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Download Grade 10 Chapter 15: Islamic Civilization Section 1: Origins of Islam
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Grade 10 Chapter 15: Islamic Civilization Section 1: Origins of Islam Arabia Before Islam: Arabia is a huge peninsula, it is nearly twice the size of Alaska. Arabia is extremely dry, it receives little rain and has no permanent rivers. Much of Arabia is covered by desert. The Rub’ al-Khali or “Empty Quarter” desert covers much of the peninsula. o Summer temperatures in these arid lands are some of the hottest in the world. o The peninsula’s harsh environment helped keep foreign invaders out of Arabia for most of its history. o The population of Arabia depended on oases, an oasis is a place in a desert where water can be found. Living in Arabia: The people of Arabia, practiced two different ways of life in ancient times. o Some were nomads. Nomads were people with no permanent homes and who moved from oasis to oasis to water their flocks and survive. Arab nomads were known as Bedouins. They herded sheep, goats & camels. Bedouins were skilled warriors. o Some were the Sedentary Arabs, who lived as farmers and merchants. Farmers tended fields watered by oases. Merchants set up shop in oasis towns along Arabia’s main trade router. Trade brought wealth and attracted settlers. The Rise of Islam: Muslims consider Muhammad (PBUH) the prophet of their religion = Islam. o He was born in Mecca, a town in the Hijaz. o Mecca used to be a religious center. Had an important shrine called the Kaaba where Arabs came to worship their gods. Every year, a religious fair attracted thousands of people. o In 610, the angel Gabriel appeared before Muhammad in the cave. Gabriel told him to recite, or say out loud, messages from God. Muslims believe that Gabriel brought more messages from God. Muhammad (PBUH), passed these messages on to his followers. They later wrote down these messages in the Quran, the Islamic holy book. Preaching a New Message: Muhammad (PBUH) began to preach in the streets of Mecca. He told Arabs to worship only one God and to change many of their behaviors. He said that he had received revelations from God. He compared their God to the God who had spoken to Abraham & Jesus. He began to win believers but many Meccans opposed Islam. o They believed Islam will reduce their status and wealth. o They feared they would anger their gods. o And they were threatened by this new way life. 622, Muhammad (PBUH) and his fellow muslims fled Mecca and moved to the town of Medina. Later, they fought against Mecca and won, taking over and making it the center of Muslims. Section 2: Beliefs of Islam Sources of Islamic Teaching: The Quran is Islam’s holy book, it is also the main source of Islamic teaching. o It consists of 114 chapters in verse form. o The verses discuss the nature of God, creation, & the human soul. They also address moral, legal and family issues. The Sunnah is another key source of Islamic thought, or traditions of Muhammad (PBUH). He is considered the best role model. The recorded accounts of the prophet’s sayings and actions are called the Hadith. Monotheism: The believe that there is only one God. The Five Pillars of Islam: Belief: The first pillar is starting a belief that there is nor god but Allah and the messenger is Muhammad (PBUH). Prayer: Religious duty for Muslims to pray five times a day. Charity: The third pilled of Islam is giving charity to the needy. Muslims must share their wealth with the less fortunate. Fasting: The fourth pillar is fasting during Ramadan, a month on the Islamic calendar. Pilgrimage: The fifth pillar is hajj, or pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca.