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Learning Theories
Cognitive Vs. Behavioral
Natalie Cavazos
Instructional Design
Project 2
William G. Perry
William G. Perry
Cognitive Theorist (1913-1998)
Educational Psychologist
Taught education at Harvard University
Founder of Harvard’s Bureau of Study
Perry’s Contributions
1935-1940- Assistant Dean at Williams College
1947- Perry founded the Bureau of Study Council
1950- Along with Alston Hurd Chase translated
Homer’s “Iliad”
1970- Wrote “Forms of Intellectual and Ethical
Development in the College Years”
Perry’s Theory
Perry wrote a scheme that is a model for understanding
how college students come to understand knowledge,
the ideas they know about ‘knowing’ and the ways
thinking and knowing is part of a cognitive process.
There are nine stages that they pass through, some are
The authorities know
the true authorities are right, the others are frauds
Everything is relevant but not equally valid
You make your own decisions
Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov
Behavioral Theorist (1849-1936)
Received a degree for Natural Sciences from the
University of St. Petersburg
Professor of Pharmacology at Medical Military
Is famous for the conditioned reflex and classical
Pavlov’s Contributions
1875- Graduated from the University of St. Petersburg
1879- Graduated from the Medical Military Academy
1897- Published lectures of the digestive glands
1904- Received the Nobel Peace Prize for his research
of the digestive glands
1935- Government built a laboratory for Pavlov for his
work on conditioned reflexes
Pavlov’s Theory
Classical Conditioning is a form of learning in which a
conditioned stimulus signals the occurrence of another
unconditioned stimulus.
The unconditioned stimulus is usually a significant
stimulus such as food or pain, something that gives a
response from the start.
The stimuli in a classroom would be the grade, either
reward or punishment.
Perry’s theory on adult
Perry did a study of college students which is used to
understand a students cognitive processes which
includes both ethical and intellectually development.
Perry believed we all view the world differently due to
factors such as gender, religion, ethnicity, and
socioeconomic status.
In some cases students may resist to learn content that
challenges their beliefs, or they may argue that their
answers are just as valid as the teachers.
Pavlov’s theory on adult
Teachers are applying classical conditioning in
their classrooms by providing with them with a
positive classroom environment.
If they pair a anxiety- provoking situation, like
public speaking, in a pleasant classroom
environment they can make a new association
of public speaking as a positive experience and
keep them relaxed and calm
Summary: Application of learning
theories on Adult Education
Perry’s theory is used in many Universities.
Ex: Professors know how to come across
teaching students in the different stages of their
Pavlov’s theory is used in all types of classrooms.
Ex: Teachers help students through Pavlov’s
theory in the classroom by providing a positive
environment in stressful situations. This helps the
students associate the negative situation with a
positive experience.
Works Cited
-Learning and Conditioning.(n.d.). students’
bestfriend. Retrieved October 15, 2013, from
-Classical Conditioning. (n.d.). An
Education & Child Development Site for Parents. Parenting &
Educational Resource. Retrieved October 12, 2013,
-A View of Cognitive Approaches to Learning Development- DE
Oracle. (n.d.). DE Oracle. Retrieved October 14, 2013 from
William G. Perry – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.).
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved October 8, 2013, from