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The Popes, Crusades &
of Medieval Europe
Ms. Malloff’s Social Studies 8 class
Prominent Popes of Medieval Europe
Who were the Popes?
• Pope is head of the Catholic
• Had enormous influence
over all of Western Europe
• Popes supported & advised
kings (Charlemagne)
Pope’s Power
• Popes thought they had supreme
authority over all the people of
Christiandom including Kings
and Nobles.
• This was based on the idea that Christ’s
apostle, Peter, was the first “Pope” &
represented Christ on earth.
Pope Urban II called the Crusades,
“Holy Wars,” (1096-1200) to:
• Purpose: to drive Muslims out of the
Holy Land of Jerusalem, in Israel.
• Restore Holy Land for Christian Pilgrims
who liked to visit there.
• Give knights a purposeful mission.
• To unite Christians under him.
Jerusalem is a holy city
To Muslims, Jews,
And Christians. It is
Located in Israel.
Difference between a Crusade and
a Pilgrimage
• Crusade was a holy war, fought
in Jerusalem against Muslims
• Pilgrimage was a peaceful visit to a
holy place (church, shrine) where a
saint was buried or holy event took
Who were the Crusaders?
• Serfs who wanted a
change from their
mundane lives
• Children who
believed in the idea
• Women & nuns who
believed in the idea
• Knights who wanted
something to fight
Jerusalem is here.
There is fighting between
Palestinian Muslims & Jews
For this territory.
Middle East
Crusaders in Jerusalem
What do you notice taking place
In this painting?
What Happened?
• Christians saw
Muslims as “infidels”
• “Infidel” is someone
who doesn’t share
your religious belief.
• Muslims saw
Christians as
infidels, too.
Results of the Crusades
• Failure to win back the
Holy Land.
• Decline of Pope’s
prestige & feudalism.
• Interest in other places
ideas, and cultures.
What do you think?
• Were Crusades a poor decision? Good
decision? Why or why not?
• Should you impose your ideas on
someone else?
• Were there some good things that
happened as a result?
• Would you have supported the idea of
The End