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Transcript
Chapter 8 section1
The High and Late Middle Ages
1050-1450
Royal Power Grows
Monarchs, Nobles and the Church
• Monarchs stood at head of society, but had little
power
• Nobles and the Church had as much power, or
were more powerful than monarchs
• Each had their own courts, armies and collected
taxes
• Resisted any efforts by monarchs to increase
power
• From1000 to 1300 balance of power began to
shift from nobles and courts to monarchs
English Kings
Strengthen Their Power
• During early middle ages the Angles, Saxons, and
Vikings settled England
• A feudal structure developed but English monarchs
maintained control
• 1066 Anglo-Saxon king, Edward died without an heir
• Harold, brother in law of Edward was chosen to rule
• William, Duke of Normandy,also claimed throne as a
relative of Edward –promised throne
William of Normandy
Conquers England
• William raised and army and was backed by the
pope
• Sailed across English Channel
• Won the Battle of Hastings defeating Harold
• French speaking William the Conqueror became the
king of England
• Next 300 years saw blending of French and AngloSaxon customs, languages and traditions
The Normandy Invasion
William the
Conqueror
Harold of
England
•Granted fiefs to the church
•Kept large amount of land
•Knew who built castles and
where they were located
Required every vassal to swear
First allegiance to him
The Domesday book
• Complete census
taken
• Built efficient
system of
Taxation
• Helped to create
treasury
Developing a Unified Legal System
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1154 Henry II inherited throne
Expanded accepted customs into law
Sent out justices to enforce law
The decisions of these justices became foundation of
English Common Law
Applied to all of England
Disputes taken to royal courts rather than local court of
nobles or the Church
Charged fee
Developed jury system, like grand jury today
Later trial jury evolved
Henry the II
•Developed common law
•Developed jury system
•Had Thomas Becket killed over
dispute as to who had the right to
try clergy, the Royal Court or Church
Courts
•Becket killed in 1170 by four of Henry’s
knights
Evolving Tradition of Government
King John
Son of Henry II
Lost war with Philip II, King of
France, losing lands in France
Rejected the person Innocent III
chose as Archbishop of Canterbury
•Excommunicated by Innocent III
•Cause of interdict on all of
England
•Angered nobles with oppressive
taxes and other abuses
•Forced to sign the Magna Carta
•Asserted that nobles had
certain rights, later extended
to all citizens
•The monarch must obey the
law
•Freeman were protected
from arbitrary arrest,
imprisonment, and other
legal actions
•Called due process of law
•Basis of right of habeas
corpus
•No new taxes without
consulting lords and clergy
The Development of Parliament
King Edward I
•Added two knights from each
county and representative of the
towns
•Known as Model Parliament
•Became the House of Commons
•House of lords and clergy
•Gained the power of the purse
•Monarchs had to meet demands
of parliament before giving him
money
•Limited the power of the
monarch
Monarchs in France
The Capetian Kings
987 – Hugh Capet elected King
•Elected because nobles thought he
would be easy to control
•Slowly increased royal power
•Made throne hereditary
(lasted for 300 years)
•Added to their lands/played nobles
off each other
•Won support of the Church
•Built effective bureaucracy
•Gained support of middle class
Hugh Capet
Philip Augustus Extends Power
•1179 became King of France
•Created bureaucracy of middle
class officials who owed loyalty to
him
•Granted charters to towns
• started a new national tax
•Increased land holdings 4X
• helped pope to suppress the
Albigensians adding their land
•Died in 1223 as most powerful
ruler in Europe
Louis IX
King and Saint
•Persecuted Jews
•Led French knights on Two
crusades
•By 1256 declared a saint
•Checked on local
administrators
•Expanded royal courts
•Ended serfdom
•Created a strong national
feeling among his subjects
• died in 1270
•France governed by efficient
central monarchy
Philip IV
•Tried to collect taxes from
the clergy
•Boniface VIII forbade Philip
to tax clergy without his
consent
•Philip sent troops to seize
Boniface, but he escaped
•1305 Frenchman elected
pope
• moved papal court to
Avignon
•Rival pope was elected in
Rome
•Set up Estates General
•Excommunicates Philip IV
•Surprise attack at his home
by Philip’s chief minister
•Boniface refused to resign
•Boniface was beaten badly
and nearly executed
•Died one month later
•Later popes would not
challenge power of kings
Boniface VIII