrastructure at the
ports lacks storage / treatment systems for BW and sediments. Since adequate legislation is also lacking, BW
is currently discharged offshore. From 2002 to date, international vessels entering in four docks and six
reference stations in the Cartagena / Colombia Bay have been monitored. Based on information collected,
several new species are reported and baseline data established in terms of biological (phyto-, zoo-plankton),
microbiological and physico-chemical parameters. In addition, work is carried out to develop a risk map for the
Cartagena Bay identifying the most critical areas for the prevention of water in-take. On the Pacific coast,
international vessels arriving in the port of Tumaco were monitored via the Centro Control Contaminación del
Pacìfico (CCCP) in 2004. Physico-chemical and biological parameters were determined with the aim of
establishing if pathogen species were introduced to these waters. The establishment of base-line data for this
port is ongoing via continued monitoring and analysis of BW. Coordination with universities and other
institutions of the Colombia Caribbean coast is also being undertaken, in order to replicate the Cartagena and
other port experiences, expand the study area and seek integrated solutions for management of MIS / BW,
together with an imminent regulatory proposal. As usual, economic resources are a limiting factor.
Curaçao (The Netherlands)
While there is little awareness of MIS / BW issues at most levels in Curaçao, a number of related activities have
been undertaken over the years. These include:
• studies undertaken in Curaçao on the population biology of Chthamalus proteus the Intertidal Barnacle
(invasive in Hawai’i) (Zabin, 2005)
• a review of freshwater fishes of Curaçao (with comments on Aruba and Bonaire spp.), which discusses
among others, the invasive Tilapia mossambica (Debrot, A. O. 2003)
• an article on sea urchin (Meoma ventricosa) die-off associated with a pathogenic bacterium, related to
effluent from the harbor, potentially linked to shipping (Nagelkerken et al., 1999)
• a symposium paper (Bak, 1985) on the mass mortality in sea urchins – the die-off originating at polluted
shipping harbor, believed spread BW
• two publications: one on the invasive coral Tubastrea rosea (Boschma,1953) and the other on the shallowwater stony corals of Netherlands Antilles, including T. rosea (Roos, 1971)
Dominican Republic
Current levels of human resource and infrastructural capacity are neither sufficient nor adequate. Thus, training
/ capacity building for MIS / BW is necessary and it is recommended that specifically-targetted activities should
be undertaken towards this end.
Guyana
There is little or no awareness of MIS / BW issues. Both human and infrastructural capacity is lacking and there
are no immediate plans for relevant capacity building at the national level. There has been no participation in
any programmes in MIS / BW management.
Haiti
Staff has some training in Marine issues: the Ministry of Environment (vigilance and search), Maritime and
Navigation Division (vigilance), National Marine Laboratory (sampling and analysis), National Association of
Fishermen (observation) and Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (observation). Projects on MIS /
BW, including capacity building are under consideration.
91
Jamaica:
As a result of awareness among various relevant agencies, a proposal for BW management has been prepared
by The Institute of Jamaica in collaboration with the University of the West Indies and submitted for funding.
There is only one scientist who has some training in MIS research and limited infrastructure. Thus, current
human resource and infrastructural capacities are insufficient to deal with imminent MIS / BW problems.
Mexico
The entity responsible for ships and BW is Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes has initiated the
task of ensuring Mexico’s active participation in IMO’s Globallast project. In this regard the Dirección
General de Marina Mercante in undertaking necessary steps for Mexico’s adherence to the 2004
International Convention for the management of BW and sediments.
There is need for an environment and education campaign on this theme, directed at the general public,
which is not aware of the risks and effects that MIS can inflict on the natural resources of the country.
There is currently no experience in dealing with MIS, per se; however, by acceding to the BW Convention
it will be necessary to implement programmes for the management of BW and undertake preventative
measures against potential invasions. Likewise, it will also be necessary to put in place appropriate
support services, for instance certified laboratories for sample analysis, and verifying entities with the
necessary training.
No capacity building activities on MIS, but a training course was held in the use of HACCP for the
management of risks from invasive species. This was organized by the Departamento de Zoología of the
Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), the ecophysiology group
of the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL) and the Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y
Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO). It took place at the facilities of the Instituto de Biológía of UNAM,
Mexico City, 22-23 February 2006 and was provided by staff of the US Fish and Wildlife Services (Bob
Pitman, Aquatic Invasive Species Coordinator, Southwest Region, USFWS; http://haccp.nrm.org )
St. Kitts and Nevis
There is awareness among the national agencies on the issues related to MIS / BW. However, there is a lack of
both human and infrastructural capacity to deal with any imminent problems. It is hoped that St. Kitts will
participate in the global ballast water management programme being implemented by IMO in association with
other organizations
St. Lucia
There is no appointed / established focal point for MIS / BW issues. The role and responsibilities of agencies
likely to be involved (Division of Maritime Affairs, Department of Fisheries, Research Division – Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and possibly Ministry of Health) needs to be officially established, and
appropriate human resource and capacity development for dealing with MIS / BW undertaken. Although most
agencies / units have adequate facilities to fulfill their current roles, none has been specifically set aside for MIS
/ BW issues. Thus new and enhanced facilities, equipment and materials would be needed. Existing laboratory
facilities the Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI) and the Gros Islet Polyclinic require payment for
sample assessment. There is scope for the improvement of existing communication networks, with Port State
Control mechanism possibly incorporating MIS / BW protocols into their system. Most importantly, policy level
decisions and actions are needed to provide an enabling environment for the national agencies to carry out
their responsibilities. St. Lucia needs to consider acceding to the BW Convention.
Suriname
The level of awareness among various stakeholders is not known to the National Institute for Environment and
Development in Suriname (NIMOS), which responded to the national questionnaire. Likewise, the status of
plans for capacity building in MIS / BW is also not known. Suriname recently concluded its National Biodiversity
Strategy, which is expected to lead to the formulation of a Biodiversity Action Plan in the second half of 2006.
Therefore, NIMOS has strongly and urgently recommended ‘increasing the awareness among both government
and private organizations on the issues of MIS and BW’ so that these can be considered under the umbrella of
the National Biodiversity Action Plan.
92
United States of America (USA)
There is a lot of awareness of MIS / BW issues. A number of relevant agencies (state-, national- and universitylevel) are represented on two main task forces, which have specific roles and responsibilities (Table 5). One
task force deals with planning and policy development for IAS in general, while other deals exclusively with
Nuisance Aquatic Species at national / state levels. The latter has responsibility in several areas, including
prevention, monitoring (databases), and control; research and education; BW management, technology, policy
and regulation; risk analysis and assessment. It is difficult to estimate the actual number of persons involved or
trained in MIS / BW management. ‘To some extent aquatic invasive issues began as peripheral issues to other
responsibilities. The number of people devoted exclusively to MIS is quite small although a large number have
been involved with specific issues. A large number of academics are working on various issues. Federal and
State agencies are engaged. As in any discipline, there is room for improvement, however. The current level of
expertise on BW issues is quite good. In other areas dealing with MIS, the science is immature and basic
issues remain in invasion biology. It is very difficult to predict what species will become invasive if introduced.
Management tools are extremely limited. Progress is being made in such areas, however. The infrastructure for
dealing with aquatic invasives is quite good. In addition to the U.S. Federal Government, individual State
governments play a key role in many areas. Many resources in coastal waters are under State jurisdiction. The
States have been in the lead on control efforts. They are also a key portion of monitoring efforts. A number of
States have passed their own BW management regulations, and at least a couple are sponsoring research into
methods of managing BW.
Venezuela
There currently exists a recently-formed technical advisory committee to formulate ‘A Plan of Action for BW and
Sediments’ in Venezuela, coordinated by the Instituto Nacional de los Espacios Acuáticos e Insulares (INEA),
of which the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Health and Social Development are participants,
together with other public and private agencies in the country. In February 2006, a Caribbean regional
consultation workshop was held on BW. Venezuela, through INEA, expressed interest in becoming the hub for
a pilot site under the GloBallast Partnerships programme.
Regional Questionnaires:
Biscayne National Park, Florida
In resource management we are aware of the threat of invasive species and are doing our best to be on the
look out for invasives. However, our park is 30 miles long and 15 miles wide and we have a very limited staff to
monitor resources and that is why we feel organizations like this can provide a mechanism for a heads up on
threats headed our way. We do have access to several local Universities that have high levels of expertise in
marine issues including marine invasives. The University of Miami in particular has one researcher that has
published several books on marine invasives. No, but the organization has the capability of developing the
needed network to document and treat a potential problem, depending of the level of threat.
Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, Barbados:
CERMES is part of the University of the West Indies (UWI), Cave Hill, Barbados. Currently, there are no
specific plans in CERMES for MIS / BW work. Although current expertise within the Centre is not in the area of
MIS per se, it is expected that this can be acquired with relatively minor briefing and exposure to issues and
approaches. There are, however, no specific plans for MIS BW work. While current physical infrastructure can
be considered adequate, ‘CERMES is a small heavily committed group that is more into management than
science and which has to be very careful about moving into new areas. Taking on new responsibilities can only
be considered if adequate human resources can be provided’.
Virgin Is. (VI) National Park / VI Coral Reef National Monument
Please note that at this time we have no indication that we are experiencing any marine invasive species
problems or ballast water issues. The only marine exotic that we know of in our waters is the small coral
Tubastrea but it does not appear to be a problem. BW management is not an issue we have to deal with at the
park level. Continuous monitoring of marine resources should detect any MIS issues which will be dealt with as
appropriate. If assistance is necessary will draw upon others with the experience.
93
Annex VII: Additional resources
List of references (from US National Questionnaire response):
http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/mso/bwm.htm
http://www.slc.ca.gov/Division_Pages/MFD/MFD_Programs/Ballast_Water/Ballast_Water_Default.htm
http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
http://nis.gsmfc.org/
http://www.northeastans.org
http://www.serc.si.edu/labs/marine_invasionsdatabases/index.jsp
http://sgnis.org
http://aquaticinvaders.org
Relevant Links on MIS / BW as well as Aquatic Invasives from the US Department of State – Bureau of
Oceans, International Environment and Scientific Affairs (BOIESA) http://www.state.gov/g/oes/
Environment and Conservation Division – Invasive Species
http://www.state.gov/g/oes/ocns/inv/c7523.htm
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force http://www.anstaskforce.gov/default.php
Exotic Species and Their Effects on the Great Lakes http://www.great-lakes.org/exotics.html
Global Ballast Water Management Programme http://globallast.imo.org/
Global Invasive Species Programme http://www.gisp.org
Invasive Species In The Great Lakes Region http://www.great-lakes.net/envt/florafauna/invasive/invasive.html
IUCN Species Survival Commission Invasive Species Specialist Group http://www.issg.org/
National Invasive Species Council http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/council/main.shtml
Nature Conservancy: Invasives on the Web http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/index.html
Non-Native Invasive Aquatic and Wetland Plants in the United States
http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/seagrant/invlists.html
Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Marine Invasions Center
http://www.serc.si.edu/labs/marine_invasions/
U.S. Coast Guard Ballast Water Management http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/mso/estandards.htm
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
http://www.aphis.usda.gov/
U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Information Resource
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/
Internet search results on ‘Aquatic invasive species’ (downloaded: 23 February 2006) of relevance to the
Wider Caribbean:
• Aquatic Invasions Research Directory - Searchable database of people all over the world
conducting research in the field of aquatic invasions. The database provides authors' contact
details and descriptions of research projects undertaken since 1990
• Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force (ANSTF) - An intergovernmental organization dedicated to
preventing and controlling aquatic nuisance species, and implementing the Nonindigenous
Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990
• Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System - Information about the plants
which are most often the subjects of interest to users of APIRS. From the University of Florida
• Coastal Research and Extension Center-Aquatic Nuisance Species - Study of the impact made
by non-native aquatic species
• Database on Introduction of Aquatic species (DIAS) - The database includes records of species
introduced or transferred from one country to another and does not consider movements of
species inside the same country
94
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Exotic Aquatics on The Move - Discusses the problem of invasive species, with details for a
representative sample of species, including descriptions, distribution, effects on native species,
possible control methods, and references
National Invasive Species Act of 1996 - Text of the U.S. statute intended to reduce the spread of
zebra mussel and other invasive aquatic species
Nonindigenous Aquatic Species - A central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic
accounts of nonindigenous aquatic species in the USA
Sea Grant National Aquatic Nuisance Species Clearinghouse - Library of publications related to
the biology, spread, impact, and control of zebra mussels and other important aquatic nuisance,
non-indigenous, and invasive species
Sea Grant Non-indigenous Species Site - Comprehensive collection of research publications and
education materials on zebra mussels, sea lampreys, purple loosestrife, and other aquatic
nuisance species in the U.S. All materials have either appeared in professional science journals
or have been through a rigorous scientific review
11th International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species - A comprehensive international forum
for the presentation and review of scientific knowledge related to marine and freshwater aquatic
invasive species. Oct 1-4, 2001
What are Aquatic Nuisance Species and their Impacts? - A study of non-indigenous species that
occur in inland, estuarine and marine waters and that presently or potentially threaten ecological
processes or natural resources
Useful Links to Ballast Water Information http://www.epa.gov/owow/invasive_species/bal_links.html
International
•
•
•
•
Global Ballast Water Management Plan (GloBallast) http://globallast.imo.org/
International Maritime Organization (IMO) Homepage http://www.imo.org/home.asp
IMO Meeting Documents http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/mso/imomepc.htm
International Treaty on Ballast Water Management (Not in Force) February 2004
http://www.epa.gov/owow/invasive_species/BWM-Treaty_36.pdf
United States
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coast Guard Aquatic Nuisance Species Homepage http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-m/mso/ans.htm
Coast Guard Rulemaking Dockets Search Page http://dms.dot.gov/
National Ballast Water Information Clearinghouse http://invasions.si.edu/nbic/
National Academies Press: Stemming the Tide
http://www.nap.edu/books/0309055377/html/index.html
Congressional Research Service April 2004 Report on Ballast Water Management
http://www.ncseonline.org/NLE/CRS/abstract.cfm?NLEid=53245
MARAD Ballast Water Management Information Center
http://www.marad.dot.gov/programs/ballastwater/index.html
US Comm'n on Ocean Policy -- Final Report Chptr 17 (invasive species)
http://www.oceancommission.gov/documents/prepub_report/chapter17.pdf
US Geological Survey Ballast Water Links Page
http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/sgnis/update/ballast.htm
Clean Water Act Rulemaking Petition Related to Ballast Water
http://www.epa.gov/owow/invasive_species/ballast_water.html
95
Annex VIII. Definitions
CABI’s IAS Concepts, Terms and Context (http://www.cabi.org/ias_ctc.asp?Heading=Terms) has been
used in sourcing the following definitions from relevant documents (cited in footnotes)
Term
Definitions
Alien (=non-native)
… with respect to a particular ecosystem, any species, including its seeds, eggs,
spores, or other biological material capable of propagating that species, that is not
native to that ecosystem 42
… a nonindigenous species that threatens the diversity or abundance of native
species or the ecological stability of infested waters, or commercial, agricultural,
43
aquacultural or recreational activities dependent on such waters
… any water and associated sediments used to manipulate the trim and stability of
43
a vessel
Advantages or profits derived as a result of an action (e.g. social or economic
44
benefits from a proposed introduction)
The use of living organisms to suppress the population density or impact of a
specific pest organism, making it less abundant or less damaging than it would
45
otherwise be
… the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia,
terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are a part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of
46
ecosystems
… includes genetic resources, organisms or parts thereof, populations, or any other
47
biotic component of ecosystems with actual or potential use or value for humanity
Specimens of a species in any life stage from which a first or subsequent
generation/growth may be produced for possible introduction to the environment 48
The intentional introduction of an exotic, usually co-evolved, biological control agent
47
for permanent establishment and long-term pest control
A formalised code of best practice to address (in the context of this report) existing
or potential problems from the introduction of non-native species (Such codes should
Aquatic nuisance
species
Ballast Water
Benefits
Biological Control
Biological Diversity
or Biodiversity
Biological
Resources
Broodstock
Classical
Biological Control
Code of Conduct
be formally established by agreement with the various sectors and interests concerned with
invasive non-native species, and be underpinned by appropriate legislation or agreements to
49
ensure compliance)
Control
Current
Commercial
practice
Cyrptogenic
species
Reduction of population density and abundance, in order to keep damage at an
50
acceptable level
Established and ongoing cultivation, rearing, or placement of an introduced or
transferred species in the environment for economic or recreational purposes, which
47
has been ongoing for a number of years
… a species that is not demonstrably native or introduced ({from} (crypt-, Greek,
51
kryptos, secret; -genic, New Latin, genic, origin)
USA (1999) Executive Order 13112 of February 3, 1999: Invasive Species. Federal Register 64(25), 6183-6186
USA (1990, 1996) Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act. Public Law 101-646, Nov. 29, 1990, as amended
in National Invasive Species Act, Public Law 104-332, Oct. 26, 1996.
44
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (2003) National Code on Introductions and Transfers of Aquatic Organisms.
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Canada. COPYRIGHT: Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada
45
Eilenberg, J., Hajek, A. & Lomer, C. (2001) Suggestions for unifying the terminology in biological control. BioControl 46, 387-400.
46
World Conservation Union (2000) IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss caused by Alien Invasive Species.
Prepared by the SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. Approved by the 51st Meeting of the IUCN Council, Gland Switzerland,
February 2000. IUCN, Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland
47
Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, United Nations Environment
Programme, Montreal, Canada
48
ICES (2005) ICES Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms 2005. ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark.
COPYRIGHT: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea
49
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2003) Review of Non-native Species Policy: Report of the working group.
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, UK. COPYRIGHT: Crown copyright
50
Genovesi, P. (2001) Guidelines for Eradication of Terrestrial Vertebrates: A European Contribution to the Invasive Alien Species
Issue. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats Standing Committee. T-PVS (2000) 65 revised 2.
Council of Europe, Strasbourg, France
42
43
96
Diffusion dispersal
Donor locations
Ecosystem
Endemic
Environment
Environmentally
sound
Eradication
Established alien
Establishment
Exotic species
Facility
Fellow traveller
Feral
Genetic diversity
Genetic resources
Habitat
Harmonization
Hazard
Hitch-hikers
Hybrid
Import
Indigenous
species
51
… short-distance dispersal … considered to be primarily between adjacent, or
nearly adjacent, environments 52
48
Specific localities in a country or zone from which the import or transfer originates
42
… the complex of a community of organisms and its environment
{Used of} A species, race or other taxon that is restricted to a particular country or
53
region …
Key components of aquatic ecosystem necessary for fish survival and reproduction
44
… methods, efforts, actions or programs to prevent introductions or control
infestations of aquatic nuisance species that minimize adverse impacts to the
structure and function of an ecosystem and adverse effects on non-target
organisms and ecosystems and emphasize integrated pest management
43
techniques and nonchemical measures
The extirpation of the entire population of an alien species in a managed area;
eliminating the IAS {invasive alien species} completely.54
An alien that is reproducing in the wild and has established a durable population
55
outside its native range
… the process of an alien species in a new habitat successfully producing viable
56
offspring with the likelihood of continued survival
44
(= introduced species) (Porter 1992)
In the context of fish, all locations holding fish or from which come cultured or wild
44
fish or eggs from wild or cultured fish
Organism which inadvertently accompanies the shipment of the species intended
44
for introduction/transfer
An organism which has been kept in domestication, captivity (animals) or cultivation
(plants) but which, after escape or release, now lives in the wild state. This also
53
applies to descendants of such released or escaped organisms
All of the genetic variation in an individual population, or species 50
49
… genetic material of actual or potential value
49
… the place or type of site where an organism or population naturally occurs
The establishment, recognition and application of common sanitary and
57
phytosanitary measures by different Members
A thing or action that can cause adverse effects (APHRAN 1998) 44
Organisms that disperse in association with other species, for example, through
49
being attached to the outside of plants or animals
44
Offspring of two animals or plants that are of different species
44
Movement of aquatic organisms across national or interprovincial boundaries
A species or lower taxon living within its natural range (past or present) including the
area which it can reach and occupy using its natural dispersal systems (modified
48
after CBD, GISP)
Carlton, J.T. (1996) Biological invasions and cryptogenic species. Ecology 77, 1653-1655. COPYRIGHT: Ecological Society of
America
52
Davis, M.A. and Thompson, K. (2000) Eight ways to be a colonizer; two ways to be an invader: a proposed nomenclature scheme
for invasion ecology. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 81, 226-230. COPYRIGHT: Ecological Society of America
53
Bullock, J.M., Hodder, K.H., Manchester, S.J. and Stevenson, M.J. (1996) Review of Information, Policy and Legislation on
Species Translocation. A report commissioned by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee as a background for future policy
formulation. JNCC Report No. 261. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Species Conservation Branch, Peterborough, UK.
54
McNeely, J.A., Mooney, H.A., Neville, L.E., Schei, P.J. and Waage, J.K. (eds) (2001) Global Strategy on Invasive Alien Species.
IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK
55
Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A. and Galil, B.S. (2004) A uniform terminology on bioinvasions: a chimera or an operative tool? Marine
Pollution Bulletin 49, 688-694
56
Convention on Biological Diversity (2002) COP 6 - Sixth Ordinary Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on
Biological Diversity. The Hague, Netherlands (7 - 19 April 2002). Decision VI/23. Alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or
species. Annex. Guiding Principles for the Prevention, Introduction and Mitigation of Impacts of Alien Species that Threaten
Ecosystems, Habitats or Species
57
World Trade Organization (1995) The WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS
Agreement). World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. COPYRIGHT: World Trade Organization
97
Intentional
introduction
Introduced alien
Introduced species
Introduction
Invasive alien
species (=invasive
non-native
49
species)
Live fish for the
food trade
Locally native
Marine species
Minimal impact or
risk
Native organism
Native range
Native species
Native transplant
Natural ecosystem
Naturalized
Naturalized exotic
Naturalized
species
New introduction
Niche
Nonindigenous
species
Non-target species
Noxious alien
Organism
Plankton
58
The deliberate transfer of alien organisms ... (Note: may be combined with a vector,
i.e. intentional mariculture introduction) 55
An alien occurring outside its native range as a consequence of intentional or
55
unintentional human action
Any species transported intentionally or accidentally by a human-mediated vector
into aquatic habitats outside its native range. (Note: Secondary introductions can be
48
transported by human-mediated or natural vectors)
… the movement by human agency, indirect or direct, of an alien species outside of
its natural range (past or present). (Note: This movement can be either within a
56
country or between countries or areas beyond national jurisdiction)
… an alien species whose introduction and/or spread threaten biological diversity
(For the purposes of the present guiding principles, the term "invasive alien species"
shall be deemed the same as "alien invasive species" in decision V/8 of the
56
Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.)
Fish destined strictly for consumption. Imported live fish are held in containment
facilities or containment units such as those in restaurants or fish stores 44
53
Native in a particular region within a country or state, e.g. a county, vice-county
48
Any aquatic species that does not spend its entire life cycle in fresh water
A change in an environmental attribute that will have, or is predicted to have, little or
44
no consequence to the environment
An organism occurring within its known or consensual range (as documented in
55
scientific publications)
Natural limits of geographical distribution of a species (modified after Zaitsev and
48
Ozturk, 2001)
… a species, subspecies, or lower taxon, occurring within its natural range (past or
present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range it occupies naturally or could
46
occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans)
…species native (to North America) that have been introduced to drainages outside
58
their native ranges within the country
46
… an ecosystem not perceptibly altered by humans
A non-native species or race which, after escape or release, has become
53
established in the wild in self-maintained populations
Introduced species that have become established and have formed self-sustaining
44
populations (Anon. 1991)
Alien species that reproduce consistently (cf. casual alien species) and sustain
populations over more than one life cycle without direct intervention by humans (or
in spite of human intervention); they often reproduce freely, and do not necessarily
invade natural, semi-natural or human-made ecosystems 54
The human-mediated movement of a species outside its present distribution 48
The attribute of an organism which defines the boundaries within which it can carry
out its life processes. …(Notes: … … The potential niche of an organism is
constrained by the physical environment and interactions with other species
producing a realized niche in a particular ecosystem (based on Hutchinson 1957)) 44
… any species or other viable biological material that enters an ecosystem beyond
its historic range, including any such organism transferred from one country into
43
another
Any species inadvertently accompanying in, on, or with the species intended for
48
introduction or transfer
55
An alien that poses a risk to the well-being of humans
A single living individual of any of the five kingdoms – Animalia, Plantae, Fungi,
Protista or Monera – in any life-stage (i.e. including seeds, spores, fertilised eggs,
etc. and gametes) 50
The aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great
http://nas.er.usgs.gov/about/faq.asp
98
Permanent
establishment
Pest
Population
Precautionary
approach
Precautionary
principle /
approach
Presumed natural
area
Progeny
Protected area
Quarantine
Race
Range extension
Regional
economic
integration
organization
Release
Restocking
Risk
Risk analysis
Risk
communication
Risk management
59
numbers in fresh or salt water; Small organisms that inhabit aquatic communities
that mostly lie suspended in the water 59
The formation of a self-sustaining population of the translocated species, race or
GMO, i.e. some of the organisms survive to produce offspring
"Any species, strain or bio-type of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to
4
plants or plant products" (IPPC) 5
A group of organisms, all of one species, within a particular geographical area 53
Measures to implement the Precautionary Principle. A set of agreed cost-effective
measures and actions, including future courses of action, which ensures prudent
foresight, reduces or avoids risk to the resources, the environment, and the people,
to the extent possible, taking explicitly into account existing uncertainties and the
consequences of being wrong (FAO 1995, 1996). Adapted from Garcia 1996 44
A formal recognition of the act of being cautionary when making decisions. ...(Note:
The precautionary approach is described in the preamble to the CBD and in Article
15 of the Rio Declaration) … 49
The geographical range a species or race is thought to have occupied in historical
times. ... (Note: ... Although 'historical' is vague, this phrase generally corresponds
with the native range) 53
Next generation(s) of an organism. … (… Also included are new stages/fragments
of seaweeds, protists, and clonal organisms) 48
… a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to
47
achieve specific conservation objectives
The facility and/or process by which live organisms and any of their associated
organisms can be held/or reared in complete isolation from the surrounding
environment. 48
One or more populations of a species showing genetic differentiation from other
populations of that species. ...(Note: Race is a broad term and we use it to
encompass any taxonomic or genetic unit below a species; i.e. it is an infraspecific
taxon. Thus, it incorporates sub-species …, ecotype …, variety …, cultivar …, and
strain …) 53
The enlargement of a geographic area that is occupied by a species, usually
through intentional human action (Note: the extension is usually incremental (Anon.
44
1991), over short distances and contiguous)
… an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, to which its
member States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by this
Convention and which has been duly authorized, in accordance with its internal
47
procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to it
Voluntary or accidental dissemination of an organism, or its gametes, outside its
controlled area of confinement 43
A distinct form of supplementation that is undertaken for amenity purposes e.g.
restocking of fish by angling groups or of wildfowl for shooting. .. (Notes: ...
Interbreeding of translocated and resident organisms does not necessarily occur)53
The probability of a negative or undesirable event occurring; the likelihood of the
occurrence and the magnitude of the consequences of an adverse event; a
44
measure of the probability of harm and the severity of impact of a hazard
The process that includes risk identification, risk assessment, risk management and
44
risk communication
The open exchange of information and opinion, leading to a better understanding of
risk and related decisions; the processes by which the results of the risk
assessment and proposed risk management measures are communicated to the
44
Decision-Making Authority and interested parties
The process of selection and implementation of options to reduce, to an acceptably
low level, the risk of negative impact of introductions or transfers of aquatic
http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/plankton
99
Saltation dispersal
Sanitary and
phytosanitary
measure
Secondary
introduction
Significant impact
Species
Spreading alien
Stage 0
Stage I
Stage II
Stage III
Stage IVa
Stage IVb
Stage V
Stock
Strain
Suppression
Sustainable use
Temporary
establishment
Tetraploid
60
organisms; the process of identifying, evaluating, selecting and implementing
alternative measures for reducing risk 44
… long-distance dispersal … viewed as movement typically between widely distant
52
environments, usually separated by a barrier of some sort …
Any measure applied a) to protect human, animal or plant life or health (within a
Member’s Territory) from the entry{,} establishment or spread of pests, diseases,
disease carrying organisms; b) to prevent or limit other damage (within the
4
Member’s Territory) from the entry, establishment or spread of pests 5
The dispersal of an alien beyond its primary location of introduction; ... (Note ...
55
secondary introduction could be intentional, unintentional, or by natural means)
A predicted or measured change in an environmental attribute that should be
considered in project decisions, depending on the reliability and accuracy of the
prediction and the magnitude of the change within specific time and space
44
boundaries (Beanlands and Duinker 1983)
A group of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from
other such groups (ICES 1988) 44
An alien that has extended its range as a result of changing environmental
conditions (e.g. temperature, current regime), or by chance events, such as the
55
attachment to drifting objects and phoresy
{Stage in invasion process where} Potential invaders begin as propagules residing
60
in a donor region
{Stage in invasion process where} ... some {invading propagules} are taken into the
transport vector, …(Note: … usually by humans. … {Associated with term}
60
'travelling' …
{Stage in invasion process where invading propagules, having survived transport
and release,} … become introduced …{in a novel environment.} (Note …
60
{Associated with terms} 'casual', 'temporary', 'transient' {and} 'waif' …)
{Stage in invasion process where invading propagules, having been introduced,
become} … establish{ed} in a novel environment. (Note … {Populations of} a
60
nonindigenous species {are} … localized and numerically rare …)
{Stage in invasion process where a nonindigenous species, having become
established in a novel environment, via local or regional dispersal of individuals,
becomes} … widespread but rare … (Note: … {Associated with terms} 'colonizing'
{and} 'spreading' …) 60
{Stage in invasion process where a nonindigenous species, having become
established in a novel environment, via local or regional dispersal of individuals,
60
becomes} … localized but dominant …
{Stage in invasion process where a nonindigenous species, having become
established in a novel environment, via local or regional dispersal of individuals,
60
becomes} … widespread and dominant
A population of organisms which, sharing a common gene pool, is sufficiently
discrete to warrant consideration as a self-perpetuating system which can be
managed (ICES 1988) 44
A group of individuals with common ancestry that exhibits genetic, physiological or
morphological differences from other groups of the same species as a result of
44
husbandry practices (Porter 1992)
Reducing population levels of the IAS {invasive alien species} to an acceptable
54
threshold
… the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not
lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential
to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations 47
{The formation of a non-self-sustaining population of a translocated species, race or
GMO, i.e. some organisms survive but do not produce offspring} 53
48
An organism or cell having four haploid sets of chromosomes.
Colautti, R.I. and MacIsaac, H.J. (2004) A neutral terminology to define 'invasive' species. Diversity and Distributions 10, 135-141
100
Transfer
Transferred
species
Transgenic
organisms
Translocation
Triploid
Type 1 colonizers
Type 2 colonizers
Type 3 colonizers
Type 4 colonizers
Type 5 colonizers
Type 6 colonizers
Type 7 colonizers
Type 8 colonizers
Unestablished
alien
Unintentional alien
Vector
Vector analysis
Vector interruption
Vector strength
Watershed
Weeds
Zone
61
The movement of individuals of a species or population of an aquatic organism from
44
one location to another within its present range (ICES 1988)
Any species intentionally or accidentally transported and released within areas of
48
established populations, and continuing genetic flow where it occurs.
Organisms bearing within their DNA, copies of novel genetic constructs introduced
through recombinant DNA technology. … (Notes: … This includes novel genetic
constructs within species as well as interspecies transfers. Such organisms are
usually (but not always) produced by micro-injection of DNA into newly fertilized
44
eggs
Deliberate and mediated movement of wild individuals or populations from one part
61
of their range to another
48
An organism or cell having three haploid sets of chromosomes.
These are short-distance (diffusion) colonizers, common to the region (no range
52
expansion), with a negligible impact in the new environment.
These are short-distance (diffusion) colonizers, common to the region (no range
52
expansion), with a large impact in the new environment.
These are short-distance (diffusion) colonizers, novel to the region (range
52
expansion), with a negligible impact in the new environment.
These are short-distance (diffusion) colonizers, novel to the region (range
52
expansion), with a large impact in the new environment.
These are long-distance (saltation) colonizers, common to the region (no range
52
expansion), with a negligible impact in the new environment
These are long-distance (saltation) colonizers, common to the region (no range
52
expansion), with a large impact in the new environment
These are long-distance (saltation) colonizers, novel to the region (range
52
expansion), with a negligible impact in the new environment
These are long-distance (saltation) colonizers, novel to the region (range
expansion), with a large impact in the new environment 52
An alien lacking self-maintaining populations outside its natural range, either
55
because it were {sic} unable so far to settle, or is too newly arrived.
The inadvertent or accidental transfer of alien organisms ... (Notes ... (may be
combined with a vector, i.e. unintentional shipping introduction, unintentional
55
mariculture introduction)
Any living or non-living carrier that transports living organisms intentionally or
unintentionally 48
… describes the supply of organisms associated with particular transfer
mechanisms, or vectors, including variables that may influence the supply and the
characterization of the organisms themselves…. (Notes … This provides an
62
operational understanding of the transfer process
… consists of management actions aimed at reducing the chance of transfers and
invasions by nonnative species by particular vectors. Ruiz, G.M. and Carlton, J.T. (2003)
… an assessment of the relative importance or contribution of different vectors to
observed invasions (i.e., established populations). Ruiz, G.M. and Carlton, J.T. (2003)
All land and water within the confines of a drainage divide; the whole gathering
44
ground of a river system (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary 1965)
Plants (not necessarily alien) that grow in sites where they are not wanted and have
detectable negative economic or environmental effects. ... (Notes: ... Alien weeds
are invasive alien species. 54
Part of a coastal area or an estuary of one or more countries with the precise
geographical delimitation that consists of a homogeneous hydrological system
(modified after OIE). 48
IUCN (1995) IUCN/SSC Guidelines for Re-introductions. Prepared by the SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. Approved by the
41st Meeting of the IUCN Council, Gland Switzerland, May 1995. IUCN, Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland
62
Ruiz, G.M. and Carlton, J.T. (2003) Invasion vectors: a conceptual framework for management. pp. 459-504, in: Ruiz, G.M. and
Carlton, J.T. (eds) Invasive Species: Vectors and Management Strategies. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
101
Annex IX. Summary - RSP, CBD, GISP Workshop (June 2005); Meliane and Hewitt (2005).
A. Workshop to Develop Joint Work Programme on Marine Invasive species – 27-29 June 2005
63
A pilot Training was held in Tanzania by the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) and UNEP, to text the
Training Toolkit on the Management of Marine and Coastal Invasive Species developed by GISP and RSP.
The training was attended by participants from all the contracting parties to the Nairobi Convention (East
Africa), which included scientists, managers as well as representatives from ports authorities. An independent
evaluator attended the course and asked the participants to evaluate all the different modules of the course, as
well as the overall course. Using these evaluations, the toolkit was to be amended and finalized and then used
for implementation in other regional seas regions.
Workshop summary
In June RSP, CBD and GISP jointly organized a workshop on the development of a joint Work Programme on
Marine Invasive Species from 27-29 June 2005 in Montreal, Canada hosted by the CBD Secretariat. The
workshop was be attended by representatives from four Regional Seas programmes (Pacific, Mediterranean,
Caribbean and ROPME regions) and partner organizations including IUCN, WWF, TNC, RAMSAR Convention.
Absent were FAO and IMO. The representatives of the Regional Seas programmes presented their past,
current and future activities on MIAS. The workshop covered 4 working groups:
1. Prevention- Unintentional Introduction;
2. Prevention – Intentional Introductions (Mariculture, Fisheries and Aquaria);
3. Post-Border Management;
4. Cross cutting Issues.
For each of the working groups a report was prepared including gaps and needs identified, areas of duplication
and possibilities for collaboration and a plan of action to address the gaps, proposing lead agencies, funding
possibilities and a possible time frame. GISP will consolidate the 4 reports into one report and workplan with
clear future activities and way forward and roles of the different actors.
Some concrete recommendations for RSP from the workshop are:
• From the working groups the need was identified to assess the current need and capacity within the
different Regional Seas programmes on MIAS.
• The Regional Seas programmes were identified as possible existing platforms, both institutional and legal
for assisting in implementing and coordinating activities on MIAS in the regions (on a case to case basis)
• RSP was also identified to play a role in awareness raising on this issue
• RSP could support GISP for the preparation of a (global) Information kit on MIAS
• To include MIAS into the RSP activities on Marine Litter (ML is a vector for MIAS)
• Consider supporting GISP in developing more specialized training courses on specific MIAS issues, using
the general training course as starting point and to pilot these in several RSP regions
• To consider the possibility of supporting (financially) some regions (such as CAR) in regional activities on
MAIS, such as implementing the training course that RSP and GISP developed.
B: Summary: Meliane and Hewitt (2005)
Four major gaps identified were as follows:
1. Research:
Taxonomy:
o Accurate identification in the detection and monitoring of MIS
o Taxonomy is incomplete for many groups of marine organisms, and globally, expert
taxonomist numbers have dwindled.
o Capacity building and strengthening in traditional taxonomy: urgent requirement.
o Tools for rapid, innovative (molecular biology/biotechnology) and unambiguous identification,
and to apply methods for detection and identification: important items on the research agenda.
63
http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/News/Regional_Seas_and_Invasive_Species/default.asp
102
-
-
-
Understanding invasion patterns:
o Basis for risk assessment and invasive species management
o Improved prediction of invasiveness on a scientific basis: ecological traits, source and
recipient environments and host distributions
Prevention and treatment technologies:
o BW and hull fouling. Effective treatments for BW have yet to be developed and applied at full
scale.
o Research on treatment efficacy, together with needs and issues on various risks posed by BW
(e.g. on high seas)
Rapid scientific risk assessment methodologies to be developed / fine-tuned to support informed and
effective management decisions
Address interactions with climate and other global change processes:
o Several processes (climate change, economic globalization, overfishing and alteration of
nutrient cycles) that contribute to escalating invasion rates
2. Legislation and Regulations
Need for binding regulations that specifically address the transfer and introduction of alien species in the
marine environment, e.g. International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water
and Sediments (IMO, 2004), adopted by IMO members in February 2004: will require all ships to
implement a BW and Sediments Management Plan to a given standard, following a phase-in period.
No regulations exist for managing hull fouling. IMO through its Marine Environmental Protection Committee
has yet to consider the issue. There is concern about an increase in hull-fouling linked introductions after
adoption of the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, since to
date there’s no equivalently efficient alternative as anti-fouling treatments.
Need to address hull fouling associated with recreational vessels, for which national and regional
regulatory mechanisms may be needed.
In general, the National Legal and Institutional Frameworks are fragmented and even the mention to introduced
or invasive species in the marine environment is nonexistent. There’s an urgent need to adopt a more holistic
and strategic approach to the problem and increase levels of coordination between the different responsible
agencies, or opt for one implementing agency.
3. Management
Integrated marine invasive species management using the ecosystem approach:
o Adoption of ecosystem approach for integrated management urgently needed.
o Besides technical, need to consider social and cultural dimensions and strongly involve local
communities.
o Prevention - number one priority in national programmes: should comprise early-warning
invasions and rapid-response systems, expanded bioinvasions research as well as an
education and public awareness components. Develop incentive / economic measures to
deter introductions or promote eradication and control.
o Regional / sub regional programmes facilitate exchange of information /expertise.
Management in Marine Protected Areas, particularly in islands:
o Setting up a MPA increases risks of invasion, however, few MPAs put MIS in management
plans. For instance, recreation tourism can result in activity-related non-indigenous MIS
introduction. MPAs lack baseline of established biodiversity information against which
monitoring the performance of the protection over time can be undertaken. Similarly, MPA
regulations protect biodiversity: the ability to remove species (e.g. an incursion response), is
limited or not available.
o Urgent need: increase awareness of MPA managers about threats from MIS, provide
guidance, methodology and recommendations on prioritising and undertaking surveillance
and management regimes related to IAS. Most MPAs are around islands, thus, plans are
being developed among various partners to address MIS issues in island MPAs as first step.
o A new Programme of Work on Island Biodiversity under CBD is to be adopted in 2006. It is
critical that the Programme of Work includes specific mention of MIS
4. Funding
At this time, MIS are not a priority for many decision makers and donors. Existing national programmes on MIS
lack appropriate funding for efficient implementation in most cases. Meliane and Hewitt suggested a Joint
103
Global Work Plan as an instrument that would highlight priorities to be tackled at the international, regional and
national levels. Such programmes would need to consider synergies with and incorporate lessons learned from
existing initiatives.
1. Preventing introductions through control of invasion pathways:
1.1. Ballast Water:
encourage ratification of the Ballast Water Management Convention by all Parties
develop an understanding of the current state of MIS via baseline surveys in major ports
assess risks of IAS transported through BW and develop criteria for prioritizing surveys
develop national and regional standards
develop provisions and discharge standards for waters beyond national jurisdiction
develop data sharing arrangements between nations at regional and global scales
1.2. Hull Fouling
conduct risk assessments of IAS transported through hull fouling and develop criteria for prioritising
surveys
develop an understanding of current state of IAS through undertaking baseline surveys in major ports
develop a regime/guidelines to reduce introduction of non-indigenous species via hull fouling
implement public awareness programme for recreational craft
1.3. Aquaculture-Mariculture (including hitchhikers)
develop useful and applicable methodologies for assessing risk in a timely fashion
publish guidelines to promote responsible use of exotic species for aquaculture purposes
regulate at International level to surmount transboundary issues
1.4. Aquarium trade (including hitchhikers)
develop useful and applicable methodologies for assessing risk in a timely fashion
share risk profiling for species
develop and implement public awareness programme for aquarists
1.5. Live Seafood, Bait, packing materials
develop useful and applicable methodologies for assessing risk in a timely fashion
develop and implement public awareness programme for consumers
2. Developing baseline knowledge:
Develop an understanding of what species are currently in a country/region through stocktakes of
literature, museum collections, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), and establishing prioritised baseline
surveys
Identify species associations with transport mechanisms
Develop freely available regional and global data warehouses of species based information on the
physiological and ecological attributes
Share the mechanisms and outcomes of risk profiling activities for species and vectors
3. Incursion and management response: including surveys, eradication/control and new research
Develop early warning systems and monitoring
Use available tools and develop new tools for eradication
Heighten understanding of priorities for action
Increase understanding of societal expectations
Develop guidelines and tools for incorporating into protected area management plans and budgeting
processes, priority setting and the long-term management of priority and high risk invasive alien species
(including control of pathways that lead to the introduction, spread and re-invasion of these species)
4. Cross-cutting issues:
Training, awareness raising (at all levels) and information sharing, building distributed information systems
that deliver information on risks, identification, and response strategies.
IUCN welcomes the opportunity to develop a global joint work programme on marine invasive species
and very much looks forward to engaging with other partners to further develop practical and/or
institutional solutions to one of the major threats to the marine environment.