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Transcript
The Computer of the Future
• Emerging Hardware
– Emerging Input Devices
• Gesture input devices
– Wii remote and Xbox Kinect
» http://www.techdirt.com/blog/innovation/articles/2
0130330/03051922516/awesome-stuff-computersgesture-input-devices.shtml (NUIA eyeCharm)
• Surface computing
– Microsoft Surface
» Uses touch and gestures performed via a tabletop
screen, as well as objects placed on the screen, as
input
» http://reviews.cnet.com/microsoft-surface-pro/
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computer of the Future
• 2D barcodes (QR or Quick Response)
– Designed to be used by consumers with mobile
phones
– Capturing the image of a QR barcode in magazine
ad with mobile phone’s camera can load a Web
page, dial a phone number, send a text message to
enter a contest, etc.
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computer of the Future
– Augmented Reality
• Mobile phone app
• Computer generated images overlaid on top of realtime images
– Augmented Car Finder: a fun car finder that takes
advantage of augmented reality technology to show
you where you have parked your car. It’s not
perfect, but one of the better ones on the market.
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NqUSfjTSLyo
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computer of the Future
• Quick Writer: Quick Writer lets you type on your iPhone and
see what’s in front of you. Pasting information from this app
to others is straight forward.
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
5
The Computer of the Future
– Near Field Communication (NFC)
• Near field communication technology lets smartphones
and other enabled devices communicate with other
devices containing a NFC tag. Whether swiping your
smartphone at the checkout lane in the grocery store,
waving it over a display at a local museum, or bumping
phones with a friend to share the latest games, near
field technology lets you pay, play, and learn easily.
http://gizmodo.com/5707321/what-is-near+fieldcommunication
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computer of the Future
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
7
The Computer of the Future
– Emerging Processing Technologies
• New designs for motherboards and CPUs
• Multi-core CPUs
– If you think of the processor as a worker in a business, then
more cores would mean more workers. The more workers
you have, the more work gets done. Multi-core simply
means that there are more "workers" applying themselves
to a task, so the task gets done considerably quicker
• USB 3.0
– More than 10 times the speed of USB 2.0
• Flexible electronic components
– Thinner, lighter, very little heat, consume much less energy
– Can be integrated into clothing
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computer of the Future
• Three-dimensional (3D) chips
» Increase the rate at which data gets
transferred.
» Limits the power consumption because of the
smaller inner connections
» Components are layered, cutting
down on required surface area
– Now used for some applications such as video
– World’s first 3D transistor was introduced by Intel
» Tri-Gate transistor which provided increased
performance and low voltage
• Ideal for use in small devices, like mobile
phones, because of it’s decreased size
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
–Heat is a problem in 3D chip development
»Heat can damage the components
»IBM developed a water-cooling system
which “forces water between the layers
in the chip stack, picking up the heat
right at its source,” which allows cooler
chips to run faster
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• Terascale Computing
“Terascale computing is basically taking the
computing environment we now know and
moving it into a supercomputing-type arena. It's
just taking it up to the next level where
we're doing billions upon billions--billions times
billions-- of time-computational units
within one second, just a staggering amount
of computational power.”
Jason Howard, Intel
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• Nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM)
– Memory that retains data when power to the computer
is cut off
» RAM is normally associated with volatile types of
memory where its stored information is lost if the
power is removed.
» Used for storing critical data to guard against data
loss, and saving the data to help robotic systems, for
example, to recover quickly from a power loss
» Future applications include “instant-on” computers
and mobile devices that can be turned on and off
like a light bulb with no data loss
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
– Emerging Output Devices
• 3D display screens
– Use filters, prisms, lenses and other technologies to
create a 3D effect, so 3D glasses are not required
– Some resemble conventional computers, others,
such as the Perspecta 3D (for medical imaging) are
dome shaped
– Has both consumer (Nintendo 3DS) and industrial
applications
http://phys.org/news/2012-09-prototype-d-screenphysically-tilts.html
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• Wearable personal displays
– Typically built into glasses
– Project images from portable device (phone) to
glasses
– Designed for entertainment applications; some
designed for use by soldiers
Sony's new HMZ-T3 wearable display gets 'wireless' option,
easy smartphone connectivity, and HD audio (hands-on)
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• 3D projectors
– Display holograms of individuals and objects onto a
stage for presentation; in retail stores; and
exhibitions to showcase products
• Pico projectors (also know as handheld projectors)
– Pocket-sized
– Can display on any flat surface from up to 12’ away
– Typically connect to a mobile phones, cameras, or
tablets
– Can be built into mobile devices
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• 3-D printers
– Used when permanent 3D output is required
» To print a 3D model of a new building
– Form output in layers using molten plastic during
series of passes
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays
– Use a layer of organic material that emits light when
electric current is applied
– They do not use backlighting like conventional flatpanel displays
– Thinner, wide viewing angle, low energy
consumption, longer battery life on portable
devices
– Beginning to be used with digital cameras, portable
digital media players, mobile phones, and TVs
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• Special OLEDs (organic light emitting diode displays)
– Flexible OLED (FOLED) displays
» Built on flexible surfaces, such as plastic or
metallic foil
• Can be rolled up when not in use
• Lighter, so can be used to integrate displays on
military uniforms
– Transparent OLED (TOLED) displays
» Transparent and emits light toward the top and
bottom of the display surface
» Open up possibility of use on home windows,
car windshields, and helmet face shields
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• Interferometric modulator displays (IMOD)
–Complex mirror that uses external light,
from sun or artificial light inside building to
display images
–Images are bright and clear even in direct
sunlight
–Backlighting isn’t used, so energy efficient
–No power used unless the image changes,
so can remain on at all times without
draining the battery
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
• Emerging print applications
– Zink (zero ink) technology
– Printer which uses no ink
– Special paper coated with special color dye
crystals
» Looks like regular white photo paper
» Uses heat to activate and colorize crystals
for printing
– May eventually be used for “printing” human
tissue and other organic materials for medical
purposes
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
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The Computers of the Future
• Holographic Storage
– High-capacity storage
– Uses multiple blue laser beams to store data in
three dimensions
– Discs currently hold 300 gigabyte each; 1.6 terabyte
cartridges expected in near future
– Best suited for use with large amounts of data that
need to be stored or retrieved quickly, but rarely
changed
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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The Computers of the Future
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Emerging Networking
Technologies
• Geobrowsing
– Lets you know where family and friends are when
you are on the go
» Google Earth
• GPS monitoring systems
– Vehicle monitoring systems are available which can
record where the vehicle is driven and how fast
– Some allow the location of the vehicle to be tracked
in real time
– Some set up a “virtual fence” which sets a
maximum allowable speed, or indicates if driver left
a specified area
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
• What is Artificial intelligence (AI)
– The science and engineering of making intelligent
machines
– Creating intelligent devices controlled by intelligent
software – machines that think and act like intelligent
humans
– Turing Test (still used today)
• A test of Artificial intelligence
• An observer interacts electronically with a human and a
computer by sending them questions and reviewing the
typed responses
• If the observer repeatedly cannot tell which of the
responses is human and which is machine, the machine
is viewed as intelligent
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Loebner Prize
• Includes a gold medal and $100,000 to be
awarded to the developer of the first
computer to pass the Turing Test
• Has not been awarded as yet
– Early advances in artificial intelligence were in the
area of game playing, namely chess
• Today’s chess-playing
programs can beat chess masters
– Once human makes mistake, there is no
hope that the computer will make it’s own
mistake
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
• Artificial Intelligence Applications
– Contain some aspects of artificial intelligence, though
tend to mimic human intelligence
• IBM’s Watson computer can analyze complex
questions and form answers
– Competed with humans on Jeopardy and won
»http://www.youtube.com/results?search_
query=IBM+Watson%3A+Final+Jeopardy%
21+and+the+Future+of+Watson+&sm=12
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Intelligent Agents
• Programs that perform specific tasks to help make
a user’s work environment more efficient or
or entertaining
> Apple’s “personal assistant and knowledge
navagator, Siri
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Application Assistants
» Provide help for a particular application
program; some automatically offer advice if it
detects user is having trouble
» Shopping bots
• Shopping bots are price comparison sites on
the World Wide Web that automatically
search the inventory of several different
online merchants to find the lowest prices
for consumers.
• www.bizrate.com
• www.nextag.com
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Entertainment bots
» Virtual pet or animated character to play
games with
– Chatterbots (or virtual assistant)
– Carry on “written” conversations and often
represented by an animated character to give
appearance that exchange is between two,
thinking people
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Expert Systems
• Software programs that can make decisions and
draw conclusions, similar to a human expert
• Two main components
– Knowledge base
» Database with facts and rules
– Inference engine
» Software program that applies the rules to
the data stored in the knowledge base
• “Do not automatically authorize purchase if
customer has exceeded their credit limit”
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
• Expert Systems
– Widely used for many tasks
» Diagnosing illness
• Assist physician by suggesting diagnosis
» Financial forecasting
» Scheduling routes for delivery vehicles
» Credit authorizations
– Important to know that conclusions are based
on information provided by the users and the
data stored in the knowledge base
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Robotics
• The study of robots
• Robots
– Devices, controlled by a person or computer,
that can move and react to sensory input
– Generally used to replace human workers
» In high-precision, but monotonous jobs
» In situations that are dangerous or
impossible for people
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Robots used in business for a variety of
purposes
» Looking for intruders, gas leaks, other
hazards
» Working on factory assembly lines
» Mining coal, repairing oil rigs
» Locating survivors in collapsed buildings
» Facilitating teleconferencing
» Search and rescue missions, firefighting,
manufacturing
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
– Personal robots
» Entertainment robots make small talk, deliver
messages, take photos or video, sing, dance,
play games
» Robotic pets
» Household robots perform household tasks
(vacuum floor, clean pool, mow lawn, etc.)
» In the future, personal robots could become
more humanoid and be able to perform more
difficult tasks
• To assist the elderly and disabled individuals
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Assembly Arm Robot Arms – How Do They Do It?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iFKbpbe_9pw
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
– Electronic implants
• Monitoring devices implanted inside an
individual
• Cardiac devices monitor and record
heart rhythms
– Pacemaker-Defibrillator
» The pacemaker supplies signals to both
lower chambers of the heart and thereby
re-coordinates contractions; the
defibrillator can jolt the heart back to life
if it suddenly stops beating properly.
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
• VeriChip
– Small RFID tag (Radio-Frequency Identification Chip)
implanted under a person’s skin
– Originally intended to function in much the same
way a medical alert bracelet does
– Used for ID purposes
» Version under development that will monitor
glucose levels of a diabetic person; another will
allow medical devices to be traced if recall is
discovered
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
• VeriChip
– Some versions used for access to highly secure facilities
– Some for access to homes, cars, and computers
– Can be used to help find missing persons
– Privacy-rights advocates worry it will be used by
government to track citizens
» Purely voluntary basis
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
• Brain-to-computer interfacing (BCI)
– The process of connecting a brain directly to a
computer
– Use of BCI to restore lost functionality and facilitate
communications of severely disabled individuals is
under development
– Concern exists that this technology could be
misused
» Medical ethicists currently working on setting
up standards to ensure the devices allow
patients to have control and not be under
control
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
• Telemedicine and Telesurgery
– Telemedicine
• Use of networking technology to provide medical
information and services
– Two-way video, email, smart phones, wireless tools
and other forms of telecommunications technology.
• Gives the ability to diagnose and provide care remotely
to people who could not otherwise have access
http://www.americantelemed.org/learn/what-istelemedicine
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
– Telesurgery
• A form of robot-assisted surgery in which the doctor’s
physical location is different from the patient’s physical
location, and the doctor controls the robot remotely
• Can be performed over the Internet
• Gives closer view and more precision to the doctor
• Allows for smaller incisions, less pain, faster recovery
period
• Essential in providing service to remote areas
• Will likely be needed for extensive space exploration
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
Medicine
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
the Military
• Battlefield Robots
– Used in conflict areas
• To investigate caves, buildings, trails, etc., to ensure
those areas are safe for soldiers to enter
• To locate and dispose of bombs, mines, and other
explosive devices in the field
– Are typically controlled remotely by soldiers
– Researchers are working to develop more
autonomous robots that can navigate on their own
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
the Military
• Exoskeleton Systems
– Exoskeleton suit
• Wearable robotic system designed to give additional
physical capabilities and protection
• Being developed for the military
– Gives soldiers the ability to run faster
– Enables soldiers to carry heavier items
• Final versions may be light, bulletproof, and be able to
solidify on command to act as a cast
• Other future options may be the ability to camouflage,
administer painkillers, or apply pressure to a wound
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Technological Advances in
the Military
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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Emerging Technologies
Go Pro’s Video Revolution
http://www.cbsnews.com/videos/gopros-video-revolution/
Understanding Computers in a Changing Society, 5th Edition
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