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Some highlights for test
Things to consider
 Be
sure to read over the case study on
sharks for Chapter 4
 Active
figure 4-2
 Science
 Figure
Focus – insects!
 Specific
4-1 What is Biodiversity and Why
 Different
 Species
types of diversity
– variety of types of species
 Genetic – variety of genes = ability to adapt and
 Ecosystem – ecosystems are a storehouse of
genetic and species diversity; biomes
 Functional – variety of processes – energy flow
and matter cycling that occur within systems;
food webs
4-6 What Role do Species Play?
 Niche
– pattern of living
 Species
way of life within a community –
everything that affects its survival and
reproduction – sun, water, space, food,
 Generalists vs specialists – graph on pg 95 is
used on test
 Know some examples of specialists and
4-6 What Role do Species Play?
major roles within ecosystem
Native – those that normally live there
 Nonnative/invasive/alien/exotic species
 Indicator species – provide early warning of damage
to community or ecosystem
 Know some examples – bees, butterflies,
 Know some details about frogs
 Keystone species – whose roles have a large effect on
types and abundance of other species (need ex)
 Foundation species – major role in shaping the
community by creating and enhancing their habitats
in ways that benefit others
Things to consider ch 5
 Core
 The
Case Study on Sea otters
basic ways species interact – EX for each
 Figure
5-5 for examples of prey strategies
 Specific
examples for concepts (pics help)
vs K strategists
 Graphs
 Types
– figure 5-15
of population change
 Inertia, persistence, resilience
5-1 How do Species Interact?
 Look
at list on pg 105
 Tempted
to brush it off b/c remember terms
– do you know examples that could fit for
 Resource
partitioning –reducing
competition; traits that allow to share
resources – at different times of different
 Predator-prey
– ways they adapt to each
 Predator-prey
Methods prey have to avoid, methods/strategies
predators have to catch
 Coevolution
 Parasitism
– need a host and feed on it
Don’t immediately kill host, but harm it
 Ex?
 Mutualism
– 2 species benefit; ex?
 Commensalism
- ex
5-2 What Limits the Growth of
 Population
– definition; most live in clumps
Resources – cluster where the resources are available
 Moving to encounter patches of resources
 Protection
 From predator standpoint – better chance at a meal
 Populations
How calculate
 Range of tolerance
 Limiting factors – too much or too little can limit
 Logistic
vs exponential
Environmental resistance – combo of all factors acting
to limit the growth
 Carrying capacity
 If exceed by too much; pop can crash
 C/C is not fixed, can fluctuate seasonally and year
to year – weather, presence/absence of predators;
abundance/scarcity of competitors
 Reproductive strategies
 R-strategy – think – random, play the numbers
game –have a lot of offspring
 K-strategy – “K” for “karing” – have a few
offspring and invest in them/care for them
 Density
dependent and independent limiting
factors –know def’n and ex
 Population
changes and patterns:
Stable – fluctuate a little above and below c/c;
undisturbed and relatively unchanging areas
 Irrupt – pop surge to a peak then crash to stable level;
short-lived, rapid-reprod species; linked to seasonal
changes in weather and nutrition
 Regular Cyclic fluctuations (boom-bust) –
 Top-down regulation thru predation
 Bottom-up – controlled by resources
 Irregular – no pattern, chaotic
+ 5-3 How do Communities & Ecosystems
Respond to changing environmental
 Succession
– primary and secondary
Difference between the 2 is mainly about the starting
substrate – know what it is for each
 Tendency
for succession to lead to more complex,
diverse, and presumably stable ecosystems
BUT cannot predict a course
 More like an ongoing struggle to compete
 Stability
– capacity to withstand external stress and
disturbance is maintained by constant change in
response to enviro conditions
Inertia (persistence) – ability of a living system to
survive moderate disturbances
 Resilience – ability of living system to be restored
through secondary succession after sever
 EX – Tropical rainforest – high species richness and
high inertia; resistant to significant change
 IF severe; resilience may be so low that you reach a
tipping point and can’t recover