Elevated Language Figurative Language is… speech or writing that departs from literal meaning in order to achieve a special effect or meaning, speech or writing employing figures of speech There are six styles of elevated language Simile Metaphor Personification Symbol Allusion Kenning Simile A comparison between two unlike things using like, as, than, or resembles He looks just like a dog. This is a simile because it compares two unlike things, He and dog, using like. Metaphor A comparison between two unlike things not using like, as, than, or resembles There are two types of metaphors Direct Metaphor Indirect Metaphor Direct Metaphor A comparison of two unlike things usually using a be verb Be verbs am, is, are, was, were Ex) He is a monkey This is a direct metaphor because it compares two unlike things, He and monkey, using the be verb is. Indirect Metaphor A comparison of two unlike things usually using an action verb hint. It will use an action verb hint when the think it is being compared to is not directly stated. Action verbs: walk, explode, sleep, etc Ex) The city sleeps. This is a direct metaphor because it is comparing the city to a human using the action verb hint sleeps. In many cases the things being compared will be stated. Ex) The flood of God’s wrath. Personification Giving non-human qualities to inhuman things or inanimate objects. Ex) The dog spoke to me. This is personification because it give the inhuman dog the human ability to speak Symbol A person, place, thing, or event that stands for something more than itself Symbols have two meanings: A symbolic meaning – a meaning other than what it is A literal meaning – a meaning of what it is. Symbol continued… Ex) Whiplash – literal: a device used to move cattle. Symbolic – pain, torture, degradation, slavery Wedding Ring – Literal – a ring Symbolic – love, eternal bond Allusion A reference to a person, place, thing, idea, or event in history, science, religion, politics, literature, etc. The most popular allusion is a Biblical allusion – a reference to something in the bible Ex) I’ll be back spawn of those two, ancestor to Cain Do the Ricky Bobby! Kenning A figurative expression, usually compound in form, that is used in place of a name or noun. Examples: Whale-road = stormy ocean, swan-road = calm ocean, skycandle = sun, slaughter-dew = blood This is a kenning because it uses a compound word, sky-candle, to replace a noun, sun. The Purpose of Elevated Language The purpose of Elevated language is to: 1. Help the reader Connect to what he/ she is reading. 2. Help the reader understand what he/she is reading.