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Subdivision 0f pathology
(compound of three Greek words histos "tissue", pathos "suffering",
and -logia"study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in
order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical
medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or
surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed
and histological sections have been placed onto glass slide:
Collection of tissues
Preparation for histology Staining of processed histology slides
Staining of processed histology slides
Is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the
cellular level.
It is divided into two Types:
a. Exfoliative cytology.
b. FNAC.
Exfoliative Cytology: A common application of cytopathology is
the Pap smear, used as a screening tool, to detect precancerous cervical
lesions and prevent cervical cancer, also can take smears from any
mucous membranes as from mouth, or from skin to study cells in that
Fine needle aspiration: Cytopatholog commonly used to investigate
thyroid lesions, Lymphnode lasions, Masses in the breast, or any mass
under the skin by using Needle to aspirate cells from that lesion.
Diseases involving sterile body cavities (peritoneal, pleural, and
cerebrospinal fluids) can be taken by a needle and send for the laboratory
to study the cells, Also from Sputum, Urine, stoole and a wide range of
other body sites. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, in the
diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory
Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue
fragments, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues.
Cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the
samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent
staining and microscopic examination. However, cytology samples may
be prepared in other ways, including cytocentrifugation. Different types
of smear tests may also be used for cancer diagnosis. In this sense, it is
termed a cytologic smear.
Cytopathology is frequently, less precisely, called cytology, which
means "the study of cells".
(from the Greek , haima "blood" ), is the branch of medicine concerned
with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to
the blood. Hematology includes the study of:
1. Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and platelets.
2. Mechanisms of coagulation Which include platelets Count & function
with clotting factors.
3. blood Banking.
Haematology also study the diseases that affect the production of blood
and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins,
bone marrow, platelets,also include the study of blood vessels, spleen.
The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently
performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist.
Hematologists also conduct studies in oncology and work with
oncologists, people who may specialize only in that field (the medical
treatment of cancer). Haematology include all disorders in blood as,
anemia, hemophilia, general blood clots, bleeding disorders, etc. Also
blood cancers such as leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, these are more
serious cases that need to be diagnosed. Also parasites affecting blood as
The study of minute pathologic changes; also, the scientific study of
microorganisms in their relation to disease.
branch of pathology dealing with the microscopic study of changes that
occur in tissues and cells du ring disease.
Immune pathology:
The study of immune reactions involved in disease.
The immune system can malfunction and cause tissue damage.
Hypersensitivity : An allergic reaction, An exaggerated
response,Tissue destruction occurs as a result of the immune response.
Four main types:
Type I Hypersensitivity: Immediate (anaphylactic type) is a rapid IgEand mast cell-mediated vascular and smooth muscle response that occurs
in genetically susceptible individuals upon exposure to certain
environmental antigens to which they have been previously exposed.
Type II Hypersensitivity, Cytotoxic type: Caused by antibody to cell
surface antigens and components of the extracellular matrix. These
antibodies can sensitize the cells for antibody-dependent cytotoxic attack
by K cells or for complement-mediated lysis.
It is seen in the destruction of red cells in transfusion reactions and in
haemolytic disease of the newborn. the antibodies produced by the
immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surfaces.
TypeIII Hypersensitivity Immune complex type (serum sickness):
occurs when there is an excess of antigen, leading to small immune
complexes being formed that do not fixcomplement and are not cleared
from the circulation. It involves soluble antigens that are not bound to cell
surfaces (as opposed to those in type II hypersensitivity).
Type IV Hypersensitivity, Cell-mediated type (delayed): is often
called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes two to three
days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody mediated but
rather is a type of cell-mediated response.
Autoimmune Diseases: A disease develops when your immune
system, which defends your body against disease, decides your healthy
cells are foreign. As a result, your immune system attacks healthy cells.
Depending on the type, an autoimmune disease can affect one or many
different types of body tissue. It can also cause abnormal organ growth
and changes in organ function.
Molecular pathology
Molecular pathology is focused upon the study and diagnosis of disease
through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily
many important advances are now coming from the science of
molecular pathology. for e.g. defects in the chemical structure of
molecules are in fact the result of errors in the genomic DNA, and
precisely, in the sequence of the DNA bases that directs amino acid
synthesis. Through the use of in situ hybridization technique Molecular
pathology applications include the study, for example, the alterations in
the genome that control cell growth, which is important part in the
development of neoplasms.
Molecular pathology is multidisciplinary by nature and shares some
aspects of practice with both anatomic pathology and clinical pathology,
molecularbiology, biochemistry, proteomics and genetics. It is often
applied in a context that is as much scientific as directly medical and
encompasses the development of molecular and genetic approaches to the
diagnosis and classification of human diseases, the design and validation
of predictive biomarkers for treatment response and disease progression,
and the susceptibility of individuals of different genetic constitution to
particular disorders.
The crossover between molecular pathology and epidemiology is
represented by a related field "molecular pathological epidemiology"
Molecular pathology is commonly used in diagnosis of cancer and
infectious diseases. Techniques are numerous but include quantitative
polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), multiplex PCR, DNA microarray, in
situ hybridization, DNA sequencing, antibody based immunofluorescence
tissue assays, molecular profiling of pathogens, and analysis of bacterial
genes for antimicrobial resistance.
Experimental pathology(Pathology in non-human):
Although the vast majority of lab work and research in pathology
concerns the development of disease in humans, pathology is of
significance throughout the biological sciences. Two main catch-all fields
exist to represent most complex organisms capable of serving as host to a
pathogen or other form of disease: veterinary pathology (concerned with
all non-human species of kingdom of Animalia) and phytopathology,
which studies disease in plants.
Overlap with other diagnostic medicine
Although separate fields in terms of medical practice, there are a
number of areas of inquiry in medicine and medical science which either
overlap greatly with general pathology, work in tandem with it, or which
contribute significantly to the understanding of the pathology of a given
disease or its course in an individual. As a significant portion of all
general pathology practice is concerned with cancer, the practice
of oncology is deeply tied to, and dependent upon, the work of both
anatomical and clinical pathologists. Biopsy, resection and blood tests are
all examples of pathology work that is essential for the diagnoses of many
kinds of cancer and for the staging of cancerous masses. In a similar
fashion, the tissue and blood analysis techniques of general pathology are
of central significance to the investigation of serious infectious
disease and as such inform significantly upon the fields
of epidemiology, etiology, immunology, and parasitology. General
pathology methods are of great importance to biomedical research into
disease, wherein they are sometimes referred to as"experimental" or
"investigative" pathology.