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Transcript
Structure of a
Neuron
Types of Neurons and their
basic structures.
The Neuron



A Neuron is a specialized type of cell that
carries messages throughout the nervous
system.
Message are transmitted through an
electrochemical process called
neurotransmission.
Neurons have structures similar to other cells.



They have a cell membrane
They have a nucleus containing DNA
And organelles such as Ribosomes and
Mitochondria.
Three basic types of Neurons



Sensory Neurons carry signals from the sensory
organs to the central nervous system along
afferent nerve fibers.
Inter Neurons carry signals from one neuron to
another either within the central nervous
system or from sensory to motor neurons.
Motor Neurons carry signals from the Central
Nervous System to the motor cells or muscles
along efferent nerve fibers.
Basic Structure of a Neuron
Dendrites
Axon
Soma (cell
body)
Terminal
Buttons
Myelin Sheath
(Schwann Cells)
Image: Biological Neuron
Schema. Wikimedia Commons.
Nicolas.Rougier
Parts of a Neuron




Soma or Cell body - contains cytoplasm and the
nucleus, which includes the chromosomes.
Mitochondria in the cell body perform
metabolism. Ribosomes synthesize proteins.
Dendrites – receive input from previous neurons.
Axon – Carries the electrical impulse (action
potential) to the terminal buttons.
Terminal Buttons – Contains vesicles that release
chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) across
the synaptic gap to other neurons.
Image of real neurons
Neurotransmission
The Synapse
 The
Synapse
defines the
neural pathway.
 The
type of
neurotransmitter
used ensures
that specific
neural functions
occur.
Neurotransmitters
Specificity of
Neurotransmission
 If
we only hade a single
neurotransmitter then the
only way to ensure
specificity would be
through strictly
delineated pathways.
Stimulus - Response
A




specific stimulus:
Light
Sound
Pressure
Chemical
 Yields




a specific response:
Color
Pitch
Texture
Odor
Neurotransmission
 The
complexity of our nervous system allows
us to not only experience the world around
us, but contemplate it’s meaning even it’s
very existence.
 “If our brains were simple enough for us to
understand them, we'd be so simple that
we couldn't.”

Ian Stewart