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Subdivision 0f pathology Histopathology (compound of three Greek words histos "tissue", pathos "suffering", and -logia"study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slide: Collection of tissues Preparation for histology Staining of processed histology slides Staining of processed histology slides Interpretation Cytopathology Is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. It is divided into two Types: a. Exfoliative cytology. b. FNAC. Exfoliative Cytology: A common application of cytopathology is the Pap smear, used as a screening tool, to detect precancerous cervical lesions and prevent cervical cancer, also can take smears from any mucous membranes as from mouth, or from skin to study cells in that lesion. Fine needle aspiration: Cytopatholog commonly used to investigate thyroid lesions, Lymphnode lasions, Masses in the breast, or any mass under the skin by using Needle to aspirate cells from that lesion. Diseases involving sterile body cavities (peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal fluids) can be taken by a needle and send for the laboratory to study the cells, Also from Sputum, Urine, stoole and a wide range of other body sites. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues. Cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent staining and microscopic examination. However, cytology samples may be prepared in other ways, including cytocentrifugation. Different types of smear tests may also be used for cancer diagnosis. In this sense, it is termed a cytologic smear. Cytopathology is frequently, less precisely, called cytology, which means "the study of cells". Haematology (from the Greek , haima "blood" ), is the branch of medicine concerned with the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to the blood. Hematology includes the study of: 1. Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and platelets. 2. Mechanisms of coagulation Which include platelets Count & function with clotting factors. 3. blood Banking. Haematology also study the diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets,also include the study of blood vessels, spleen. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist. Hematologists also conduct studies in oncology and work with oncologists, people who may specialize only in that field (the medical treatment of cancer). Haematology include all disorders in blood as, anemia, hemophilia, general blood clots, bleeding disorders, etc. Also blood cancers such as leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, these are more serious cases that need to be diagnosed. Also parasites affecting blood as malaria. Micro-pathology: The study of minute pathologic changes; also, the scientific study of microorganisms in their relation to disease. branch of pathology dealing with the microscopic study of changes that occur in tissues and cells du ring disease. Immune pathology: The study of immune reactions involved in disease. The immune system can malfunction and cause tissue damage. Hypersensitivity : An allergic reaction, An exaggerated response,Tissue destruction occurs as a result of the immune response. Four main types: Type I Hypersensitivity: Immediate (anaphylactic type) is a rapid IgEand mast cell-mediated vascular and smooth muscle response that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals upon exposure to certain environmental antigens to which they have been previously exposed. Type II Hypersensitivity, Cytotoxic type: Caused by antibody to cell surface antigens and components of the extracellular matrix. These antibodies can sensitize the cells for antibody-dependent cytotoxic attack by K cells or for complement-mediated lysis. It is seen in the destruction of red cells in transfusion reactions and in haemolytic disease of the newborn. the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surfaces. TypeIII Hypersensitivity Immune complex type (serum sickness): occurs when there is an excess of antigen, leading to small immune complexes being formed that do not fixcomplement and are not cleared from the circulation. It involves soluble antigens that are not bound to cell surfaces (as opposed to those in type II hypersensitivity). Type IV Hypersensitivity, Cell-mediated type (delayed): is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes two to three days to develop. Unlike the other types, it is not antibody mediated but rather is a type of cell-mediated response. Autoimmune Diseases: A disease develops when your immune system, which defends your body against disease, decides your healthy cells are foreign. As a result, your immune system attacks healthy cells. Depending on the type, an autoimmune disease can affect one or many different types of body tissue. It can also cause abnormal organ growth and changes in organ function. Molecular pathology Molecular pathology is focused upon the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. many important advances are now coming from the science of molecular pathology. for e.g. defects in the chemical structure of molecules are in fact the result of errors in the genomic DNA, and precisely, in the sequence of the DNA bases that directs amino acid synthesis. Through the use of in situ hybridization technique Molecular pathology applications include the study, for example, the alterations in the genome that control cell growth, which is important part in the development of neoplasms. Molecular pathology is multidisciplinary by nature and shares some aspects of practice with both anatomic pathology and clinical pathology, molecularbiology, biochemistry, proteomics and genetics. It is often applied in a context that is as much scientific as directly medical and encompasses the development of molecular and genetic approaches to the diagnosis and classification of human diseases, the design and validation of predictive biomarkers for treatment response and disease progression, and the susceptibility of individuals of different genetic constitution to particular disorders. The crossover between molecular pathology and epidemiology is represented by a related field "molecular pathological epidemiology" Molecular pathology is commonly used in diagnosis of cancer and infectious diseases. Techniques are numerous but include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), multiplex PCR, DNA microarray, in situ hybridization, DNA sequencing, antibody based immunofluorescence tissue assays, molecular profiling of pathogens, and analysis of bacterial genes for antimicrobial resistance. Experimental pathology(Pathology in non-human): Although the vast majority of lab work and research in pathology concerns the development of disease in humans, pathology is of significance throughout the biological sciences. Two main catch-all fields exist to represent most complex organisms capable of serving as host to a pathogen or other form of disease: veterinary pathology (concerned with all non-human species of kingdom of Animalia) and phytopathology, which studies disease in plants. Overlap with other diagnostic medicine Although separate fields in terms of medical practice, there are a number of areas of inquiry in medicine and medical science which either overlap greatly with general pathology, work in tandem with it, or which contribute significantly to the understanding of the pathology of a given disease or its course in an individual. As a significant portion of all general pathology practice is concerned with cancer, the practice of oncology is deeply tied to, and dependent upon, the work of both anatomical and clinical pathologists. Biopsy, resection and blood tests are all examples of pathology work that is essential for the diagnoses of many kinds of cancer and for the staging of cancerous masses. In a similar fashion, the tissue and blood analysis techniques of general pathology are of central significance to the investigation of serious infectious disease and as such inform significantly upon the fields of epidemiology, etiology, immunology, and parasitology. General pathology methods are of great importance to biomedical research into disease, wherein they are sometimes referred to as"experimental" or "investigative" pathology.