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EVERYTHING: must be filled out with a No. 2 pencil on an NCS answer sheet, form no. 4521
(blue scantron).
NAME: print last name, leave a blank, then print first name, and fill in the corresponding bubble
for each letter.
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: write the last four digit of your Social Security Number (or
Student Number) in columns A, B, C, D, and fill in the corresponding bubble for each digit.
ANSWER: fill in one bubble for each question (total 100 questions).
Hand in the blue scantron form. You should mark the question sheets and keep them for yourself
to compare with the correct answers, which will be posted on
1. A synapse is a(n):
A) chemical messenger thasdf triggers muscle contractions.
B) automatic response to sensory input.
C) neural network.
D) junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron.
E) neural cable containing many axons.
2. The association areas are located in the:
A) spinal cord.
B) brainstem.
C) thalamus.
D) limbic system.
E) cerebral cortex.
3. Dendrites are branching extensions of:
A) neurotransmitters.
B) endorphins.
C) neurons.
D) glial cells.
E) endocrine glands.
Page 1
4. Increasing the intensity of a stimulus above the threshold will not similarly increase the
intensity of a neural response to that stimulus. This highlights the nature of the:
A) synaptic gap.
B) myelin sheath.
C) reward deficiency syndrome.
D) all-or-none response.
E) glial cells.
5. In a resting state, the axon is:
A) depolarized, with mostly negatively charged ions outside and positively charged ions
B) depolarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions
C) polarized, with mostly negatively charged ions outside and positively charged ions
D) polarized, with mostly positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions
6. In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single
neuron travels from the:
A) cell body to the axon to the dendrites.
B) dendrites to the axon to the cell body.
C) axon to the cell body to the dendrites.
D) dendrites to the cell body to the axon.
E) axon to the dendrites to the cell body.
7. The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of:
A) interneurons.
B) endorphins.
C) neural networks.
D) glial cells.
E) lesions.
8. Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
A) hippocampus
B) amygdala
C) angular gyrus
D) thalamus
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9. The reuptake of a neurotransmitter such as serotonin would involve the reabsorption of
serotonin into a(n):
A) axon terminal.
B) receiving neuron.
C) myelin sheath.
D) glial cell.
10. The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by
A) association area.
B) myelin sheath.
C) endocrine gland.
D) neural network.
E) synaptic vesicle.
11. Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located in knoblike terminals on the:
A) dendrites.
B) cell body.
C) axon.
D) myelin sheath.
12. The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.
A) occipital
B) temporal
C) frontal
D) parietal
13. The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the:
A) limbic system.
B) spinal cord.
C) brainstem.
D) cerebellum.
14. Phrenology highlighted the potential importance of:
A) specific brain regions.
B) neurotransmitters.
C) hormones.
D) the right brain.
Page 3
15. Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ________ lobes.
A) occipital
B) temporal
C) frontal
D) parietal
16. Monkeys have feature-detecting brain cells that respond to illusory contours. This best
illustrates that:
A) binocular cues are more informative than monocular cues.
B) the right and left eyes receive slightly different images of the same object.
C) sensation and perception blend into one continuous process.
D) sensory information may not be consciously experienced.
E) animals readily adjust to artificially inverted visual fields.
17. Infants who were exposed to the visual cliff:
A) tried to climb up the cliff if their mothers were at the top.
B) gave no evidence that they could perceive depth.
C) refused to cross over the "deep" side to their mothers.
D) eagerly crossed to their mothers by means of the "bridge" provided.
18. An artist paints a tree orchard so that the parallel rows of trees converge at the top of the
canvas. Which cue has the artist used to convey distance?
A) interposition
B) relative clarity
C) linear perspective
D) texture gradient
19. When asked to estimate the distances of white disks under either clear or foggy
conditions, people:
A) judged the disks to be closer when viewed in the fog than when viewed in the
B) found it impossible to make any distance estimates under foggy conditions.
C) judged the disks to be the same distance away whether viewed under clear or foggy
D) judged the disks to be farther away when viewed in the fog than when viewed in the
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20. The lights along the runway were shrouded in such a thick fog that the pilot of an
incoming plane nearly overshot the runway. The pilot was most likely misled by the
distance cue known as:
A) interposition.
B) lightness constancy.
C) convergence.
D) relative clarity.
E) linear perspective.
21. The perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called:
A) perceptual set.
B) perceptual constancy.
C) figure-ground perception.
D) the phi phenomenon.
22. Our inability to consciously perceive all the sensory information available to us at any
single point in time best illustrates the necessity of:
A) selective attention.
B) perceptual adaptation.
C) retinal disparity.
D) perceptual constancy.
E) the phi phenomenon.
23. Your friend tosses you a frisbee. You know that it is getting closer instead of larger
because of:
A) shape constancy.
B) relative motion.
C) size constancy.
D) all of the above.
24. Because she mistakenly thought she was much closer to the mountain than she actually
was, June perceived the mountain to be ________ than it actually was.
A) higher
B) smaller
C) more richly colorful
D) larger
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25. Although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, students
typically perceive the books as rectangular objects. This illustrates the importance of:
A) interposition.
B) size constancy.
C) linear perspective.
D) shape constancy.
E) binocular cues.
26. The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as
closer is:
A) interposition.
B) relative height.
C) relative clarity.
D) linear perspective.
27. The existence of convincing scientific evidence that ESP is possible would pose the
greatest challenge to the:
A) contemporary scientific understanding of human nature.
B) continued existence of parapsychology.
C) continuation of research on the processes that underlie ordinary forms of sensation
and perception.
D) ordinary belief systems of most Americans.
28. Retinal disparity refers to the:
A) tendency to see parallel lines as coming together in the distance.
B) tendency to see stimuli that are near each other as parts of a unified object.
C) somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object.
D) extent to which our eyes turn toward each other when looking at an object.
29. When the moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This
effect is primarily a result of:
A) the slightly dimmer appearance of the horizon moon.
B) the scattering of the horizon moon's light waves, which penetrate the atmosphere at
an angle.
C) distance cues, which make the horizon moon seem farther away.
D) the brighter appearance of the horizon moon.
Page 6
30. The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as
closer is:
A) interposition.
B) relative height.
C) relative clarity.
D) linear perspective.
31. Children learn to fear spiders more easily than they learn to fear guns. This best illustrates
the impact of ________ on learning.
A) spontaneous recovery
B) conditioned reinforcers
C) shaping
D) cognitive processes
E) biological predispositions
32. For operant conditioning to be most effective, when should the reinforcers be presented
in relation to the desired response?
A) immediately before
B) immediately after
C) at the same time as
D) at least a half hour before
E) in any of the above sequences
33. Jake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather
than with an hourly wage. Jake prefers working on a ________ schedule of
A) fixed-ratio
B) fixed-interval
C) variable-interval
D) variable-ratio
34. Our ability to learn by witnessing and imitating the behavior of others best illustrates:
A) respondent behavior.
B) prosocial behavior.
C) operant conditioning.
D) observational learning.
Page 7
35. Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the
light with electric shock. The stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light
is established and gradually strengthened is called:
A) shaping.
B) acquisition.
C) generalization.
D) spontaneous recovery.
E) latent learning.
36. After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the
campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a:
A) cognitive map.
B) discriminative survey.
C) perceptual delineation.
D) geographical heuristic.
E) fixed-interval schedule.
37. A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with another reinforcer is
called a ________ reinforcer.
A) negative
B) primary
C) partial
D) conditioned
E) positive
38. It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a
food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning.
A) primary reinforcers
B) stimulus generalization
C) spontaneous recovery
D) biological predispositions
E) shaping
39. Which of the following is the best example of the overjustification effect?
A) Zeke loses interest in playing baseball after the coach suspends him for a throwing
B) Bill dislikes doing homework even more after his father eliminates his allowance
because he received an "F" in geometry.
C) Phyllis enjoys babysitting more after her hourly wage is tripled.
D) Phoebe loses her former interest in playing the violin after her mother promises to
pay her 50 cents for each hour of practice.
Page 8
40. The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:
A) Watson.
B) Skinner.
C) Bandura.
D) Pavlov.
E) Wundt.
41. If a bell causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the
presentation of food, the bell is called a(n):
A) unconditioned stimulus.
B) primary reinforcer.
C) conditioned stimulus.
D) immediate reinforcer.
42. You always rattle the box of dog biscuits before giving your dog a treat. As you do so,
your dog salivates. Rattling the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n)
43. By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate
the process of:
A) habituation.
B) spontaneous recovery.
C) classical conditioning.
D) observational learning.
E) operant conditioning.
44. Punishment is a controversial way of controlling behavior because:
A) behavior is not forgotten and may return.
B) punishing stimuli often create fear.
C) punishment often increases aggressiveness.
D) of all of the above reasons.
45. Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with:
A) loud sounds.
B) bright lights.
C) bitter tastes.
D) high-pitched sounds.
E) any of the above.
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Answer Key -- 2002mid45
1. D
2. E
3. C
4. D
5. D
6. D
7. C
8. D
9. A
10. B
11. C
12. C
13. B
14. A
15. B
16. C
17. C
18. C
19. D
20. D
21. C
22. A
23. C
24. B
25. D
26. A
27. A
28. C
29. C
30. A
31. E
32. B
33. A
34. D
35. B
36. A
37. D
38. D
39. D
40. D
41. C
42. A
43. C
44. D
45. C
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