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Transcript
Chapter 01
Lecture and
Animation Outline
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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1
1.1 The Human Body
2
A. Introduction
1.
2.
3.
Anatomy – structure of a part and its
relationship to other structures
Physiology – function of a part,
individually and as part of a system
The structure of a part suits the
function of a part (they complement
each other).
3
B. Organization of Body Parts
1.
Levels of Organization
a. Chemical – atoms, molecules, and
macromolecules that compose the cellular
organelles that perform the functions of the cell
b. Cellular – basic unit of life
c. Tissue – similar cells that perform a specific
function
d. Organs – several types of tissues that perform a
specific function
e. Organ Systems – several organs that work
together to perform related functions
f.
Organism – all the systems that interact to
make the whole organism
4
Levels of Organization
5
1.2 Anatomical Terms
6
A. Introduction
1.
Anatomical terms are used to describe:
a. Location of body parts
b. Regions of the body
c. Imaginary planes by which the body
can be sectioned
7
Introduction, cont
2. Anatomical position
a. Common
reference point
for all anatomical
terms
b. Standing erect,
face, palms, and
toes facing
forward, arms at
sides
8
B. Directional Terms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Anterior (ventral)/Posterior (dorsal)
Superior/Inferior
Medial/Lateral
Proximal/Distal
Superficial/Deep
Central/Peripheral
Ipsilateral/Contralateral
9
Directional Terms
10
C. Regions of the Body
1.
2.
Axial portion – head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular portion – upper and lower
limbs
11
Terms for body parts and areas
12
D. Planes and Sections of the Body
1.
Sagittal (median) plane – divides body
into right and left portions
a. Midsagittal – exactly through the
midline
b. Parasagittal – any cut not through the
midline
2. Frontal (coronal) plane – divides body
into anterior and posterior portions
3. Transverse (horizontal) plane – divides
body into superior and inferior portions
13
Body planes and sections
14
1.3 Body cavities and membranes
15
A. Posterior (dorsal) body cavity
1.
2.
3.
Cranial cavity – contains the brain
Vertebral canal – contains the spinal
cord
Meninges – membranous layers lining
dorsal body cavity; contains
cerebrospinal fluid to nourish and
support the brain and spinal cord
16
B. Anterior (ventral) body cavity
1.
Thoracic cavity
a. Medial portion (mediastinum) –
contains the heart (pericardial
cavity), thymus gland, trachea,
esophagus, and other structures
b. Right and left portions (pleural
cavities) – contain the lungs
17
Anterior (ventral) cavity, cont
2.
Abdominopelvic cavity
a. Superior portion (abdominal cavity) –
contains the stomach, liver, spleen,
gallbladder, and most of the small
and large intestines
b. Inferior portion (pelvic cavity) –
contains the rectum, urinary bladder,
internal reproductive organs, and the
rest of the large intestine
18
Major body cavities and membranes
19
C. Ventral cavity membranes
1.
Parietal serous membrane – line walls
of anterior body cavities
a. Thoracic cavity
1) Parietal Pleura – lines thoracic
cavity
2) Parietal pericardium – creates
pericardial cavity
b. Abdominopelvic cavity
1) Parietal peritoneum – lines the wall
of the abdominal cavity
20
Ventral cavity membranes, cont
2.
Visceral serous membrane – covers
organs of the anterior body cavity
a. Thoracic cavity
1) Visceral pleura – covers lung tissue
2) Visceral pericardium – covers heart
b. Abdominopelvic cavity
1) Visceral peritoneum – covers many
organs in abdominopelvic cavity
21
Ventral cavity membranes, cont
3.
4.
A small amount of serous fluid is between
the parietal and visceral layers that
lubricates and reduces friction
Inflammation or infection of these
membranes is a serious health issue
22
Relationship between the body wall, serous
membranes, and organs
23
Please note that due to differing
operating systems, some animations
will not appear until the presentation is
viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide
Show view). You may see blank slides
in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views.
All animations will appear after viewing
in Presentation Mode and playing each
animation. Most animations will require
the latest version of the Flash Player,
which is available at
http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
24
D. Abdominopelvic regions and quadrants
1.
Abdominopelvic regions - nine regions
a. Right and left hypochondriac, epigastric
b. Right and left lumbar, umbilical
c. Right and left iliac, hypogastric
2. Four quadrants
a. Right upper, left upper
b. Right lower, left lower
25
Abdominopelvic regions & quadrants
26
1.4 Organ Systems
27
A. Support, Movement, and Protection
1.
Integumentary System
a. Skin and accessory organs
b. Protection, prevents infection & water
loss, regulate body temperature, sense
organ, synthesizes chemicals
2. Skeletal System
a. Bones, cartilage, ligaments
b. Support, movement, mineral storage,
produces blood cells
3. Muscular System
a. Skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles
b. Movement, posture, heat production
28
B. Integration and Coordination
1.
Nervous System
a. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
b. Communication, control, and responses
2. Endocrine System
a. Hormone producing glands such as the
pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid
gland, etc
b. Communication, control, and responses
29
C. Maintenance of the Body
1.
Cardiovascular System
a. Heart and blood vessels
b. Transport
2. Lymphatic and Immune Systems
a. Spleen, tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes,
special cells and chemicals
b. Protect from disease
3. Respiratory System
a. Lungs and passages
b. Gas exchange
30
Maintenance of the Body, cont
4.
Digestive System
a. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines,
accessory organs
b. Receive and break down food into
nutrients cells can use
5. Urinary System
a. Kidneys, urinary bladder, tubes
b. Remove nitrogenous waste, regulate
fluid level and chemical content of the
blood
31
D. Reproduction and Development
1.
Male Reproductive System
a. Testes, ducts, glands
b. Produce sperm and male sex
hormones
2. Female Reproductive System
a. Ovaries, ducts, uterus
b. Produce ova and female sex
hormones, provide site for young
development
32
1.5 Homeostasis
33
A. Introduction
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Homeostasis is the relative constancy of
the body’s internal environment
External conditions may change
dramatically
Internal conditions stay within a narrow
range
Dynamic equilibrium – internal
conditions are not absolutely constant
Illness results if internal conditions
change to any great degree
34
B. Components of homeostatic mechanisms
1.
2.
3.
Sensor – detects a change in the
internal environment
Control center – activates the effector
Effector – produces a response to the
change
35
C. Negative feedback
1.
2.
3.
Primary homeostatic mechanism
Effector reverses the change in the
internal environment
Keeps the variable close to the set point
36
Negative feedback general pattern
37
Mechanical example of negative feedback
38
Body temperature regulation
39
D. Positive feedback
1.
2.
3.
Effector continues to stimulate the
sensor so that a greater change in the
internal environment occurs
Helps in completing a process that has a
cutoff point
a. Blood clotting
b. Childbirth
Can be harmful
40
Positive feedback
41
Please note that due to differing
operating systems, some animations
will not appear until the presentation is
viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide
Show view). You may see blank slides
in the “Normal” or “Slide Sorter” views.
All animations will appear after viewing
in Presentation Mode and playing each
animation. Most animations will require
the latest version of the Flash Player,
which is available at
http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer.
42
E. Homeostasis and body systems
1.
2.
All body systems contribute towards
maintaining homeostasis.
Each system affects the other systems.
43
Human systems work together
44
Human systems work together
45
F. Disease occurs when homeostasis fails
1. Local disease – restricted to a specific
part of the body
2. Systemic disease – affects several organs
systems or the entire body
3. Acute disease – occurs suddenly and
lasts a short time
4. Chronic disease – develops slowly and is
long term
46