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Chapter 15 & 16 Review
A) Disorders
 Abnormal behavior is characterized
by being atypical, maladaptive,
inappropriate and disturbing to the
individual exhibiting behavior
1. GAD
- General Anxiety Disorder
- Aka free floating anxiety
- High level of anxiety that is not
tied to anything
- Continuously tense and worried
2. Phobia
- Irrational fear
- Usually conditioned to have these
3. Panic
- Recurrent attacks of
overwhelming anxiety that occur
suddenly and unexpectedly
- Physical symptoms
- Agoraphobia (fear of public places)
may occur
- Post-traumatic stress disorder
- Re-experiencing the traumatic
event in the form of nightmares
and flashbacks, emotional
numbing, alienation, problems in
social relations, and elevated
arousal, anxiety and guilt
5. OCD
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder
- Persistent unwanted thoughts
(obsession) cause someone to feel
the need to engage in a particular
action (compulsion)
- uncontrolled
6. Hypochondriasis
- Somatic disorder
- No physical explanation
Excessive preoccupation w/ health
concerns & worry about
developing physical illness
7. Conversion
- Somatic disorder
- Significant loss of physical function
with no apparent organic bases
8. Dissociative Amnesia
- Aka psychogenic amnesia
- Sudden loss of memory for
important personal info that is too
extensive to be due to normal
- Can last for one single traumatic
event or for an extended time
period around event…Examples:
car accident, rape
9. Dissociative Fugue
- One loses memory for their entire
lives along with their sense of
personal identity
10. DID
- Coexistence in one person of two
or more largely complete and
usually very different personality
- Related to severe emotional
trauma that occurred in childhood
- Some say this is an excuse for their
personal feelings
11. Major Depression
- Aka unipolar depression
- Unhappy for at least two weeks
with no apparent cause
- Twice as high for women
- 7-18% of population suffers from
12. Seasonal Affective
- Experience depression during the
winter months
- Based on temperature, but on
amount of sunlight
13. Bipolar
- Manic episode followed by periods
of depression
- Manic episodes involve feelings of
high energy (can differ from
confidence to irritability)
- 1-2% of population suffers from
- Equal among men and women
- Lithium carbonate has been useful
in some cases
14. Tardive dyskinesia
- Disorder of involuntary, repetitive
body movements
- Results from long term or high
dose of antipsychotic drugs such
as Neuroleptics (meant to control
hallucinations, delusions,
disordered thoughts)
B) Schizophrenia
1. Disorganized Schizophrenia
- Emotional indifference (flat affect)
- Social withdrawal
- Aimless babbling and giggling
2. Paranoid Schizophrenia
- Bizarre and distorted with false
- Delusions of persecution: people
are out to get me
- Delusions of grandeur: when
people think they are famous or
- Hallucinations: sensory
experiences without sensory
3. Catatonia Schizophrenia
- Motor disturbances wither
motionless or hyperactive
Waxy flexibility: you move their
arm and they keep it there
- Least common form of
4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
- Suffering from symptoms from
various types of schizophrenia
5. Rosenhan study
- Had a group of psychologists fake
schizophrenic like symptoms at
various mental institutions on
their initial arrival and later drop
these symptoms
- All institutions discharged them
with “schizophrenia in remission”
- Demonstrates that schizophrenia
comes with a negative stigma that
one cannot let go of
C) Personality Disorders
1. Antisocial
- Failure to accept social norms
regarding moral beliefs and
- Many begin criminal career at an
early age
- Lack of empathy
- Little regard for others feelings
- 3-6% of men only 1% of women
2. Dependent
- Rely too much on the attention and
help of others
3. Histrionic Personality
- need to be the center of attention
4. Narcissistic
- Thinking you are the center of the
- egocentric
5. Obsessive Compulsive Personality
- Overly concerned with certain
thoughts and performing certain
Not as extreme as OCD anxiety
D) Therapies
1. Cognitive
- Change the way we view the world
- Negative thoughts into positive
- Aaron beck
o view of depression
- Depression is caused by
errors in thinking
- Goal of cognitive
therapy is to focus
negative thoughts into
- Beck included
behavioral therapy
- People blame
depression on three
1. Setbacks on personal
2. Negative events instead
of positive
3. Pessimistic projections
about future
4. Draw negative
conclusions about your
personal worth
2. Behavioral
- Change maladaptive behavior
through operant and classical
- Criticized for not treating the
underlying cause of the behavior
- Watson & Skinner
- Reinforcements
- Behavior is because of past
learning or experience
- Taste Aversions (Aversive
o Therapy where you pair a
stimuli that the patient
enjoys w/ one that causes
discomfort. Patient is
conditioned to have the
aversion towards the
stimuli that they find
o Bad: you don’t have the UCS
outside of therapy. Also
patient is aware that
aversion was caused by UCS
o Good: successful with
drugs, alcohol, sexual
deviance, gambling,
shoplifting, stuttering,
cigarette smoking,
- Client-centered therapy
- Use active listening skills
- Gestalt therapy: encourage clients
to get in touch with whole self
- Therapists serve as “human
- Unconscious thoughts cause
- Free association: allow patient to
speak freely leads to bottled up
emotions coming through
- Dream interpretation: interpret
dreams to reveal unconscious
- Transference: transferring ones
strong emotions from someone
who is responsible for your
behavior onto your therapist
- Sigmund freud
- Medical therapy: use of drugs to
change behavior
- Changing someone’s thoughts by
using operant and classical
Used for disorders
Albert Ellis- Rational Emotive
Therapy (RET)
o Cognitive- behavioral
therapy to help people
eliminate self-defeating
thought patterns
o REBT: therapist would
teach you to recognize
neurotic thoughts, question
how rationale they are,
replace them w/ faulty
ideas with more valid ones
E) Miscellaneous
1. Prevalence
- % of population with disorder at a
specific time
2. Lifetime prevalence
- % of population who have been
diagnosed with a disorder at any
point in their lives
3. Diagnosis
- Distinguishing one disease from
4. Etiology
- Apparent causation &
developmental history of illness
5. Electroconvulsive shock therapy
- Last resort to treat severely
depressed patients
- Repeated about 6 times in 2 weeks
- Usually experience some memory
loss (often temporary)
- Drive towards self- actualization is
6. Deinstitutionalized
- Number of inpatients are declining
- With the use of drugs, patients
who were not threatening to
society could receive treatment
w/o being in a mental institution
7. Systematic desensitization ( a kind of
Behavioral therapy used w/
patients who suffer from phobias
- 1st step: anxiety hierarchy (list of
things from least anxious to most
- 2nd step: muscle relaxation
- 3rd step: work through hierarchy
by maintaining relaxation while
imagining each stimuli
8. DSM
- Published by the APA
- Axis 1: clinical disorders ex. Mood
disorders, anxiety disorders,
- Axis 2: personality disorders or
mental retardation ex. Narcissistic,
- Axis 3: general medical conditions.
Ex. Immune diseases, infectious
- Axis 4: psychosocial and
environmental problems. Ex.
Education problems, occupational
problems, problems w/ primary
- Axis 5: global assessment of
functioning scale- being superior
functioning, 50 being serious
symptoms and 10 being persistent
danger of hurting self or others
9. Group therapy
- Advantage over individual therapy
is it enables clients to realize that
their problems are not unique and
it is more economical
10. Metacognition
- Thinking about thinking