Download The Roman Period

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript




Trompe l’oeil – “trick of the eye” or “fool the eye,”
a two-dimensional artwork designed to make the
viewer believe it is in three dimensions
Sarcophagi – Stone coffins used in Roman
sculpture
Fresco – A painting on wet plaster; the image
becomes part of the wall rather than being painted
on it
Aqueduct - A pipe or channel designed to
transport water from a remote source, usually by
gravity


Rome was once controlled by the Etruscans
who conquered Italy
Once the Etruscans were driven out of Rome,
the Romans established a republic



True power rested with the people and not a single
branch of government
Functioned much like a democracy
Rome gained wealth and power through
military conquest

The republic failed due to civil war and Julius
Caesar was elected dictator for life


Caesar was assassinated shortly after taking office
Caesar’s most lasting achievement was the Julian
calendar
 This is the calendar we follow today

Caesar’s nephew Octavian replaced him and
Octavian was given the name Augustus

The name means the fortunate and the blessed

Under the reign of Augustus Rome advanced




Roads, bridges, and aqueducts were built
A common currency was established
Police and firefighters were employed
Some negative aspects to the Roman empire


Religious persecution (particularly Christians)
Outlying provinces were inclined to revolt


Rome developed a legal system that was based
on knowledge of the laws
This allowed the legal system to be more
generalized and fair

Stoicism became popular in Rome





Philosophy dealing with supreme intelligence
Acceptance of fate and duty
Kinship of all people through intellect
Stoicism also gave birth to the concept of
providing justice for everyone
Stoicism’s emphasis on inquiry brought on
difficult times under Emperor Nero who tried
to eliminate free thinking



An incorporation of the teachings of Plato with
ideas related to Stoicism and Epicureanism
Developed by Plotinus
Neo-Platonism dealt with the nature of beauty
and art


Beauty reflects a unified universe where individual
beauty reflects a universal harmony
Art then forms a bridge between beauty and
the natural world



The Romans were polytheistic
Roman gods were often the same as the Greek
gods but with Roman names (i.e. Jupiter/Zeus)
Romans observed strict rituals

The constant repetition of rituals was the key to
prosperity


Romans amplified the notions of Classicism
that were developed by the Greeks
Roman art and architecture reflected the ideas
of clarity, harmony, and intellect


In some cases the Romans simply copied the Greeks
Other times, the Romans would add a slight twist

Rome sought a government that provided the
greatest good for the greatest amount of people


Utilitarianism relies on what has the most social
value in a society
Romans also discouraged existential ideas and
speculation in favor of practical usage

Pragmatism focuses on the usefulness of an idea or
object

Most of what survives of Roman painting lies
in fresco



The images are actually part of the wall, rather than
decorations on them
Frescos employed bright colors
Roman frescos usually depict a panoramic
landscape and utilize a trompe l’oeil

“Trick of the eye” that creates the illusion of three
dimensions


Most of the surviving frescos come from the
cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum
These frescos also demonstrate the technical
virtuosity that was associated with Hellenistic
Greece


Frescos
demonstrate
a strong use
of color
Images are
also depicted
within a
closed
“frame”


Portrait sculptures
were used to honor
family members,
successful politicians,
and military heroes
A much more lifelike
sculpture than any
that have come before
it


The classical Greek
notion of the idealized
form grew in Roman
sculpture
This translated into
sculptures of emperors
with superhuman
physical qualities

This most likely comes as
a result of an elevated
level of status for the
emperor.




128 feet tall column decorated with relief
sculptures
A spiral staircase inside the column leads to the
highest spot where a statue of Trajan once
stood
The relief sculptures make their way up the
column in a spiral pattern
The sculpture relies on symbolism (wavy lines
for water, jagged lines for mountains, etc.) to
tell the many accomplishments of Trajan


Romans decorated their sarcophagi with relief
sculptures as well
Depending on where the sarcophagus was
built, the decorations would change



Athens – decorated on all four sides with scenes
from Greek mythology
Asia Minor – figures carved around architectural
details
Rome – carved on three sides with one mythological
scene and a blank side to sit against a wall


Similar to the Greek classical style, the Romans
relied on structures like the post-and-lintel
system
Romans used engaged columns


Columns that were part of a wall as opposed to the
freestanding Greek columns
The most identifiable feature of Roman
architecture is the arch



The Colosseum is the
most famous of all
Roman structures
Held gladiatorial
matches and other
sporting events
Featured awnings to
shade the audience
and an elaborate
space below the arena
to house athletes,
animals, and
machines to raise and
lower scenery

Romans were
also known for
their triumphal
arches


Large archways
with relief
sculptures
meant to honor
military
conquest
This arch pays
homage to Titus
and his
conquest of
Jerusalem


Roman aqueducts were also prominent
structures
These were used to transport water over long
distances



Romans loved to be
entertained
Their primary sources of
entertainment came from
comedies and blood sport
Comedies typically
contained slapstick humor
and lewd acts on stage


In keeping with Roman
pragmatism, comedies
served the vital purpose of
keeping people’s minds off of
their problems
Blood sport consisted of
the violent gladiatorial
matches and animal fights

Romans enjoyed music



The hydraulos (water organ)
was used to provide
background music to the
events at the Colosseum


Music festivals, competitions, and
virtuoso performances were held
regularly
Some emperors funded musicians
and music teachers were well paid
Some reports suggest that the
hydraulos could be heard from
over a mile away
The Romans also invented the
brass trumpet for military use


Romans developed a style of dance known as
pantomime (using gestures and body movements
without words)
Dancers would convey several kinds of emotions
through their gestures and movements


Would also involve costume changes and background
music
Pantomime was highly interpretive and usually
involved tragic themes

Some pantomimes were also very sexual in nature and
bordered on the pornographic (I bet they danced like you
guys do)



Literature wasn’t very common throughout the
Roman period.
Poets wrote in Latin which was the language of
the Greek slaves
Any existing literature focuses on the glory of
Rome and its emperors