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Transcript
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Assessment
Ch. 5 Study Guide Answers
Answer Key
MATCHING
1. c
2. d
3. e
MULTIPLE CHOICE
7. c
8. b
9. d
10. b
11. a
12. d
13. a
36. Excess fertilizer washes away and collects
in lakes and streams. The nitrogen and
phosphorus stimulate algal growth. The
resulting algal bloom in the lakes and
streams ties up the oxygen that aquatic
organisms would otherwise use, causing
them to suffocate.
37. A lichen is a producer that is composed of
two different species, a fungus and an
alga. The alga photosynthesizes, while the
fungus absorbs nutrients from rocks and
holds water. The lichen slowly breaks
down the rock into soil. Over time, the
dead lichen adds organic material to the
newly created soil, thus enabling plants to
grow.
4. f
5. a
6. b
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
d
a
b
d
b
a
b
MULTIPLE CHOICE
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
d
c
d
a
b
ESSAY
38. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria capture nitrogen
from the air and convert it to a form that
can be used by plants. Herbivores acquire
nitrogen by eating the plants, and the lion
acquires nitrogen by eating the herbivores.
After the lion dies, decomposers break
down the lion’s carcass and convert the
nitrogen in it to ammonia. Other bacteria
will convert the ammonia to nitrogen gas
and release it into the atmosphere.
COMPLETION
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
photosynthesis
hydrogen sulfide
decomposers
cellular respiration
legumes
fire
primary
SHORT ANSWER
33. Accept any reasonable answer. Sample
answer: Owls eat mice and mice eat grain.
Both owls and mice depend on the plants
that produce grain for their energy source.
Grain is the producer in this scenario.
34. A pyramid is a useful shape to represent
energy levels. Because the base is the
largest part of the pyramid, it is used to
show where the most energy is located.
As you go up the energy pyramid it
gradually narrows, showing that energy is
lost at each succeeding trophic level.
35. Some carbohydrates in organisms are
converted into fats, oils, and other
molecules that store energy. When an
organism dies, the carbon in these
molecules is converted over time into
coal, oil, and natural gas underground.
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
i
How Ecosystems Work
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
Ch. 5 Study Guide
MATCHING
In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best matches the
description.
_____ 1. an atmospheric gas that increases when
fossil fuels are burned
_____ 2. evidence of excessive fertilizer use
_____ 3. a final and stable community
_____ 4. a type of succession that occurs on
abandoned farmland
_____ 5. a gradual process of change and
replacement of the types of species in a
community
a. ecological
succession
b. secondary
succession
c. carbon dioxide
d. algal bloom
e. climax
community
f. old-field
succession
_____ 6. a common type of succession that
occurs on a surface where an
ecosystem has previously existed
MULTIPLE CHOICE
_____ 7. What is the ultimate source of energy for almost all organisms?
a. producers
b. consumers
c. the sun
d. bacteria
_____ 8. Which of these consumers might depend on a rabbit for its energy?
a. grasshopper
b. coyote
c. cow
d. horse
_____ 9. A consumer that eats only producers is called a(n)
a. omnivore
b. carnivore
c. autotroph
d. herbivore
_____ 10. What term is used to describe a linear sequence in which energy is
transmitted from one organism to the next as each organism eats another
organism?
a. food web
b. food chain
c. trophic level
d. energy pyramid
_____ 11 What term is used to refer to the many feeding relationships that are possible
in an ecosystem?
a. food web
b. food chain
c. energy pyramid
d. energy transfer
_____ 12. Which organism would occupy the level on an energy pyramid with the most
energy?
a. bobcat
b. bird
c. grasshopper
d. carrot
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
1
How Ecosystems Work
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
_____ 13. In the carbon cycle, where do the producers get their carbon?
a. the atmosphere
b. carbohydrates in plants
c. fossil fuels
d. animal remains
_____ 14. Where are fossil fuels located?
a. on the surface of Earth
b. deep within Earth
c. beneath the ocean floor
d. all of the above
_____ 15. How do lichens contribute to primary succession?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Lichens begin to break down rock to form soil.
Lichens decompose organic matter from animals and plants.
Lichens are nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
Lichens convert carbohydrates into fossil fuels.
_____ 16. Where would you most likely find nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
a. in leaves of trees
atmosphere
b. on the roots of legumes
c. on dust particles in the
d. in blue-green algae
_____ 17. What type of vegetation would you expect to find on an abandoned farm that
has been undisturbed by humans for 150 years?
a. short grasses
b. shrubs
c. young pine trees
d. tall, mature oak trees
_____ 18. Consumers are organisms that
a. eat only other animal species.
b. get their energy by eating
other organisms.
c. are also known as self-feeders.
d. occupy an ecosystem’s lowest
energy level.
_____ 19. The energy consumed by organisms
a.
b.
c.
d.
can be stored in fat and sugar molecules.
remains constant at all trophic levels.
undergoes magnification in food chains.
is not partially lost during digestion.
_____ 20. Which of these is a large reservoir of nitrogen that is unusable by most
organisms?
a. soil
b. atmosphere
c. ocean
d. space
_____ 21. Which kind of organism obtains energy directly from the sun?
a. decomposers
b. herbivores
c. omnivores
d. producers
_____ 22. If an insect eats a plant and a bird eats the insect, about how much energy
from the plant is stored in the insect for the bird to use?
a. 90 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 10 percent
d. 1 percent
_____ 23. Which of the following does not contain carbon from the bodies of plants and
animals that died millions of years ago?
a. coal
c. natural gas
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
2
How Ecosystems Work
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
b. oil
d. phosphate salts
_____ 24. Which gas makes up 78 percent of our atmosphere but can be used by plants
only when transformed by bacteria first?
a. nitrogen
b. oxygen
c. hydrogen
d. carbon dioxide
_____ 25. Which of the following plants is likely to be a pioneer species?
a. lichen
b. grass
c. shrub
d. oak tree
COMPLETION
Write the word or words that best complete the following sentences.
26. A process in which energy from the sun is used to make sugar molecules is
called______________________.
27. In deep-ocean ecosystems, ______________________that escapes from the
cracks in the ocean floor is used by bacteria to make their own food.
28. Organisms that get their food by breaking down dead organisms are
called______________________.
29. A process within the cell of an organism that uses glucose and oxygen to
produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy is called_____________________.
30. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live within the nodules on the roots of plants
called______________________.
31. Some natural disasters such as ______________________ help forest
communities by allowing some trees to release their seeds, by clearing away
deadwood, and by encouraging new growth.
32. On new islands formed by volcanic activity, you will most likely find
______________________succession.
Write the answers to the following questions in the spaces provided.
33. Describe one way in which consumers depend on producers.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
34. Explain why an energy pyramid is used to represent the amount of energy at
each trophic level.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
3
How Ecosystems Work
Name ______________________________ Class ___________________ Date __________________
35. Briefly explain how fossil fuels are formed and where they are located.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
36. A local lake is experiencing algal bloom and many of the fish are dying.
Explain why this may be occurring.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
37. A student noticed that lichens were growing on the surface of a rocky cliff.
Describe how lichens contribute to primary succession.
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Write your response to the following question on the lines provided.
38. All living things must be able to make proteins, and protein molecules always
contain nitrogen. Explain how the nitrogen used for making proteins in a lion’s
body traveled from the atmosphere to the lion. How will it be returned to the
atmosphere after the lion dies?
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
© Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
4
How Ecosystems Work