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Transcript
1
University High School
AP Psychology Unit Reviews
2010-2011
Table of Contents
Unit 1: History & Approaches .................................................................................................................................. 4
Giselle Webb & Amy Wilson ......................................................................................................................................... 4-6
Rachel Snyder & Ariela Steinberg ................................................................................................................................. 7-8
Alexis Mort & Kelsey Utter .......................................................................................................................................... 9-12
Unit 2: Research Methods ..................................................................................................................................... 13
Graham Smith & Neeko Gardner .............................................................................................................................. 13-15
Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior ....................................................................................................................... 16
May Zhan & Jenifer Wong ......................................................................................................................................... 16-22
Shinae Bailey & Chelsea Olson .................................................................................................................................. 23-28
Kristin Pearthree & Hailey Sanders ........................................................................................................................... 29-38
Adrian Quijada & Marcus Montano .......................................................................................................................... 39-49
Angel Adams & Grant Jahn ....................................................................................................................................... 50-58
Surani Samarasinha & Sneha Sekhadia ..................................................................................................................... 59-63
Jaynie Anguiano & Kaley Weintraub ......................................................................................................................... 64-71
Unit 4: Sensation & Perception .............................................................................................................................. 72
Regina Aquino & Leanne Stone................................................................................................................................. 72-75
Roxanne Cleary & Laura Van Slyke............................................................................................................................ 76-81
Marisa Marsteller & Melanie Lehnhardt .................................................................................................................. 82-86
Maggie Duncan ......................................................................................................................................................... 87-90
Unit 5: States of Consciousness ............................................................................................................................. 91
Felipe Bauer & KT Tawadros ......................................................................................................................................... 91Sam Kagen & Nathan Vita ................................................................................................................................................ 5
Kailey Moonen & Drisana Martinez ................................................................................................................................. 5
Chris Blake & Kaylee Goettel............................................................................................................................................ 5
Unit 6: Learning .................................................................................................................................................... 10
Tyler Hawkins & Freddy Driesen ...................................................................................................................................... 5
2
Heather Howe & Brittany Hempel ................................................................................................................................... 5
Brian Kanarr & Nicole Bundy............................................................................................................................................ 5
Michael Montoya & Katlyn Green ................................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 7: Cognitive Psychology ................................................................................................................................. 11
Sean Ashley & Tonatiuh Pilli............................................................................................................................................. 5
Chad Vietti & Jesse Pegram.............................................................................................................................................. 5
Matt Reyes & John Temple .............................................................................................................................................. 5
Jenifer Wong & Sarada Thanikachalam ........................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 8: Motivation & Emotion ............................................................................................................................... 12
Sierra Speranza & Gio Noriega ......................................................................................................................................... 5
Kenia Lucey & Sarah Chon ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Derek Wong ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Senovia Quihuis ................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Unit 9: Developmental Psychology ........................................................................................................................ 13
Kia Hitt .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5
Kayla Samoy & Carly Stewart ........................................................................................................................................... 5
Rachel High & Brandon Hellman ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Reed Patterson & Morgan Sierra ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 10: Personality .............................................................................................................................................. 14
Sam Crozier ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Katie Marascio & Georgia Behrend .................................................................................................................................. 5
Chandler Wallace ............................................................................................................................................................. 5
Garrett Abeln & Katherine Richard .................................................................................................................................. 5
Unit 11: Intelligence .............................................................................................................................................. 15
Francois Chu & Sam Winsten ........................................................................................................................................... 5
Noah Sleiman & Caitlin Newman ..................................................................................................................................... 5
Anais Alonso & Angelique Keaton.................................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 12: Psychological Disorders ............................................................................................................................ 16
Maddie Reckart & Amanda Johnson ................................................................................................................................ 5
Demi Zipperian & Kevin Luke ........................................................................................................................................... 5
Dani Fisk & LaRay Graner ................................................................................................................................................. 5
3
Angela Della Croce & Lejla Prijic ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Ryder Wilson & Brendan Vos ........................................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 13: Treatment of Psychological Disorders ....................................................................................................... 17
Brandon Trappman & Solana Temple .............................................................................................................................. 5
Casey Sueme .................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Matt Trouard & Isaiah Bice ...................................................................................................................................266-267
***NOTE: There are no reviews for Unit 14 (Social Psychology) because we did it at the very end of the year. Make sure
you still review it!***
4
Giselle Webb & Amy Wilson
return to Table of Contents
AP Psychology
Unit 1 Review
What is Psychology?
 The study of scientific behavior and mental processes
 Roots of Psychology primarily in physiology and philosophy
Physiology
 The study of the biological workings of the body
o Hippocrates’ Humours:
 Balance among humours=health, imbalance=effects on personality and health
 Relevant ideas of Hippocrates: homeostasis, diet, and exercise
o Phrenology:
 19th century science that predicted personality based on bumps and fissures in the skull
 Relevant ideas of Phrenology: localization of brain
function
Philosophy
 The use of logic and speculation to understand the nature of reality, experience and values
o Rene Descartes:
 Dualism: distinction between mind and body
o John Locke:
 Tabula rasa: the person you are today is because of
things that have happened to you
The Dawn of Psychology
 William Wundt:
o Wundt set up first psychology lab and more interested in mental processes than behavior, and founder
of structionalism.
 Structionalism:
o The psychology of the “is.” Viewed psyche as a complex set of related parts. Primary research tool of
structuralists is introspection.
o Introspection:
 “looking within.” Thinking about of mental processes and then reporting them.
 Functionalism:
o The psychology of the “is for.” Difficulties with structuralism led to functionalism
o William James:
 James sought to understand the way in which the mind helps people function or adapt
 Gestalt Psychology:
o Focused on the whole being more than the sum of its parts.
 Perceptual units: A whole formed from individual parts
Psychodynamic Psychology (Psychoanalysis)
 Sigmund Freud—Viennese physician focused on neurology
5
o push/pull of conscious/unconscious
 Primary Notion: Mind is NOT a unitary construct -- separate components of mind (unconscious)
o Unconscious: outside of awareness, doesn’t come to consciousness by will
 Freud believed that many urges are sexual/aggressive
 Urges=unacceptable at conscious level; so we banish them to the unconscious
 Psychodynamic view of behavior:
o Push/Pull between conscious/unconscious
 Compulsive hand washing= dirt of unconscious desire
Frustrations of the Unseen
 Problems with early approaches
o Concerned with inner workings of the mind
 Difficult to study- especially with limited technologies of the time
Behaviorism
 School of Psychology focused on Stimulus & Response Relationship (cause & effect)
 1930-1950
 Emphasis on observable behavior
 Easier to study than mental processes
o Ivan Pavlov
o BF Skinner
o John Watson
 Extreme behaviorists: mental processes don’t even exist
 Learning operates on principles of:
o Reinforcement and Punishment
 Problems with behaviorism?
o Self wants/desires drive emotions
 People do stuff because they want, not because they register it with something
Humanistic Psychology
 Growth potential of healthy people
 Love, belonging, acceptance
o Carl Rogers
o Abraham Maslow
Cognitive Psychology
 Cognitive Revolution
o Computers: technological development that provided a new analogy for the mind
 Brain= hardware
 Mental processes= software
 Cognitive Psychology: information processing approach; characterize how information is stored and operated
internally
o Memory, language, etc.
The Great Debate
 Nature vs. Nurture
o Relative contributions that genes and experiences make the development of psychological traits and
behaviors
3 Levels of Analysis in Psychology
6
1) Biological Influence—genetic predispositions, genetic mutations, natural selection, genes responding to the
environment
2) Psychological Influence—learned fears, emotional responses, cognitive processing, perceptual interpretations,
learned expectations
3) Social-Cultural Influence—presence of others, peer/group influences, cultural/societal/familial expectations,
compelling models (media)
Biopsychosocial Approach—integrates the 3 levels of analysis to explain psychology
Kinds of Psychologies

Basic vs. Applied Research
Basic: To improve knowledge—biological, developmental,
cognitive, personality and social psychologists
Applied: To solve problems-- biological, developmental,
cognitive, personality, social and industrial/organizational
psychologists
Clinical Psychologists



assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior
disorders
administer and interpret tests
provide counseling and therapy
Psychiatrists


can provide medication to treat problems
provide counseling and therapy
Counseling Psychologists



help people cope with challenges by recognizing
strengths and resources
o academic
o vocational
o marital
administer and interpret tests
provide counseling and therapy
7
Ariela Steinberg & Rachel Snyder
return to Table of Contents
UNIT 1






Hindsight Bias = After learning an outcome, the tendency to believe that you would have foreseen it; “I
knew it all along…”
Psychology = Study of what people do (behavior) and what people think (mental processes)
o Physiology = Study of physical workings of body and brain
 Hippocrates’ 4 humors (=fluids of body critical to health and well being; blood, black
bile, yellow bile, phlegm)
 4 in balance = health; imbalance = affected personality and health
 Phrenology = “Science” that predicted personality based on bumps and fissures of skull
 Assumption that brain size proportional to ability; certain bump reflects certain
characteristic
o Philosophy = Use of logic and speculation (not scientific research, therefore not necessarily
true) to understand the nature of reality, experience, and values
 Rene Descartes
 Dualism = Idea that mind and body are separate
 John Locke
 Tabula rasa = new born is blank slate, come in to world with nothing; person
completely based on environment
st
Structuralism (1 formal psych movement) = “psych is..”; identify what mental processes ARE; Idea that
psyche is a complex set of related parts, like puzzle
o Wilhelm Wundt – wanted to identify psyche
 Set up 1st psych lab (Germany)
 1st father of psychology
 Founder of Structuralism
 Introspection = primary research tool
 Think about mental processes then report them
Functionalism = “psych is for…”; wanted to understand how psyche works/how it works
o William James – understand how psyche functions
 2nd father of psych
 Founder of Functionalism
Gestalt Psychology = Idea that brain groups things in bigger pictures; based on idea of pragnanz =
concise
o Perceptual units = whole formed by the small parts, easier to deal with; ie flock of birds
Psychodynamic Psychology = Push-pull interactions of conscious/unconscious forces
o Sigmund Freud
8
o Mind not a unitary construct; separate components, some conscious and other unconscious
 Unconscious = not able to be brought to consciousness by will
 Full of biological/natural/primal instincts: sex and anger
 BUT cannot fulfill urges b/c not socially acceptable
 Behavior = product of push pull between unconscious desires vs. trying to be
appropriate for the day-to-day
 Early approaches /\ : difficult to study (no technology, cannot explain all mind does), created
frustration therefore \/
 Behaviorism = stimulus-response relationship; ie (Pavlov) ring a bell causes drooling
 Behavior = cumulative response to stimuli
o Pavlov, Skinner, Watson
o Extremists: argued mental processes did not exist, “computerized”
o Impact on principles of reinforcement and punishment (both stimuli, good or bad, that bring
out a response in people)
 Humanistic Psychology
o Maslow
o Emphasized growth potential of healthy people
 Peak potential of people? Being best you can be, you’ll be happy
 Cognitive Psychology = Attempts to characterize how information is stored and operated internally
o Cognitive Revolution -> computer analogy
 Brain = Hardware
 Mental Processes = Software
 NATURE (heredity/genes) VS. NURTURE (tabula rasa/environment)
o 3 levels of explanation in psych:
 Biological influences
 Wundt
 Psychological influences
 Social-cultural influences
o Biopsychosocial approach = integrates all 3 levels to explain the psychology more fully
 Psychologists do..?
o Research
 Basic = aims to increase knowledge and understand more the mind
 Applied = Aims to solve practical problems
o Professional Services
 Clinical psychologists = Studies, asses and treats people with psychological disorders
using talking
 Psychiatrists = Treats disorders using therapy and often medication
 Counseling psychology = Helps people deal with daily life problems (marriage, work…)
9
Kelsey Utter and Alexis Mort
return to Table of Contents
Unit 1: History & Approaches
Psychology: scientific study of behavior & mental processes


Behavior-what people do
Mental processes- what people think
Roots of Psychology
Physiology- study of the biological workings of the body(including the brain)

Phrenology- “science” that predicted personality based on bumps & fissures in the skull , assumptions of
brain specialization , size of brain region proportional to ability, skull adapted to shape of brain
Ideas that are still releavant: localization, brain function, brain region size

Hippocrates- Hippocrates’ 4 Humours-4 liquids in body, if they’re balanced then you’re healthy,
blood,black bile, yellow bile, phlegm
Was correct that Imbalance(diet ,activity) =effects on personality & health
Ideas that are still relative: homeostasis, diet & exercise
Philosophy- the use of logic & speculation to understand the nature of reality, experience & values
 Rene Descartes- dualism: distinction between mind and body
Relevance today: Realized 2 are more connected, although separate entities, mind
(philosophy)
effects how body acts

John Locke- “tabula rasa” or blank slate, you’re born with nothing and who you become is from your
experiences
Relevance today: Empiricism-knowledge comes from experience, scientific testing,
observation/experiment
(philosophy)
The 2 Father’s of Psychology
Wundt- set up 1st psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany; interested in mental processes more than behavior; founder of
structuralism
William James- other father of psychology (along w/ Wundt); sought to understand ways mind helps people “function”
or adapt to the worldFunctionalism
10
Development of Psychology
Structuralisma. Psychology complex set of related parts, Wundt, interested in structures of mind with different functions
b. A certain area in the brain triggers emotions.
c. First formal movement in psychology
d. What are the mental processes & how do they operate? How do you do something in your mind?
e. Introspection: primary research tool of structuralism; means looking within; thinking about our mental
processes & then reporting them (NOT every mental process is available to us)
Functionalism
a. James, sought to understand the ways the mind helps people to function
humans think, feel, and behave like they do?
or adapt to the world. Why do
b. influenced by Darwin
c. groundwork for psychological research on animals
d. Pragnanz- German for “conciseness”: we organize our experiences in ways that are
symmetric, and simple
regular, ordinary,
Gestalt Psychology
a. Whole is more than the sum of its parts, based on Pragnanz, German for “conciseness”. We organize
experiences in ways that are regular, ordinary, symmetric and simple.
b. Our brain puts information into perceptual units
c. Pragnanz- German for “conciseness”-we organize our experiences in ways that are regular, ordinary,
symmetric, and simple ex) illusions
d. Categorize thoughts into simple emotions-happy/sad/angry. Lots of parts come together from how you feel,
results in how you act
Psychodynamic Psychology
a. Freud focused on neurology, push & pull interaction of conscious & unconscious forces which result in our
behavior, many unconscious urges are sexual and/or aggressive
b. People don’t have emotions; they have urges which are suppressed and then result in behaviors.
Consciously express something other than unconscious emotions. Unconscious trying to go out.
11
Behaviorism
a. Stimulus response: cause & effect, observable behavior, reinforcement and punishment
b. NO emotions because no mental processes. Ex. Liking dogs is unobservable mental process the dog
is a stimulus which we respond to with our behavior such as petting. OR don’t care
c. Formative research on learning, using principles of reinforcement and punishment
d. Humanistic Psychology and Cognitive Psychology are responses to Behaviorism
e. Pavlov, Skinner, Watson
Humanistic Psychology
a. Emphasized growth potential of healthy people, good/peak potential of people?
b. Love, belongingness, acceptance needs
c. Emotions how you get to be self-actualized.
Cognitive Psychology
a. characterizes how info is stored and operated on internally, thinking(memory, language, etc)
b. Emotions, how we think about it.
Contemporary Psychology
a. 3 levels of analysis: differing complementary views for analyzing any given
psychological, and social-cultural influences
b. biopsychosocial approach: integrate all three levels of analysis to explain
phenomenon-Biological,
psychology more fully
What do Psychologists do?
1. Research
-Basic: aims to increase knowledge and understanding of the mind
-Applied: aims to solve practical problems
2. Professional Services
-Clinical psychology: studies ands treats people with psychological
uses psychological therapy techniques
disorders and
-Psychiatry: treats disorders using therapy and medication
-Counseling psychology: helps people deal with daily life problems
work, school)
(marriage,
12
Book Terms
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Empiricism-view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through
observation and experiment.
Neuroscience-how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
Evolutionary-How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of ones genes
Behavior genetics-How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic-how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
Behavioral-How we learn observable responses
Cognitive-How we encode, process, store, and retrieve info
Social Cultural-How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
13
Graham Smith and Neeko Gardner
return to Table of Contents
Unit 2 Research Methods
The Scientific Method-A 5 step approach to science
1.
Identify a problem
2.
Form a hypothesis about the relationship between variables
3. Test the hypothesis by collecting data using operational definitions-a definition of a
variable that specifies how it is measured or manipulated
4.
Formulate a theory-set of principles that explain a set of observations
5.
Test the theory by generating a new hypothesis.
There are 3 major types of research
Descriptive Research
This characterizes the who, what, when, where, and how of a certain population
There are 3 types of Descriptive research
Case Study
A research technique in which one person is studied in depth
This is typically used to examine exceptional or rare cases
Pros
Allows for a detailed understanding of the individual
Can suggest ideas for future research
Cons
The individual will not be representative of the general population
Surveys
A set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or behavior
This draws conclusions about a population based upon a sample
Pros
Cheap and easy to get done quickly
Cons
People lie and you may get a lot of biased responses
Naturalistic Observations
Watching and recording the behavior of organisms in their natural
environment
14
Pros
Observation of behavior in natural settings (no artificial influences)
Cons
Difficult to be truly obtrusive and not noticeable while observing
There are ethical concerns with this
Correlation Research
Correlation-a measure of how closely related two variables are
2 correlated variables are predictive of each other, a change in one variable
predicts a change in the other
Correlation Coefficient (r)-statistic that measures correlation. Ranges from -1—1
There are two key components, direction and size.
Direction is positive or negative, size is the number
No matter the sign of the number, the bigger the number is the more correlation.
A positive correlation means an increase in one variable predicts an increase in the other
A negative correlation means an increase in one variable predicts a decrease in the other
Pros
Demonstrates a correlation of variables
Easy to do, low cost
Good when a variable can’t be manipulated
Cons
Correlation does not imply causation
Third variable problem-is there a 3rd variable influencing the other two?
Sometimes they appear related when they aren’t
Experimental Research
Designed to determine the causal relationship between two or more variables
Predictive and explanatory
Independent Variable-The aspect of the experiment that is manipulated
The variable whose effect is being studied
Dependent Variable-The aspect of the situation that is being measured, the outcome
This depends on the manipulations of the IV
3 Steps to Experimental Research
1. Form a hypothesis about the causal relationship between the variables
2. Manipulate the IV, creating 2 or more groups
Control Condition-Group that serves as the comparison to the experimental
one
15
3. Measure the DV in all conditions and compare the results
It is very important that the different groups are treated identically
Confound – A variable that varies, besides the ones in interest
To make experiments work you need to have random assignment
Random Assignment – Assigning participants to experimental and control groups
minimizes preexisting differences.
by chance,
Experiments should strive to be reliable and bias-free.
Reliability – The consistency of results in repeated experiments.
Validity – The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.
Internal validity – The extent to which a study is methodologically accurate.
External validity – The extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized to situations outside
the laboratory.
Response bias – A tendency to respond in a particular way regardless of the respondent's actual knowledge
or beliefs (the question influences the answer).
Sampling bias – Occurs when participants are not chosen randomly.
Demand characteristics – Effects that occur when a researcher's expectations lead him (consciously or
unconsciously) to treat participants in a way that encourages them to produce the expected results.
Double-blind experiment – The solution to the demand characteristics problem. The participant is
“blind” to the predictions of the study and the experimenter is “blind” to the condition assigned to the
participant. So, in a medical experiment, neither the doctor nor the patient would know if the patient was given
the placebo or the real medicine.
Statistics – Numbers that summarize or indicate differences or patterns of differences in measurements. In
psychology, statistics generally describe central tendencies and variabilities.
Descriptive statistics – a concise way of summarizing properties of sets of numbers (they describe
things!)
Standard deviation – the average variability in a set of measurements.
Inferential statistics – the results of tests which indicate whether differences or patterns in
measurements reveal true differences or just chance variations.
Statistical significance – A statistical statement of how likely an obtained result occurred by chance.
Meta-analysis – analyzing analyses. Essentially taking many studies and analyzing their results to come
up with one “big picture” result.
16
May Zhan & Jenifer Wong
return to Table of Contents
Unit 3-Biological Bases of Behavior
Biopsychology/Neuroscience-studies the link between biology and behaviors, mental processes
-NEURONNerve Cell, basic building of nervous system.
Glial Cell- cells that fills the gaps, aids communication, helps and upkeeps in between neurons.
Cell Body(soma)- central part of the neuron, contains nucleus, regulates cell functioning
Dendrites- branching parts of neuron that receive messages from other neurons and relay them to cell body
Axon- long, cable-like extension that relays messages to other neurons
Myelin Sheath- layer of fatty tissue that insulates axon and speeds up message transaction
Terminal Buttons- releases chemicals into space between neurons
*Multiple sclerosis- deterioration of myelin leads to slowed communication with muscles & impaired
sensation in limbs
3 types of neurons1) Sensory neurons-respond to input from sensory organs
2) Motor neurons-send signals to muscles to control movement
3) Interneuron-connects the sensory neurons and motor neurons
17
3
1)
2)
3)
functions of neuronsReceives signals from other neurons or sensory organs
Processes signals
Sends signals to other neurons, muscles, or bodily organs
How a Neuron Works.
Resting Potential-negative charge maintained within neurons that are at rest: sodium (NA+) builds up outside
neuron, potassium (K-) build up inside neuron.
Messages come in 2 forms-excitatory or inhibitory.
Threshold-the level of stiumulation required to trigger a neural impulse: (“All or none law”)
-SYNAPTIC CLEFTThe gap between axon and dendrite cell body across which neural transmission occurs.
Neurotransmitter-a chemical that send signals from one neuron to another over synaptic cleft
Vescicles-bind to Receptors on cell membrane of next neuron ***each receptor can only bind with one kinds
of neurotransmitter***
Reuptake-reabsorbing the remaining neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft back into vesicles
6 Important Neurotransmitters
18
Acetylcholine
Voluntary muscle movement, learning & memory
Deficits Alzheimer’s
Dopamine
Influences movement, learning, attention & emotion
DeficitsParkinson’s
SurplusSchizophrenia
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
DeficitsDepression
Norepinephrine
Helps control alertness & arousal, “fight or flight”
DeficitsDepression
GABA
Inhibitory Neurotransmitter
Glutamate
Excitatory Neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitters at Work
SSRIs- selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; used to treat depression
Endorphins- released in response to pain
2 classes of drugs/chemicals that influence neurotransmission1) Agonists-excites: mimics neurotransmitters effects due to similar structure (morphines and
endorphins), or may block reuptake(SSRI)
2) Antagonists-inhibits: may be similar enough to occupy receptor (curare), or to prevent release of
neurotransmitter(botox)
The Nervous System
19
Central Nervous SystemSpinal Cord-bundle of neural fibers that connects the brain to rest of body
Reflex-an automatic response to sensory stimulus
Peripheral Nervous SystemSkeletal/Somatic nervous system-allows for voluntary control of skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system-controls many of the self-regulatory functions of the body
Sympathtic nervous system: excites bodily functioning *norepinephrine
Parasympathetic nervous system: counteracts the sympathetic nervous system
Endocrine System
Hormones- chemical messengers that are created by one organ and affect another via
bloodstream
Pituitary Gland- most influential gland in the endocrine system; tiny structure in interior of
brain, controlled by hypothalamus, that regulates bodily growth and releases hormones
that regulate other endocrine glands
Mapping Brain Functions
* How do we know that different parts of the brain are responsible for different functions?
- By studying brain damage patients such as Phineas Gage OR…
EEG
(function)
An amplified recording of the
pulses of electrical activity that
sweep across the brain’s surface
Pros: high temporal
(time) resolution;
non-invasive
Cons: low spatial
resolution
CT/CAT
Produces 3D image of brain
Scan
structure using x-rays
(structure)
Pros: allows direct
Cons: potential for
view of level of
damage due to high
interest; high-contrast levels of radiation
spatial resolution
PET scan
(f)
Technique that uses small
amounts of radioactive glucose to
track energy consumption in the
brain
Pros: allows view of
brain functioning in
each part of the brain
Cons: radiation
exposure; lengthy
process; expensive
equipment required.
MRI (s)
Uses magnetic properties of
atoms to take sharp photos of the
structure of the brain (and other
soft tissue)
Pros: non-invasive;
high spatial
resolution; quick
process
Cons: can be
uncomfortable
20
fMRI (f)
Detects amount of blood flow in
different regions of the brain
Pros: same as above
Cons: same as above;
does not describe
brain function at rest
The Brain
* The human brain is comprised of “older” and “newer” parts (relative to evolution)
Older- lower level structures (physically and functionally), responsible for basic survival
mechanisms
Newer- higher level structures, responsible for more advanced human faculties
3 Regions of the Brain
1) Hindbrain: “older” brain region comprised of brainstem & cerebellum
- Life-sustaining, bodily processes
2) Midbrain: Thalamus
- Aids communication between hindbrain & forebrain
3) Forebrain: “newer” brain region comprised of limbic system & cerebrum
- Emotion, personality, decision-making, moral judgments, etc
21
Brainstem & ThalamusMedulla- connects spinal cord with brain-controls heartbeat, breathing,
swallowing
Reticular formation- regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system activity
Pons- bridge from brainstem to cerebellum-controls sleep, coordination of motor movements, posture, and
control of facial muscles
Thalamus- brain’s sensory switchboard-receives signals from sensory neurons, and higher brain structures.
CerebellumPhysical movement, posture, balance; Integration of sensory information, and contributes to estimating time
and paying attention ***cerebellum and other lower level brain structures occur without conscious
effects***
The Limbic SystemEmotion & Motivation
Amygdala- Anger and Fear
Hypothalamus- motivation; regulation of body’s temperature,
pressure, and heart rate; controls pituitary gland and
production
blood
hormone
Hippocampus- triggers processes that store memories
The rest of the brainCerebral Cortex- higher level mental processes
Cerebral Hemispheres- controls opposites sides of the body
Association Areas- areas of cerebral cortex not directly involved in motor control, sensory processing.
Sulcus- a crease in the brain
Gyrus- a bulge between sulci in the cerebral cortex
Lobes- regions in the brain
22
Frontal Lobe- behind the forehead
Motor Cortex- backmost gyrus of frontal lobe, controls fine movements
Parietal Lobe- center rear of the head
Sensory Cortex- foremost gyrus of parietal lobe, registers sensation of the body
Temporal Lobe- under the temples, in front of ears: process sounds, comprehending language
Occipital Lobe- located in the back of the brain-vision
Divided BrainCorpus Callosum- a large band of neural fibers that transmits messages between hemispheres:
Left Hemisphere- specializes in written language, spoken language, and reasoning
Right Hemisphere- specializes in insight, art awareness, imagination/creativity, music awareness
Split Brain Patients: people with damaged corpus callosums
Epilepsy-disease that results in large amounts of
uncontrolled neuronal firing, aka seizures
Split brain and vision- information is confined to the
left hemisphere
PlasticityThe brain’s ability to modify itself
Blind- expanded sense of touch
Deaf- enhanced peripheral vision
Neuroprosthetics- developed artificial aids for impaired nervous systems, relied on plasticity to incorporate
devices
HandednessLanguage-
Right-handers 95% process language in left hemisphere
Left-handers -50% left hemisphere, 25% right, 25% evenly split
23
Shinae Bailey & Chelsea Olson
return to Table of Contents
Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior
Study Unit 3 Terms with Online Flashcards Here: http://www.flashcardmachine.com/1226385/u5e4

Biological

The Neuron
o Neuron: A nerve cell that constitutes the basic unit of the nervous system
 Types of Neurons:
 Sensory Neurons: Respond to input from sensory organs
 Motor Neurons: Send signals to muscles to control movement
 Interneurons: Connect the sensory neurons and motor neurons
 Neuron Structure:
Psychology:






Studies
the
link
between
biology,
behaviors,
and
mental
processes
Glial Cells: Cells that fill the gaps between neurons
Dendrites: The branching parts of the neuron that receives messages from other
neurons
Cell Body: Also known as the Soma, the central part of the neuron
Nucleus: The “brain” of the neuron that regulates cell functioning
Axon: The long extension that delivers messages to other neurons
Myelin Sheath: The layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon and speeds up message
transmissions
24






Schwann Cells: The segments of myelin sheath that run down the axon
Nodes of Ranvier: The gaps between schwann cells along the axon
Axon Terminal Button: Structure at the end of an axon’s branches that releases
chemicals into the space between neurons
Neuron Functions:
 Receive signals from other neurons or sensory organs
 Process signals
 Send signals to other neurons, organs, etc
Neural Impulses:
 Messages to a neuron can be excitatory or inhibitory
 To send a neural impulse, a neuron must reach its threshold
o Threshold: The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
 When a neuron reaches its threshold, neurotransmitters stored in vesicles are released
o Neurotransmitters: A chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another
o Vesicle: Pockets within axon terminal buttons
 Neurotransmitters travel across the synaptic cleft, and bind to receptors on the cell
membrane of the next neuron
o Synapetic Cleft: The gap between the axon and the dendrite across which
neural transmission occurs
 Neurotransmitters that remain in the synaptic cleft are reabsorbed into vesicles through
reuptake
o Reuptake: A chemical reaction that reabsorbs neurotransmitters into vesicles
 A neuron that is not sending a neural impulse is at resting potential
o Resting Potential: The negative charge maintained within neurons that are at
rest
 Sodium ions (Na+) build up outside the neuron
 Potassium ions (K-) build up inside the neuron
 A neuron sending an impulse is at action potential
o Action Potential: The neural impulse
 The shifting change in electrical charge that moves down the axon to
the terminal buttons
Neurotransmitters
o Important Neurotransmitters:
Neurotransmitter
Function
Examples of Malfunction
Acetylcholine
Muscle movement
Alzheimer’s Disease
Dopamine
Increasing “good feeling”
Schizophrenia/Parkinson’s disease
Serotonin
Affects mood
Depression
Norepinephrine
Alertness and arousal
Depression
GABA
Inhibitory neurotransmitter
Seizures, tremors, insomnia
Glutamate
Excitatory neurotransmitter
Seizures, over stimulation of brain
25
o



Low levels of Serotonin are negatively correlated with depression
 Depression is often treated with SSRI’s (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
o Endorphins: Naturally occurring painkillers released in response to pain and exercise
 Literally “morphine within”
o Agonists vs Antagonists
 Agonists: Excite, cause function
 Mimic neurotransmitters
 Antagonists: inhibit, stop or forbid function
 Occupy receptors to block neurotransmitters
The Endocrine System
o The body’s chemical communication system
o Endocrine organs secrete hormones
 Hormones: Chemical messengers that are created by one organ and affect another by traveling
through the bloodstream
o Pituitary Gland: Tiny structure in interior of brain that releases hormones that regulate other endocrine
glands
 Controlled by hypothalamus
The Nervous System
o The body’s electro-chemical communication network
o Central Nervous System
 Contains the brain and spinal cord
 Spinal Cord: Bundle of neural fibers that connects the brain to the rest of the body
o Reflex: An automatic response to a sensory stimulus
 Reflex Arc: Sensory neurons detect stimulus  send signals to
interneurons in spinal cords  send signals to motor neurons
o Peripheral Nervous System
 Links central nervous system to organs
 Skeletal Nervous System: Allows voluntary control of skeletal muscles
 Autonomic Nervous System: Controls many self-regulating functions of the body
o Sympathetic Nervous System: Excites bodily functioning
 “Fight-or-Flight” response – caused by norepinephrine
 Faster heart rate, increased breathing rate, increased blood
sugar, slowed digestion, dilated pupils
o Parasympathetic Nervous System: Counteracts effects of sympathetic nervous
system, calms the individual down
 Acts as energy conservation system
The Brain
o 3 regions of the brain:
 Hindbrain
 Brain region comprised of the brainstem and the cerebellum responsible for lifesustaining, mostly automatic bodily processes
 Midbrain
 Brain region comprised primarily of the thalamus which aids communication between
the hindbrain and forebrain
 Forebrain
26

o
o
o
o
Brain region comprised of the limbic system and the cerebrum responsible for higher
level mental faculties such as personality, decision making, moral judgments, planning,
projecting self, etc
Hindbrain
 Brainstem: The set of neural structures at the base of the brainstem, including the medulla, the
pons, and the reticular formation
 Medulla: Spot where spinal cord slightly swells and connects with brain, controls
heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing
 Pons: Bridge from brainstem to cerebellum, controls sleep
 Reticular Formation: Regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system activity
Midbrain
 Thalamus: Receives signals from the sensory neurons, relays them to the appropriate parts of
the brain. Also receives signals from higher brain structures and relays them to the medulla and
cerebellum
 The Cerebellum: Area extending from rear of brainstem, coordinates physical movements,
posture, and balance, integrates sensory information, and contributes to the estimation of time
and paying attention
Forebrain
 The Limbic System
 System of neural structures involved in the basics of emotion and motivation: fighting,
fleeing, feeding, and sex
o Amygdala: A pair of structures that play a critical role in anger and fear
o Hypothalamus: Brain structure that sits under the thalamus plays a central role
in eating and drinking, regulates the body’s temperature, blood pressure, and
heart rate. Also controls the pituitary gland
o Hippocampus: Pair of brain structure primarily responsible for storing new
experiences in memory
The Cerebral Cortex
 The visible surface of the brain where most high-level mental processes occur
 Sulcus: A crease in the brain
 Gyrus: A bulge between sulci
 Cerebral Hemispheres: The two halves of the brain, separated by a deep fissure
 Left Brain: Written language, spoken language, number skills, analytical and reasoning
skills
 Right brain: Insight, art, awareness, imagination, creativity, intuitive and perceptual
skills
 Hemispheres control opposite sides of the body
 Corpus Callosum: A band of neural fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres
o Occasionally surgically severed to treat severe epilepsy. Split brain patients…
 When looking through the right eye: can see and name object
 Left hemisphere: language
 When looking through the left eye: can see but not name object
 The cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes:
 The Frontal Lobe: Controls planning, memory search, reasoning, emotions, decisions,
morality, personality, and finer motor control
o Motor Cortex: The backmost gyrus of the frontal lobe that controls fine
movements
 Parietal Lobe: Controls attention, registers spatial location, and motor control
27
o


Sensory Cortex: The frontmost gyrus of the parietal lobe that registers
sensation on the body
Temporal Lobe: Processes sounds, helps commit information to memory, and plays a
role in comprehending language
Occipital Lobe: Responsible for vision, and contains separate areas for shape, color,
motion, etc
o

Plasticity
 The brain’s
ability to
modify itself
 The
brain
is
most
plastic during childhood
Neuroprosthetics: Field developed to developing artificial aids and replacements for impaired
nerves (ie cochlear implant)
 Relies on brain’s plasticity

Important people
o Phineas Gage
 Survived an accident in which a pole was driven completely though his head, damaging much of
Gage’s frontal lobe. He retained his ability to function normally, but experienced significant
personality changes, demonstrating that different portions of the brain controlled different
processes and attributes
o HM
 Had his hippocampus removed to treat severe epileptic seizures. Following the operation, HM
was unable to make new memories (anterograde amnesia), but his old memories remained. He
was still able to form long-term procedural memories

Neuroimaging Techniques
Name
Method
Monitors
Advantages
Disadvantages
28
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Amplifies
recordings of
pulses of
electrical
activity across
brain’s surface
Brain Function
Tracks electrical
activity over time;
high temporal
resolution; non
invasive
Doesn’t provide
precise location
of electrical
current; low
spatial resolution
Computer Assisted
Tomography (CAT scan)
Utilizes X-rays
to produce 3D
brain structure
Brain Structure
Direct view of level
of interest; high
spatial resolution
Potential for
damage from
high levels of
radiation
Positron Emission
Tomography (PET scan)
Employs small
amounts of
radioactive
glucose to track
energy
consumption in
the brain
Brain Function
Produces an
estimate of the
amount of glucose
consumption in
each part of the
brain
Radiation
exposure;
expensive
equipment;
lengthy process
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(MRI)
Uses the
magnetic
properties of
atoms to take
pictures of the
brain
Brain Structure
Non-invasive
Can be
uncomfortable
for recipient
Functional Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
Detects the
amount of
blood flow in
different
regions of the
brain
Brain Function
High spatial
resolution; quick
process; noninvasive
Can be
uncomfortable
for recipient

Handedness
o 90% of people are right handed; 10% left handed
o Evidence that individuals are predisposed to become right-handed even before effects of culture
 Division of Labor Theory of Handedness
 Language and hand control both require fine motor control
o Therefore more efficient to have one hemisphere control both
29
Kristin Pearthree & Hailey Sanders
return to Table of Contents
BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR
Biological Psychology: studies link between biology, behavior, and mental
processes (neural science)
THE NEURON

Neuron: unit of the nervous system, nerve cell.
Human brain has 100 billion neurons

Glial cell: fills gaps between neurons, aids communication between neurons,
and helps in the care and upkeep of neurons
Types of neurons:
o Sensory neurons: respond information input from sensory organs
o Motor neurons: send signals to muscles to control movement
o Interneurons: connect sensory and motor neurons, most common type
Functions of neurons:
o Receive signals from other neurons and sensory organs
o Answer signals
o Send signals to other neurons, muscles, or organs


30

Parts of the neuron:
o Cell body- central part of neuron, contains nucleus, regulates all
functions
o Dendrites- branching part of neuron that receive messages from other
neurons and relay them to the cell body
o Axon- long cable-like extension that delivers messages to other
neurons
o Myelin sheath- layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon and
helps speed up messages’ transmissions
 Segments are Schwann Cells
 Gaps are Nodes of Ranvier
 Multiple Sclerosis: deterioration of myelin sheath. Slows
communication with muscles and impairs reception of
sensations from the limbs
o Terminal Button- structure at the end of an axon branch that
releases neurotransmitters into the space between neurons when a
neuron is fired
o Synaptic Cleft- gap between axon and dendrite/cell body across which
neuron transmission occurs
o Neurotransmitter- chemical that sends signals from one neuron to
another over the synaptic cleft
o Vesicles- store neurotransmitters in the terminal buttons
o Receptors- on the cell membrane of the next neuron. Bind with
neurotransmitter. They are specialized, so they only bind with one
neurotransmitter
31
ACTION POTENTIAL




Resting Potential: The negative charge maintained within neurons that are at
rest. Sodium ions build up outside neuron and potassium builds up inside.
Neurons remain in resting potential until triggered to fire by adjacent
neurons.
Threshold: the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
Action Potential: Neural impulse. The shifting change in electrical charge
that moves down the axon to the terminal buttons. At a speed of 2-200 mph,
depending on the part of the body
Reuptake: when some of the neurotransmitter remains in the synaptic cleft, a
special chemical reuptakes (reabsorbs) the neurotransmitter into vesicles
32
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
Neurotransmitter
Function
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Enables muscle action,
learning & memory
Dopamine
Influences movement,
learning, attention, &
emotion
Examples of malfunctions
Decreased ACh production 
Alzheimer’s
Disease
Excess  Schizophrenia
Undersupply  Parkinson’s
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep,
and arousal
Norepinephrine
Helps control alertness &
arousal
GABA
Inhibitory neurotransmitter
(gamma-aminobutyric
acid)
Glutamate
Undersupply  Depression
Undersupply  Depressed mood
Undersupply  Seizures, tremors,
insomnia
Excitatory neurotransmitter
Excess  Over stimulation of
involved in memory
brain, seizures
*Not all neurotransmitters are in all neurons. There are neurotransmitter
pathways in different parts of the brain, specialized for specific functions.*
33


Pert and Snyder (1973): Injected rats with morphine and radioactive tracers.
Found that there were receptors for morphine in the brain in areas linked
with pain and mood because of…
o Endorphins- natural opiates released in response to pain and exercise
Drugs and Chemicals that influence neural transmission:
o Agonists EXCITE by mimicking neurotransmitter shape, they fit into
receiving neurons receptors, or by inhibiting reuptake.
o Antagonists INHIBIT by occupying receptor site, blocking the
neurotransmitter without being similar enough to activate the next
neuron or by preventing the release of the neurotransmitter
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Nervous System
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System


Skeletal Nervous System
Parasympathic Nervous System
Central Nervous System
o Spinal Cord- bundle of neural fibers connecting the brain to the rest
of the body. It takes sensory information from the brain and delivers
it to the muscles. Enclosed in the vertebral column.
o Reflex- Involuntary reaction to sensory stimulus. Sensory neuron
receives stimulus and sends the signal to the spinal cord. The signal
is then sent to the motor neurons. The brain is not involved until
after the reflex.
Peripheral Nervous System
o Skeletal Nervous System- allows voluntary control of skeletal muscles
34
o
Autonomic Nervous System- self-regulating systems, automatic actions
(digestion, circulation). Focused on glands, control of internal
organs
 Sympathetic Nervous System- Excites bodily functions, prepares
body for defense action against threats: FIGHT OR FLIGHT
 Parasympathic Nervous System- counteracts sympathetic nervous
system. Calms body down. Energy conservation system
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
body’s chemical communication system, works slowly
o
o
Hormones: secreted by endocrine organs. Chemical messengers that affect
organs via the bloodstream. Some are chemically identical to
neurotransmitters. They are slower, but last longer.
Pituitary Gland: tiny structure in the interior of the brain, controlled
by hypothalamus. Regulates body growth through the human growth hormone
and releases hormones that regulate other endocrine glands. It is the
Godfather of the Endocrine System.
METHODS OF STUDYING THE BRAIN
o
o
o
o
o
EEG: amplified recording of pulses of electrical activity (brain
waves) that go across the brain’s surface. Monitors brain function,
but brain waves are always there, so EEGs look for spikes and
differences.
o Pros: tracks electrical activity over time, so we can see when
activity happens. Fast, accurate = high temporal resolution. Noninvasive.
o Cons: Electrodes on scalp don’t demonstrate exact location of
electrical currents = low spatial resolution
CT Scan: makes a 3D image of brain structure with x-rays.
o Pros: allows direct view of level of interest in the brain, high
contrast spatial resolution
o Cons: Potential damage due to high levels of radiation
PET Scan: uses small amounts of radioactive glucose (sugar) to take
energy consumption in the brain. Measure brain functioning
o Pros: Provides estimate of when the brain is working hard.
o Cons: Radiation exposure, lengthy process= poor temporal
resolution, expensive
MRI: uses magnetic properties of atoms to take sharp pictures of brain
structure and other soft tissue
fMRI: type of MRI that detects the amount of blood flow in different
areas of the brain. Measures brain function
o Pros: Super high spatial resolution, non-invasive, and quick
o Cons: Brain is constantly is using blood, so fMRIs have to look
for spikes in consumption. Uncomfortable for patient
35
THE BRAIN
o
o
Older parts of the brain: basic survival functions, physically lower in
the brain
Newer parts: advanced human facilities, physically higher in the brain
REGIONS OF THE BRAIN
o
o
o
Hindbrain: old brain, life-sustaining, mostly automatic bodily
processes
o Brainstem- controls communication between brain and spinal cord
 Medulla- where spinal cord slightly swells and connects
with brain. Controls heartbeat, breathing, swallowing.
 Reticular formation- Bundle of nerves that regulates
alertness and autonomic nervous system activity
 Pons- bridge from brainstem to cerebellum that controls
sleep, coordination of motor movements, posture, and facial
muscles
o Cerebellum- extends from rear of brainstem. Controls physical
movement, coordination, and balance. Involved in integration of
sensory information and contributes to estimating time and paying
attention.
Midbrain:
o Thalamus- aids communication between hindbrain and forebrain.
Forebrain: made of limbic system and cerebrum. Consists of higherlevel mental facilities
o Limbic System- EMOTION AND MOTIVIATION (fighting, fleeing,
feeding, sex. The emotional brain)
 Amygdala- two almond-shaped structures. Play critical role
in anger and fear.
o Kluver and Bucy (1939): lesion amygdala of
monkeys. They became mellow and unangerable.
Electrically stimulate amygdala of cats and they
get mad.
 Hypothalamus- sits under thalamus. Controls motivations
(eating and drinking), body temperature, blood pressure,
heart rate, Pituitary gland. Links endocrine and nervous
system. Pleasure center in the brain (because of the
dopamine pathway)
o Hippocampus: responsible for storing new experiences in memory.
 HM: had epilepsy. Removed hippocampi to control seizures.
This resulted in memory issues. Had anterograde amnesia,
but could form procedural memories.
o Cerebral Cortex- outer surface of brain where most high-level
mental processes occur. Wrinkled for increased surface area.
 Sulcus- crease in the brain
 Gyrus- bulge between sulci
36

Cerebral Hemispheres: the brain is divided into 2 sections
by a deep fissure. Hemispheres control opposite sides of
the body (left hemisphere controls right hand).
 Corpus callosum- band of fibers that transmit messages
between hemispheres. (see split-brain patients)
 Left Hemisphere- written/spoken language, number
skills, reasoning
 Right Hemisphere- insight, art, awareness, imagination
and creativity, music
 **The two hemispheres work together on most tasks,
except language**
SPLIT-BRAIN PATIENTS
People who have their corpus callosum cut
Information confined to the hemisphere that receives it
LOBES OF THE BRAIN
Each lobe is responsible for different higher-level functions, but they all work together
37
o
Frontal Lobe: directly behind forehead. Planning, decisions, memory
searches, complex motor control, reasoning, emotion, morality, personality,
things that make us uniquely humans
o Phineas Gage: (1823-1860) took a metal rod to the brain (frontal
lobe), while remaining conscious and communicative. Recovers and
lives, physically fine. But… personality changes! He becomes
impulsive, meaner, and child-like.
o
Motor Cortex: backmost gyrus of frontal lobe. Controls fine movements and
is controlled by body part
38
o
o
o
Parietal Lobe: top and center of brain. Controls attention, registers
spatial location, motor control, math, perceptual processing
o Sensory Cortex: front most gyrus of parietal lobe. Registers
sensation on the body and is organized by body part
Temporal Lobe: under the temples, in front of ears. Processes sound,
commits information to memory, comprehends language
Occipital Lobe: back of the brain. VISION. Separate sections for shapes,
colors, motion, etc.
PLASTICITY
The brain’s ability to modify itself. Most evident in brain
reorganization after damage. Most plastic during childhood.
-the blind: sensory cortex for Braille finger expands as sense of
touch takes over visual cortex
-the deaf: enhanced peripheral vision
-Neuralprostheitics: field that develops artificial
aids/replacements for impaired nervous systems. Relies on
plasticity to incorporate devices into existing systems.
39
Adrian Quijada & Marcus Montano
return to Table of Contents
Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior
Biological psychology: A Branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. (Some biological
psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientist, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, psychological
psychologists, or bio psychologists)
Neuron: a nerve cell; the basic building blocks of the nervous system. Average human brain= 100 billion neurons.
Glial cell: are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for the
brain's neurons. In the human brain, there is roughly one glia for every neuron with a ratio of about two neurons for
every three glia.
3 types of neurons:
1. Sensory neurons: respond to input from sensory organs (skin, eyes, etc.) None in the brain.
2. Motor neurons: send signals to muscles to control movement.
3. Interneurons: Connect sensory and motor neurons (Most common type)
3 functions of neurons: (Relay station)
1. Receives signals
2. Processes signals
3. Send signals out
Structure of the Neuron
40
Cell body: Central part of neuron contains
Nucleus (Regulates cell functioning)
Dendrites: the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron the receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell
body. (Input)
Axon: the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or
to muscles or glands.
Myelin sheath: a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission
speed of neural impulses as the impulses hops from one node to the next. (Segments= Schwann cells; Gaps= Nodes of )
Multiple sclerosis: Deterioration of myelin sheath  slowed communication with muscles and impaired
sensation in limbs.
Terminal buttons: Structure at the end of one axon’s branches; Release chemicals into space between neurons when
the neuron is fired.
Resting potential: Negative charge maintained with neurons that are at rest. Neuron remains resting state until
triggered to fire by adjacent neuron:
Sodium ions (Ka+) build up outside
Potassium ions (K-) build up inside
41
Messages from other neurons are either Excitatory (gas pedal) or Inhibitory (brakes)
Action potential: a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon to the terminal button. The action
potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in an out of channels in the axon’s membrane.
Speeds at 2-200 mph.
Synapse: the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Threshold: The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
Neurotransmitter: Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the
sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby
influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Vesicles: bubble-like containers of neurotransmitters, located at the end of an axon.
Receptors: Each reptor can only bind with one kind of neurotransmitter. (Lock and key)
Reuptake: Some neurotransmitter remains in synaptic cleft. Need special chemical reaction to re-absorb
neurotransmitter into vesicles.
42
Neurotransmitter
Function
Examples of malfunctions
Acetylcholine (ACh)
Enables muscle action, learning &
memory
With Alzheimer’s disease, ACh-producing neurons
deteriorate.
Dopamine
Influences movement, learning,
attention, & emotion
Excess dopamine receptor activity linked to
Schizophrenia.
Undersupply of dopamine, brain produces the
tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson’s
disease.
Serotonin
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal Undersupply linked to depression; Prozac and
some other antidepressant drugs raise serotonin
levels.
Norepinephrine
Helps control alertness & arousal
GABA
Inhibitory neurotransmitter
(gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Glutamate
Undersupply can depress mood.
Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and
insomnia.
Excitatory neurotransmitter involved in Excess can over-stimulate brain, producing
migraines or seizures (which is why some people
memory
avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food).
Serotonin and depression:
SSRIs: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the
treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders. They are also typically effective and
used in treating some cases of insomnia.
43
Endorphins: “morphine within” --- natural, opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
2 classes of drugs/chemicals that influence neurotransmission:
1. Agonists, such as some of the opiates, excite by mimicking particular neurotransmitters or by blocking their
reuptake
2. Antagonists, such as curare, inhibit a particular neurotransmitter’s release or block its effect.
The Nervous System, The Endocrine System, & Brain Research Methods
44
The Nervous System: the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the
peripheral and central nervous system.
Central Nervous System: The Brain and Spinal cord.
Spinal cord: Bundle of neural fibers that connect the brain to the body sensory information; Enclosed in vertebral
column.
Reflex: A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee jerk response. Brain is not involved
until after reflex. Allows brain to prevent reflex responses when appropriate.
Peripheral Nervous System-the sensory and motor neurons that
connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body (organs)
Skeletal nervous system: Allows for voluntary control of skeletal muscles.
Autonomic nervous system: controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its
sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic divisions calms.
Sympathetic nervous system: Arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations (defensive).
“Fight-or-Flight response.” Fater heart rate, increase breath rate, increased blood sugars, etc. Norepinephrine.
Parasympathetic nervous system: Calms the body, conserving its energy. Counteracts effects of sympathetic
nervous system.
45
Neural networks: interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits
connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
The Endocrine System-The body’s “slow” chemical communication system;
Asset of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream.
Hormones: chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands that are produced in one tissue
and affect another. Some hormones chemicals are identical to neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters deliver information
in fraction of a second, hormones may take several seconds or more from organ to organ.
Adrenal: A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline)
and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
Pituitary gland: Most influential gland; tiny structure in interior brain controlled by hypothalamus:
1)
2)
Regulate growth/ Human growth hormone (HGH)
Releases hormones that regulate other endocrine glands
Methods of Studying the Brain
A. Brain Damage & EEG
1. Brain damage patients: Phineas Gage (1831-1860) was an American railroad construction worker remembered for
surviving an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's
left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior – effects so profound that friends
saw him as "no longer Gage".
2. EEG: record the overall electrical activity (brainwaves) in the brain via electrodes placed on the scalp. Looks for spikes
and differences and monitors brain function.
Advantages: Tracks electrical activity in response to specific stimulus over time. High temporal resolution,
Non-invasive, and not painful.
Drawbacks: Electrodes on scalp do not determine precise location on electrical current. Low spatial resolution.
B. Neuroimaging Techniques
46
3. CT scan: a number of x-rays are taken of the brain from different angles. A computer then combines the x-rays to
produce a picture of a horizontal slice through the brain. (Structure)
Advantages: allows direct view of levels of interest. High-contrasted spatial resolution
Drawbacks: Potential damage due to high levels of radiation.
4. PET scan: researchers inject people with a harmless radioactive chemical, which collects in active brain areas. The
researchers then look at the pattern of radioactivity in the brain, using a scanner and a computer, and figure out which
parts of the brain activate during specific tasks, such as lifting an arm or feeling a particular emotion. (Function)
Advantages: Provides estimate of amount of glucose consumption in each part of the brain. “Where the ‘food
for thought’ goes.”
Drawbacks: Radiation exposure. Lengthy process. Expensive equipment necessary to create radioactivity
isotopes.
5. MRI: uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different
types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
6. fMRI: revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain
anatomy; fMRI scans show brain function.
Advantages: Indicates specific regions of activity, High spatial resolution. Non-invasive, quick process.
Drawbacks: Brain is never “off.” Constantly consuming oxygen. Can be uncomfortable for patients.
Forebrain:
Midbrain:
Hindbrain:
47
The Brainstem & Thalamus
Medulla:

Base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
Reticular formation:

Nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important
role in controlling arousal.
Pons:

Bridge from the medulla to the midbrain.
Thalamus:



Brain’s sensory switchboard
Located on top of the brainstem
Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and
medulla.
The Cerebellum

 Processes sensory input
Coordinates movement output
 Balance
The Limbic System
48
Amygdala:

Lima-bean shaped structure that is linked to emotion,
especially FEAR & ANGER
Hypothalamus:


Structure below the thalamus that directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature)
Helps govern the endocrine (hormonal) system via the pituitary gland
Hippocampus:


Involved primarily with memory
Helps to form new memories
Cerebral cortex:

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate
control and information-processing center.
Corpus callosum:

Structure that enables the transmission of information between the left and right hemispheres.
Left hemisphere:

Language & Speech
Right hemisphere:

Math, Artistic skills
Split-brain:

Condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between
them. (NO MORE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE HEMISPHERES)
Epilepsy:



Causes seizures
Cutting the corpus callosum reduces seizures
Split-brains and vision:
49
Lobes of the brain
1. Frontal lobe:




Speaking
Muscle movements
Making plans
Judgment and reasoning
Motor cortex:

Area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls
voluntary movements
2. Parietal lobe:

Receives sensory input for touch and body position
Sensory cortex:
3. Temporal lobe:

Receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
4. Occipital lobe:

Receives visual information
Plasticity:
The brain’s capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on
the effects of experience on brain development.
50
Angel Adams & Grant Jahn
return to Table of Contents
UNIT 3: BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR

The Neuron – Basic Unit of the Nervous System
o Three types of Neurons
 Sensory neurons - respond to input from sensory organs
 Motor Neurons – send signals to muscles to control movement
 Interneurons – connect the sensory and motor neurons
o Three Neuron functions
 Receive signals from neurons or sensory organs
 Process signals
 Send out other signals
o Neuron Structure
 (Soma) Cell Body – central part of neuron contains nucleus
 Dendrites – branching parts of neuron that receive messages from other neurons and relay
to cell body and nucleus
 Axon – long extension from cell body that delivers neural messages
 Myelin Sheath – layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon and speeds up signal
transmission. Comprised of two parts:
 Schwann Cells – each segment of myelin
 Nodes of Ranvier – gaps between Schwann cells
 Terminal button – structures at end of axon that create synapses with other neuron’s
dendrites
51

o How a neuron works: two states
 Resting Potential: the negative charge (K-) contained in the neurons and the positive
charge (NA+) outside causes them to be at rest.
 Action Potential (the neural impulse): shifting change in electrical charge that moves
down the axons to the terminal buttons
 First the threshold must be reached: the level of stimulation required to trigger the
electrical charge shift
o From neuron to neuron
 Synaptic Cleft – the “synapse” is
the space between terminal button
and dendrite of other neuron
 The action potential stimulates the
vesicles to release neurotransmitters
into space to be received by other
neuron receptors
 Not all neurotransmitters received.
The transmitting neuron
“reuptakes” the neurotransmitters
left in the synapse
o Neurotransmitters
 Acetylcholine: responsible for
muscle action and memory
 Dopamine: influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
 Seratonin: affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
 Norepinephrine: controls alertness and arousal
 GABA: inhibitory neurotransmitter
 Glutamate: excitatory neurotransmitter
o Neurotransmitters at work
 SSRI (selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors)
 To counter depression (caused by low serotonin levels), SSRI’s inhibit the
reuptake process so more neurotransmitters will be received by the other neuron
 Pert & Snyder (1973)
 Discovered by injecting morphine into rats that neurons have receptors for it even
though it is manmade. This led to the discovery of endorphins: naturally
occurring pain killers
o 2 classes of drugs that influence neurotransmitters
 Agonists: chemicals that excite by mimicking neurotransmitters with similar structure
 Antagonists: chemicals that inhibit by blocking receptors from real transmitters through
similar structure
The Nervous System – the body’s electrochemical communication network
o 2 branches
 Central Nervous System
52




Contains brain and spinal chord, which connects brain with the rest of the body
Reflex: an automatic response to a sensory stimulus
o Reflex arc: sensory neuron detects stimulus --- sends signal to
interneurons in spinal chord --- signal to motor neuron (brain not involved
in reflexes)
 Spinal chord acts as middle man of interneurons so the brain can prevent reflex
responses when appropriate
 Peripheral Nervous System
 2 parts
o Skeletal Nervous System: allows for voluntary skeletal muscle control
o Autonomic Nervous System: controls many self regulatory body
functions, primarily on glands and internal organs
 2 parts
 Sympathetic nervous system: “Fight or Flight” response
with norepinephrine
 Parasympathetic nervous system: counteracts sympathetic
nervous system
Endocrine System – the body’s chemical communication system
o Hormones: chemical messengers created by some organs for communication
o Pituitary Gland: controlled by the Hypothalamus and releases hormones that regulate other
endocrine glands
Mapping Brain Functions
o Phineas Gage (1823-1860)
 Metal rod through the front part of brain. Changed personality but not body functioning.
Showed that different parts of the brain are responsible for different things
o Neural impulses – electrical impulses down the neuron
 Electroencephalograph (EEG) – an amplified recording of the pulses of electrical activity
that sweep across the brain’s surface
 Monitors brain FUNCTION by detecting changes in brain activity
 Advantages – very high temporal resolution to get precise time and noninvasive
 Disadvantages – poor special resolution to get location of activity
o Neuroimaging Techniques
 Computer Assisted Tomography (CT Scan) – produces 3D brain image using X-rays
 Advantages – direct view of location interest in brain
 Disadvantages – potential for damage due to high X-ray radiation
 Positron Emission Tomography (PET Scan) – small amounts of radioactive glucose to
track energy consumption in brain to locate most active parts at a certain time
 Advantages – good tracking
 Disadvantages – radiation exposure, lengthy process, expensive
 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – uses magnetic properties of atoms to take pictures
of soft tissues
53


Magnetic field aligns all atoms in brain in same direction then second magnetic
field turns on and off to dealing them. Creates a picture
Functional MRI – detects amount of bloodflow in brain regions to detect oxygen delivery
and consumption
 Advantages – high spatial resolution, noninvasive, quick
 Disadvantages – can be misread, very uncomfortable
The Brain


Structure of the Brain
o The human brain is comprised of “older” and “newer” parts
 “older”: lower level structures, responsible for basic survival mechanisms
 “newer”: higher level structures, responsible for more advanced human faculties
3 Regions of the Brain
o Hindbrain: “older” brain region comprised of the brainstem and the cerebellum
 responsible for life sustaining, mostly automatic bodily processes
o Midbrain: brain region comprised primarily of the thalamus
 aids communication between hindbrain and forebrain
o Forebrain: “newer: brain region comprised of the limbic system and the cerebrum
54









higher level mental faculties such s personality decision-making, moral judgments, planning,
projecting self, etc
Hindbrain and Midbrain
o Brainstem: the set of neural structures at the case of the brain including the medulla, the pons, and
the reticular formation
 Facilitates communication between the brain and spinal cord
The Brainstem
o Medulla: spot where spinal cord slightly swells , connects with brain
 controls heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing
o Pons: bridge from brainstem to cerebellum
 controls seep, coordination of motor movements, posture and control of facial muscles
o Reticular formation: regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system activity
The Brainstem and Thalamus
o Thalamus: the brain’s sensory switchboard (except smell)
 Receives signals from sensory neurons, relay them to the appropriate parts of the brain
 Receives signals from higher brain structures, relays them to medulla and cerebellum
The Cerebellum
o “little brain” extending from rear of brainstem
 Coordinated physical movement, posture, and balance
 Integration of sensory information
 Contributes to estimating time and paying attention
*Cerebellum and other lower level brain structures occur without conscious effort *
o Much of our brains activity occurs outside of our conscious awareness
The Limbic System
o “limbus”: latin for “border”
 System of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemisphere
o Involved in the basics of emotion and motivation and flighting, fleeing, feeding, and sex (“The
Emotional Brain”)
o Comprised primarily of the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus
The Amygdala
o Amygdala: pair of almond shaped structures (one on each side) that play a critical role in anger and
fear
o Kluver and Bucy (1939) what happens if he lesion (natural or experimental destruction of brain
tissue) the amygdale?
 Lesioning amygdale of rhesus monkey turns into a mellow “unangerable” creature
o Electrically stimulating one part of the amygdale leads to anger response in cats. Another part leads
to fear response.
Hypothalamus
o Hypothalamus: brain structure that sits under (“hypo-”) the thalamus
 Motivations: plays a central role in controlling eating and drinking
 Regulates the body’s temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate
55






Controls the pituitary gland and thus hormone production (links nervous and endocrine
systems)
Olds and Milver (1954): hypothalamus a “pleasure center”/”reward center”
 Accidentally attached electrode to hypothalamus of a rat
Hippocampus
o Hippocampus: pair of brain structures primarily responsible for storing new experiences in memory
(and probably new information too)
o IMPORTANT: hippocampus does not contain memories itself.
o ***Memories are not stores in one place in the brain***
o Triggers processes that store memories of facts, events, etc throughout the brain
H.M.
o One of the most famous case studies in psychology history (died 2008)
o Suffered from epilepsy (childhood bicycle accident?)
 Age 27: hippocampus surgically removed to control seizures
o After operation: Anterograde amnesia: unable to form new memories
o Short term memory intact, but unable to commit information to long-term memory
 as opposed to: Retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve old memories
o Could not remember most of 3-4 days before operation, some events up to 11 years before operation,
but… (childhood memories intact)(evidence for memory consolidation?
o Was able to form long-term procedural memories (how to do things) but didn’t remember learning
the behaviors
Our Divided Brains
o Brain is divided into two halves (Cerebral hemispheres) separated by a deep fissure
 hemispheres control opposite side of body (e.g right handers writing controlled by the left
hemisphere
o Corpus callosum: A large band of neural fibers that transmits messages between hemispheres.
Connects the cerebral hemispheres
o Evidence of hemispheric specialization?
 Left brain: written language, spoken language, number skills, reasoning (analytical and
verbal)
 Right brain: insight, art, awareness, imagination/creativity, music awareness (intuitive and
perceptual)
o Not as simple as “left-brained” or “right-brained” the two hemispheres work together on most
tasks…
 Except language! (almost entirely left hemisphere)
o Left hemisphere as “interpreter”
 More active with slow deliberate decisions
o Right hemisphere for quick intuitive responses
 Better at recognizing faces, interpreting and expressing emotion
Split Brains and Split Brain Surgery
o Know hemispheric specialization from split-brain patients (people whose corpus callosum has been
severed for medical purposes)
56








Split brain surgery to treat severe epilepsy: a disease that results in massive amounts of
uncontrolled neuronal firing, leading to seizures
 Surgery prevents spasm from engaging both hemispheres, limiting severity
 Split brain patients typically function well, personality and intelligence intact
o Left half of both eyes field of vision sent to right hemisphere; right half sent to left hemisphere
 Corpus callosum allows hemispheres to share information
o In split brains, information is confined to the hemisphere that receives it
 Left hemisphere (right visual field) can see and name object
 Language capabilities typically located mostly in the left hemisphere
 Right hemisphere (left visual field) difficult or impossible to name and/or describe objects
(but they are still seen)
The Visible Brain
o Cerebral cortex: the convoluted pinkish-gray surface of the brain, where most higher level mental
processes take place
 Thin surface layer of neural cells covering cerebral hemisphere
 Highest level control and information processing center
o Cortex has “wrinkles” to increase surface area while keeping brain compact
 Sucrus (sucri): a crease in the brain
 Gyrus (gyri): bulge between sulci in the cerebral cortex
Structure of the Cortex
o Cerebral cortex divided into lobes (regions)
o ***Each lobe is (roughly) responsible for different higher level functions*
The Frontal Lobe
o Lobe located directly behind forehead
 Planning, memory search, sophisticated motor control, reasoning, emotions, decisions,
morality, personality, & other high-level functions
o Is what makes us uniquely human
Motor Cortex
o The backmost gyrus of the frontal lobe (immediately in front of central sulcus)
 Controls fine movements and is organized by body part
Parietal Lobe
o Lobe at the top and center/rear of the head
 Attention, registers spatial location, and motor control
 Also involved in arithmetic
Sensory Cortex
o The front must gyrus of the parietal lobe (immediately behind the central sulcus)
 Registers sensation on the body, & organized by body part
Temporal Lobe
o Lobe under the temples, in front of the ears
 Many functions including: processing sounds, committing information to memory, and
comprehending language
57




Occipital Lobe
o Lobe at the back of the head
 Responsible primarily for vision
 Separated areas for shape, color, motion, etc
Association Areas
o Areas of cerebral cortex not directly involved in motor control, sensory processing
 75% of human brain
Plasticity
o Plasticity: the brains ability to modify itself
 Happened in all people to some extent
 Often most evident in brain reorganization following damage
 *brain most plastic in childhood, easier to recover from brain damage*
o Plasticity and the Blind
 Sensory cortex for blind person’s Braille finger expands sense of touch takes over visual
cortex
 Temporarily “knocking out” visual cortex with magnetic stimulation  blind making
more errors on language tasks
o Plasticity and the Deaf
 Temporal lobe gets no auditory signal, eventually seeks signal from other systems
(particularly vision)
 Enhanced peripheral vision
o Plasticity and Neuroprosthetics
 Neuroprosthetics: field devoted to developing artificial aids/replacements for impaired
nervous systems
 Often relies on brain plasticity to incorporate artificial devices (prosthetics) into
existing neural networks
 Most common neuroprosthetic: cochlear implant “bionic ear”
 Stimulated auditory neurons according to sound, picked up by microphone
 Motor neuroprosthetics under conscious control?
 Computer cursors (move with their mind)
 2004: FDA approved first trials of neuroprosthetics in paralyzed humans
o First patient: tiny chip with 100 micro electrodes, recording motor cortex
activity
 Can control tv, draw shapes on computer, play video games
Handedness
o Division of Labor theory of Handedness
 Most widely accepted theory of handedness
 Language and hand control both require fine motor control
 More efficient to have one hemisphere control both
 Left hemisphere: language, thus right handedness
o Right Handedness
58



Close to 90% right handed
Been around for long time (studies of prehistoric cave drawings, tools, and arm/hand bones)
All human cultures right-handed
 Even before culture: 9/10 fetuses suck the right hands thumb and 2/3rds of newborns
(first two days) lie with their head to the right
 Language
 95% process language primarily in left hemisphere
 PROS
 Lefties more likely to experience reading disabilities, allergies, migraine headaches
 Society designed for righties (scissors, tools etc)
 Lefties disappear with age? (see below)
o Left Handedness
 Close to 10% left-handed (more common for men than women)
 Long linguistic history of disparaging left handers
 Language
 50% process language primarily in left hemisphere, 25% primarily in right
hemisphere, 25% in both
 PROS
 More common among renowned musicians, mathematicians, architects, artists
 Advantage in one-on-one sports like tennis
 May be more likely to be high-achievers
o Consistently outperform righties in all subjects in Iranian university entrance
exam
o Lefty men who attended college, 15% richer than righty men (for those that
graduated, 26% richer)
 Oh no, where’d the lefties go?
 Disappear with age, possibly due to…
o Older people forced to be right handed?
o Learn to be right-handed? (however, handedness doesn’t usually change)
o Die younger than righties? (maybe)
59
Sneha Sekhadia & Surani Samarasinha
return to Table of Contents
Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior
PART 1
I. The Neuron
II.
a. Neuron- a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
b. Dendrite- the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses
toward the cell body
c. Axon- the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to
other neurons or to muscles or glands
d. Myelin sheath- a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly
greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
e. Action potential- a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action
potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s
membrane
f. Threshold- the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
g. Synapse- the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the
receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap/ cleft.
h. Node of Ranvier- non-insinuated gap in between myelin sheath
i. Schwann cell-any cell that covers the nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system and forms the
myelin sheath
III. How Neurons Work
a. Resting Potential- the negative charge maintained within the neuron that are in rest
i. Sodium ions build up on the outside and Potassium ions build up on the inside
ii. Stay in resting potential until triggered to fire
b. Action Potential- the positive charge maintained within the neuron that is triggered
i. Messages are either excitatory or inhibitory
60
1. threshold- the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
2. “all or none” Law: threshold must be met completely otherwise there will no reaction
c. Neurotransmitters- chemical stored in the terminal that travel across the synapse to trigger other
neurons by binding to receptor sites
i. Some remain in the cleft and are returned into vesicles by reuptake
EACH RECEPTOR CAN ONLY BIND WITH ONE KIND OF NEUROTRANSMITTER
IV. Neurotransmitters
a. ACh- muscle movement
b. Dopamine- emotion influences
c. Serotonin- mood and sleep
d. Norepinephrine- controls and arousal
e. GaBA- inhibitory neurotransmitter
f. Glutamate- Excitatory neurotransmitter
V. Neurotransmitter Pathways
a. Neurotransmitters are located where they are needed
VI. The Nervous System
a. Body’s electrochemical communication network
b. Central Nervous System (contains the brain and spinal cord)
i. Spinal Cord- bundle of neural fibers that connects the brain to the body
1. sensory info from body to the brain
2. motor info from the brain to the body
ii. Reflex- an automatic response to sensory stimulus
1. Reflex Arc: sensory neurons detect stimulus > sends signals to the interneurons in the
spinal cord > signal to motor neurons
2. brain is NOT involved until after reflex
c. Peripheral Nervous System
i. Links central nervous system to organs
ii. Skeletal Nervous system: allows voluntary movement of skeletal muscles
iii. Automatic Nervous System- controls many of the self-regulatory functions on the body
(focused on glands and internal organs)
1. Sympathetic Nervous System: excited bodily functions to prepare for defensive actions
against threats
a. Flight of Fight- norepinephrine
2. Parasympathetic Nervous System- counteracts the sympathetic system and calms us
down (acts as energy conservation)
VII. Endocrine System
a. Chemical communication systems that works with hormones
b. Hormones- chemical messengers that are created by one organ to affect another via the bloodstream
i. Is a slower process that neurotransmitters
c. Pituitary Gland- tiny structure controlled by the hypothalamus that regulates bodily growth (Human
Growth Hormone) and release hormones to the other glands (Master Gland)
VIII. Mapping Brain Functions
a. Phineas Gage- had a pole rocketed through his head and suffered a complete personality change
because it severed his frontal lobe
b. EEGs- amplified recording of pulses of brainwaves
i. Monitors brain function by looking for spikes/differences
ii. Advantages
1. track electrical activity in response to specific stimulus
61
2. non-invasive
iii. Disadvantages
1. nodes don’t demonstrate precise location of electrical current
IX. Neuroimaging Techniques
a. Brain scanning techniques that produce a picture of the structure/functioning of the neurons
b. CT Scan- produces 3D images of the brain structure via X-rays
i. Advantages
1. direct view of level of interest
2. high-contrast spatial resolution
ii. Disadvantages
1. potential damage due to high levels of radiation
c. PET Scan- use small amounts of radioactive glucose to track energy consumption in the brain
i. measures brain functioning
ii. Advantages
1. provides estimate of amount of glucose consumption in the brain’s functioning
iii. Disadvantages
1. radioactive exposure
2. lengthy process and pretty costly
d. MRI- uses magnets to take picture of the brain’s structures
e. fMRI- type of MRI that detects amount of blood flow (function)
i. Advantages
1. high spatial resolution
2. non-invasive
3. quick process
ii. Disadvantages
1. brain is never off because it is constantly consuming oxygen
2. can be uncomfortable for the patient
X. The Brain
a. Hindbrain (older brain)
i. responsible for life sustaining, mostly automatic bodily functions
ii. brainstem- set of neural structures at the base of the brain
1. Medulla- spot where the spinal cord swells and connects with the brain that controls
heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing
2. Pons- bridge from the brain to cerebellum that controls sleep, coordination of motor
neurons, posture, and facial muscles
3. Reticular Formation- the nerves going through the medulla and Pons that controls
alertness and automatic nervous system activity
iii. Cerebellum- “little brain” that extends from the rear of the brainstem and coordinates physical
movement, posture, and balance, integrates sensory information, and contributes to estimating
of time and alertness
b. Midbrain- middle brain region that aids in communication between hindbrain and forebrain
i. Thalamus- Sensory switchboard that receives sensory information and relays them to the
appropriate areas of the brain and receives signals from higher brain structures and relays them
to the medulla and cerebellum.
c. Forebrain-the newer brain that is responsible for higher level facilities and is comprised of the limbic
system and cerebrum
PART 2
I. Limbic System (the Emotional Brain)
62
a. Amygdala
i. Almond shaped structures that are responsible for fear and anger
b. Hypothalamus (does a load of stuff)
i. Plays a role in motivation
ii. Controls eating and drinking
iii. Regulates body temp., blood pressure, heart rates
iv. Controls the Pituitary Gland (hormone production)
c. Hippocampus
i. Pair of brain structures responsible for storing new experiences in memory
ii. H.M.- man that had hippocampus removed in order to ease epilepsy (leading to anterograde
amnesia)
1. loss of memory (short term memory= intact, long term memory=kaput)
2. still had long term procedural memories
II. The Visible Brain
a. Convoluted pinkish-gray surface of brain where higher thinking and mental processes take place
b. Cerebral Hemispheres
i. Brain divided into 2 halves.
III. Our Divided Brain
a. Corpus Callosum
i. A large bond of neural fibers that connect the two hemispheres
b. Left Brain- analytical and verbal side (interpreter)
i. More active with slow deliberate decisions
c. Right Brain- intuitive and perceptual side (quick intuitive responses)
i. Better at recognizing faces and interpreting/expressing emotions
IT’S NOT AS SIMPLE AS LEFT-BRAINED AND RIGHT BRAINED BUT THE 2 CONTINUALLY WORK TOGETHER ON
MOST TASKS EXCEPT LANGUAGE
IV. Split Brains
a. A patient whose corpus callosum has been removed so that neural impulses don’t pass from one
hemisphere to another
b. Done on epileptic people (epilepsy- massive amount of neural firing)
c. Live normally however surgery affects vision
i. Left hemisphere controls right visual field
ii. Right hemisphere controls left visual field
V. The Cerebral Cortex
a. Thin surface of neural cells covering cerebral hemisphere and has the highest level control and is the
information processing center
b. Cortex has wrinkles to increase surface area and keep brain compact
i. Sulcus- Crease in the brain
ii. Gyrus- Bulge between sucli and cortex
VI. Structures of the Cortex (divided into lobes)
a. Frontal Lobe
i. Behind the forehead
ii. Center of control (emotions, decisions, planning morality, personality memory search
sophisticated memory control, reason)
iii. Motor Cortex- the backmost gyrus that controls fine movement and is organized by body part
b. Parietal Lobe
i. Top and center/rear of the head
ii. Controls attention, spatial location, and motor control (and arithmetic)
63
iii. Sensory Cortex- front most gyrus that controls that registers sensation in the body (organized by
body part)
c. Temporal Lobe (Hearing and language)
i. Under the temples, in front of the ears
ii. Processes sounds and commits info into memory
iii. Comprehends language
d. Occipital Lobe (Vision)
i. Back of the brain
ii. Responsible for vision and is separated by areas
e. Association Areas
i. Areas of the cortex that are NOT directly involved in motor control or sensory processing
VII. The Brain’s Flexibility
a. Plasticity
i. The brain’s ability to modify itself
ii. Happens to everyone to some extent
b. Amputation
i. Brain reassigns tasks of lost fingers areas so that other fingers become more sensitive
c. Blind people
i. Visual cortex is taken over by the sensory cortex for the person’s Braille finger
d. Deaf
i. Temporal lobe reassigned to increase peripheral vision
e. Neuroprosthetics
i. Field devoted to developing artificial limbs or aids
THE BRAIN IS MORE PLASTIC IN CHILDHOOD, BECAUSE IT IS EASIER TO RECOVER FROM BRAIN DAMAGE
VIII. Handedness
a. 90% of population is right handedness
b. Division of Labor Theory of Handedness
i. Language and hand control both require fine motor controls
ii. More efficient to have 1 hemisphere that controls both
iii. Left hemisphere= language thus right handed
c. Pro Lefties
i. More common among renowned musicians, mathematicians, architects, and artists
ii. Advantage in one-on-one sports
iii. Do better than righties (in life)
d. Pro Righties
i. Less likely to experience reading disabilites, allergies, migraine, and headaches
ii. Society is designed for righties
iii. Lefties disappear with age
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Jaynie Anguiano & Kaley Weintraub
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Unit 3 Biological Basis of Behavior Review
Neuron: a nerve cell
Sensory Neuron: receives signal from environment via sensory organs (eyes, skin, etc.) and sends signal to
Interneuron
Interneuron: receives signal from Sensory Neuron and sends it to Motor Neuron
Motor Neuron: receives signal from Interneuron and sends signal to muscles to react to environment
Glial cell: fills gaps between neurons and tidies up neural connections for faster communication
Dendrites: receive
messages from
other neurons and
relay them to cell
body
Cell Body
(Soma):
central part
of neuron,
regulates cell
function,
contains
nucleus
Nodes of
Ranvier: gaps
between
Schwann Cells
Terminal Button: releases vesicles containing
neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft (space
between neurons)
Schwann Cell: segments of myelin sheath
Nucleus: it is there…
Axon: long
extension
that delivers
messages to
other
neurons
Myelin Sheath: layer of fatty tissue,
insulates axon, speeds up neural
impulses
Resting Potential: resting state of neurons, sodium ions (Na+) outside of neuron and potassium ions (K+) inside neuron,
making inside more negative then outside)
Threshold: stimulation required to trigger neural impulse
*Messages from other neurons are either excitatory (gas pedal analogy) or inhibitory (brake analogy)
Action Potential: the neural impulse, sodium moves inside of neuron causing inside to be more positive, electrical charge
moves down axon to terminal button to trigger next neuron
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Neurotransmitter: a chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another over synaptic cleft
Receptors: binding site for neurotransmitters, unique for each type of neurotransmitter
Reuptake: reabsorbing leftover neurotransmitters into vesicles into terminal buttons
Neurotransmitter
Function
Cases of Malfunctioning
Acetylcholine
Voluntary muscle movement
Memory
Paralysis
Attention
Schizophrenia
Involuntary Movement
Parkinson’s Disease
Feel-Good emotions
Drug addictions (agonists)
Mood
Depression
Arousal
OCD
Control of Alertness and Arousal
Depression
Dopamine
Serotonin
Norepinephrine
Alzheimers
Bipolar Disorder
Panic Disorder
GABA
Inhibitory
Insomnia
Glutamate
Excitatory
Seizures
Agonists: mimics neurotransmitter, fits into particular neurotransmitter receptor and passes signal along
Antagonists: fits into particular neurotransmitter receptor but blocks signal
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The Nervous System:
the body’s electrochemical communication network
Nervous System
Central Nervous System:
Brain and spinal cord (bundle
of neural fibers, connects the
brain to the rest of the body)
Peripheral Nervous System:
links central nervous system
to organs
Autonomic Nervous System:
controls many of the selfregulatory functions such as
digestion and circulation.
Sympathetic Nervous
System: excites bodily
functioning, prepares us for
defensive actions against
threats. (Fight or flight)
where norepinephrine, the
neruotrans that gets you
ready to go, comes into play
Skeletal Nervous System:
allows for voluntary control
of skeletal muscles
Parasympathetic Nervous
System: counteracts effects
of the sympathetic nervous
system, calms us down. Acts
as energy conservation
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The Endocrine System:
the body’s chemical communication system
Hormones: chemical messengers that are created by one organ and affect another through the bloodstream
*Adrenaline ≈ Epinephrine, Noradrenaline ≈ Norepinephrine
*Neurotransmitters work quickly (fractions of a second), Hormones work slowly (possibly hours)
Pituitary Gland (The Master Gland): controlled by hypothalamus, releases hormones that regulate other endocrine
glands
Methods of Studying the Brain:
Brain Damage Patients allow us to map function of different brain structures (Phineas Gage and Frontal Lobe Damage)
= Kind of a Jerk…
EEG (Electroencephalograph): records brain waves. Monitors brain function.
+ High temporal resolution (1 millisecond)
+ Non-invasive
- Low spatial resolution (not good for studying brain structure)
She is happy!
CT (Computer-assisted Tomography) Scan: 3D image of brain structure using x-ray
+ High spatial resolution
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+ Direct view of level of interest
- Potential damage from radiation
PET (Position Emission Tomography) Scan: use radioactive glucose to track energy consumption to measure brain
functioning
- Radiation exposure
- Lengthy process
- $$$
MRI (Magnetic Response Imaging): use of magnetic properties of atoms to take sharp picture of brain and other soft
tissue structure
fMRI (Functional Magnetic Response Imaging): detects blood flow to different brain regions to reveal functioning of
brain
+ Non-invasion, no radiation
+ Quick
- What is fMRI telling us? (Blood is always flowing to brain…)
- Uncomfortable experien
Hindbrain: “older” region of brain responsible for automatic, life-sustaining bodily processes
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Brainstem: facilitates communication between brain and spinal cord
Medulla: lowest structure of brain, first swollen part of spinal cord, controls heartbeat, breathing, and
swallowing
Reticular Formation: regulates alertness and autonomic nervous system activity
Pons: connects brainstem to cerebellum; controls sleep, coordination of motor movements, and posture
Cerebellum: “little brain” located at rear of brain; coordinates physical movement, posture, and balance
Midbrain: aides communication between hindbrain and forebrain
Thalamus: receives signals from sensory neurons, relays them to appropriate parts of brain, also receives signals
from forebrain and relays them to medulla and cerebellum
Forebrain: “newer” brain region, higher level mental faculties (decision-making, planning, etc.)
Limbic system: involved in the basics of emotion and motivation
Amygdala: play critical role in feelings of anger and fear (Rhesus monkey study)
Hypothalamus: regulations homeostasis (balance) in the body’s various systems, controls pituitary gland
with links nervous system to endocrine system, also known as “pleasure center” (Olds and Milner rat
study)
Hippocampus: responsible for storing new experiences in memory, but does not contain memories
(H.M. anterograde amnesia, unable to form new memories)
Cerebral Cortex: surface of the brain where most high-level mental processes take place
Sulcus: a crease in the cortex
Gyrus: a bulge between sulci in the cortex
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Cerebral Hemisphere: control opposite sides of the body (right side brain to left side body and vice
versa)
Left Hemisphere: language, logic, calculations, reasoning analytical + verbal
Right Hemisphere: insight, artsy, creativity, musical intuitive + perceptual
*Left active with slow deliberate decisions, Right active with quick responses
Corpus Callosum: band of neural fibers that transmits messages between two halves of the brain
*Remember split-brain patients have severed corpus callosum in order to control epileptic
seizures (unable to name objects seen in left field of vision)
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Lobes of the brain:
Attention, registers spatial
location and motor control,
also involved in arithmetic,
Sensory Cortex is first gyrus
Planning, memory,
sophisticated motor
control, reasoning,
emotions, decisions,
personality,
Motor Cortex is
backmost gyrus
Responsible
primarily for
vision
Process sounds, committing information
to memory, comprehending language
Plasticity: the brain’s ability to modify itself, brain reorganization after damage is inflicted
*Sensory cortex takes over visual cortex in blind people
*Temporal lobe seeks out non-auditory signals in deaf people
Handedness
Division of labor theory of handedness is the most widely accepted theory of handedness. It states that language and
hand control both require fine motor control. The side of your brain you lean on for language is the side of handedness.
Therefore, since left hemisphere is for language it leads to right-handedness.
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close to 90% of people are right- handed and 10% are left handed, with left handedness being more common in
males
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Leanne Stone & Regina Aquino
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Unit 4 Study Guide
What is the difference between sensation and perception?
-Sensation: process by which sensory receptors and nervous system create an awareness of the properties of
an object/event in the environment (outside info  in)
-Perception: Organizing/ interpreting sensory input enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Types of Processing
A. Bottom-Up Processing: processing that is initiates by stimulus input; begins with
senses and
works up to brains integration of sensory information.
B. Top Down Processing: Processing that is guided by knowledge, expectations, or
beliefs
- Ex) You watch a scary movie late at night alone in your dark house with all the lights off.
When the movie ends, you frightfully creep to bed, when all of a sudden you "see" the chainsaw murderer from
the movie.
C. Parallel: process information simultaneously - We process all information at once to come to the
conclusion what an object is
Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of sensory stimulus needed to notice at least 50% of the time that the
stimulus is there
Just Noticeable Difference: the size of a difference in a stimulus property needed to notice that a change has
occurred
Weber’s Law: the size of a JND depends on the overall magnitude of the stimulus
Subliminal: a sensory signal that is not registered by our conscious awareness
Priming: The tendency for recently used words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation
of new information
Signal detection theory: theory explaining why people detect signals.
People detect signals among noise when:
1. 1. They expect the signal
2. 2. It is important that the signal is detected
3. 3. They are alert.
Sensory adaptation: decreased sensitivity due to constant stimulation
-allows us to focus on changes in our environment
Transduction: transforming sensory input into neural impulses that the brain can interpret
Light
Amplitude: determines brightness
Wavelength: determines hue
Serial vs Parallel Processing
Serial: processing step by step in a specified order
Parallel: procession several aspects simultaneously
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Color Vision
Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision: color vision is combinations of neural impulses from 3 different kinds
of cones which respond differently to wavelength. (Long=red, medium=green/yellow, short=blue)
Opponent process theory of color vision: The presence of one color of a pair inhibits perception of the other
color in that pair. (red-green)(yellow-blue)(black-white)
Evidence for this theory from:
Afterimages: the image left behind by a previous perception.
Colorblindness: most commonly not able to see red-green
Depth Perception
Binocular cues to depth: cues that come from both eyes working together
Retinal Disparity: the difference between the images striking the retinas
Monocular cues to depth: cues to depth perception that can be perceived by one eye alone
Relative size: the larger an object appears, the closer we think it is
Interposition: objects that block the view of another are perceived as being closer
Relative Clarity: hazy objects are perceived as being further away
Texture Gradient: progressive changes in the texture of an object
Relative height: objects higher in field of vision appear further away
Relative motion: as we move stationary objects seem to move too
Linear Perspective: parallel lines seem to converge with distance
Light and Shadow: nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes
Motion Perception
Phi Phenomenon: an illusion of movement created where 2 or more lihts are blinkning on and off in rapid
succession
Stroboscopic Movement: perception of movement in a series of still images flashed quickly in a sequence
Attention
Selective attention: the process of picking out a particular quality, object, or event for relatively detailed
analysis. We attend to things that grab our attention
Pop Out: occurs when a stimulus is sufficiently different from the ones around it that is immediately evident.
Superior Colliculus: brainstem structure underneath the thalamus. Activated by sudden changes in
environment that grabs our attention
Change Blindness: Failure to detect large changes in a visual scene
Stroops Task: When the name of a color (e.g., "blue," "green," or "red") is printed in a color not denoted by the
name (e.g., the word "red" printed in blue ink instead of red ink), naming the color of the word takes longer and
is more prone to errors than when the color of the ink matches the name of the color.
Sensation and Perception Mismatches
1. Signal detection theory: detect a signal when there wasn’t, or don’t detect when there was
2. Subliminal ads: exposed briefly to something in which we are in the long run, affected by.
3. Stroops Task: When the name of a color (e.g., "blue," "green," or "red") is printed in a color not denoted
by the name (e.g., the word "red" printed in blue ink instead of red ink), naming the color of the word takes
longer and is more prone to errors than when the color of the ink matches the name of the color.
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Role of Attention in Perception
Attention allows us to focus on particular information, allowing information to be processed more fully than
that no attended to. **in interpreting sensory inputs, attention sometimes blurs our comprehension of what we
really experience**
Ex.) Change Blindness: phenomenon that occurs when a person viewing a visual scene apparently fails
to detect large changes in the scene.
- Disruption requires a comparison of one image to another one held in memory
- can occur due to a failure to store the information in the first place or to a failure to compare the
relevant information from the current scene to the representation
Ex.) Stroop Task: Read off color of a word
**Attention determines what we perceive, but not completely conscious control**
EX.) Cocktail Party: not being aware of the content of peoples conversations until name is mentioned;
although we have attention on something else, we unconsciously are drawn to self-relevant information.
Synesthesia: merging of the senses; phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory pathway leads to
automatic experience in a 2nd sense.
1. Grapheme: Color synesthesia; letters aznd numbers are associated with a color
Ex.) A Red, 0 Black or White, S Yellow
2. Music Synesthesia: specific tones/songs associated with a color
Ex.) Song may remind them of purple, a song may sound yellow
**Explanation: Rewiring of brain, areas of the brain in close proximately have tendency to
stimulate a different area for certain sensations.
The Eye
Cornea: transparent covering of the eye. Bend light to provide focus
Pupil: small adjustable opening that allows light to enter the eye
Iris: circular colored muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil
Lens: changes shape to focus image
Ciliary Muscle: controls curvature of the kens to achieve focus
Retina: light sensitive inner surface of the eye
Rods: detect black, white and shades of gray. Necessary for twilight and peripheral vision
Cones: detect color or fine detail
Fovea: best point of focus
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Optic Nerve: bundle of nerve fibers from retina to thalamus.
Hearing
definition: sound waves received by the ear transacted nut neural signals
amplitude = volume (brightness)
large = louder sound
small = softer sound
wavelength = pitch
longer = lower
shorter = higher
The Ear / Hearing
Pinna = funnel part of the ear
sound wave --> eardrum (tympanic membrane) --> vibrates 3 bones (malleus, incus, stapes) --> amplify
vibrations --> oval windows --> basilar membrane (inside the cochlea)
Smell & Memory
evolutionary explanation: smell is used by most mammals to detect food and poison
biological explanation: 2 major neural tracks that deliver smell info
1. through the thalamus to hippocampus (memory)
2. throughout the limbic system (emotion)
pheromones: chemicals proceed by the body that serve as a means of interpersonal communication
- associated with physical attraction
Taste
taste buds: microscopic structure on the bumps of the tongues surface, back of throat, and inside cheeks.
umami: savory, meaty flavor (e.g. MSG)
Somasthetic Senses
definition: senses that have to do with perceiving the body and its position is space
1. Kinesthetic Sense = the sense that registers the movement and position of the body
- tendon (connect muscle to bone) and muscle cells important to kinesthetic sense
2. Vestibular Sense = provides info about the bodies orientation relative to gravity
- rely on semi circular canals (inner ear) ----filled with fluid and cilia (tiny hairs) which detect
balance by sensing fluid movement
3. Magnetic Sense = tiny bits of magnetite (iron) in bird neurons clustered near the beak
- in humans: magnetite in ethomoid bone in the nose
- unsure if humans have it or not
Extrasensory Perception
definition: perception can occur without sensory input
telepathy: the ability to send or receive thoughts directly from anthers mind
clairvoyance: ability to know about distant events without sensory infuriation
precognition: ability to predict future events
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Laura Van Slyke & Roxanne Cleary
return to Table of Contents
Unit 4: Sensation and Perception
How do we create mental representations of the outside world?
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Sensation: the process by which sensory receptors and nervous system create and awareness of the properties
of an object/event.
Perception: the act of organizing and interpreting sensory input -> enables us to recognize meaningful
objects/events.
Our senses and perceptions can mismatch
Types of processing
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Bottom up: process that is initiated by stimulus input beginning with senses and works its way up to the brain’s
integration of sensory info
Top down: processing that is guided by knowledge expectation or beliefs-> fit sensations to perceptions
Basic Principles of sensation
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Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of a sensory stimulus needed to notice at least 50% of the time that
the stimulus is there.
Just Noticeable Difference (JND): the size of a difference in a stimulus property needed to notice that a change
has occurred.
Weber’s Law: the size of a JND depends on the overall magnitude of the stimulus (1 candle vs 100 candles, does
one make a difference?)
Subliminal: below the threshold-> can a stimulus below the threshold still affect us?
Priming: the tendency for recently used words, ideas, and thoughts to come to mind more easily and influence
the interpretation of new information
o Higgins et al (1977): if you are read a list of positive/negative words and then read and unrelated story,
you are more likely to associate the type of word/emotion with the main character of that story.
o Non Chinese Speaking Americans: sad/happy face immediately followed by a Chinese character. How
much do you like that character?
Signal Detection Theory: explains why people detect signals embedded in background noise. You are better at
detecting a signal when: you expect it, it is important that the signal is detected, and when you are alert
Sensory Adaptation: decreased sensitivity due to constant stimulation-> allows us to focus on changes in the
environment.. -> things disappear from sight when we stare at them (e.g. BEER-> PEER->PEEP->BEE->BE
Perceptual Adaptation: ability to adjust to new modalities of perception
o Stratton (1896)- the inverted glasses guy.
Transduction: transforming sensory input (light waves, sound waves, etc.) to neural impulses that the brain can
interpret.
Vision: Visual Sensation
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Eyes register light waves reflected from or produced by objects in the visual field.
Amplitude: the height of the peaks in a light wave-> determines brightness.
Wavelength: the distance between the peaks of a light wave-> shorter wavelengths= higher frequency
Frequency: the rate at which light waves moves past a given point-> determines hue (short= blue, long = red
Cornea: transparent covering of the eye, protects eye, bends light to provide focus
Pupil: black center right in the middle of the eye, bigger the pupil is, more light let in.
Iris: circular colored muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil
Lens: transparent structure right behind the pupil that changes shape to focus image on the back of the eye
Ciliary Muscles: control curvature of lens to achieve focus
Retina: light-sensitive inner surface of the eye. Receptors in the retina are called rods and cones
o Rods: black, white and shades of grey, we are reliant on rods at dusk and night and for peripheral vision.
o Cones: detect colors and fine details
Fovea: central part of the retina with the highest density of cones and highest resolution (almost no rods) -> the
point of clearest and most detailed vision
Info goes from retina to the thalamus
Inversion of images: image projected upside down on retina once it passes through lens. Vision is constructed by
brain, rather than merely received.
Feature Detection Neurons: nerve cells in the visual cortex that respond to very specific features of a stimulus,
such as shape, angle, or movement.
Parallel Processing: processing of several aspects of info simultaneously
Serial Processing: processing of info step by step in a specific order. Brain uses parallel processing
Objects do not possess color (tomato isn’t red, its everything but red. It does not absorb red light waves, they
bounce off and are picked up by the eyes.)
Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision: color vision = combinations of neural impulses from 3 different kinds of
cones which respond to different wave lengths. ( long=red, medium=green/yellow, short=blue)
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Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision: the presence of one color of a pair of colors inhibits perception of the
other color in the pair (red/green, yellow/blue, black/white)
o Afterimages: evidence for this theory= the image left behind by a previous perception
Color Blindness= the inability (either acquired by brain damage or inherited) to perceive hue
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Very rarely a complete inability to perceive any color, and never swapping colors
Usually due to 1 of the 3 color receptors absent or not functioning. (red/green color blindness most common)
Color blindness is most common in men.
Visual Perception: first step is to organize sensory input into shapes that correspond to objects and specify their sizes
and locations
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Figure: the set of characteristics that correspond to an object (shape, color, texture, etc)
Ground: the background which must be distinguished in order to pick out figures.
Depth Perception: the ability to see the world in three dimensions. Judge distances
o We are able to perceive depth through binocular cues and monocular cues
o Binocular Cues=both eyes, 2 slightly different perspectives.
 Retinal Disparity: the difference between the images striking the retinas (more disparity= closer
object, less disparity= farther object)
o Monocular Cues= cues to depth perception that can be perceived by one eye alone.
 Relative size
 Interposition
 Relative clarity
 Texture gradient
 Relative height
 Relative motion
 Linear perspective
 Light and shadow
Motion Perception: we see movement that isn’t actually there
Phi Phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when 2 or more lights blink on and off in quick succession
Stroboscopic Movement: perception of movement in a series of still images flashed quickly in sequence
We don’t get confused when things change because of
o Perceptual Consistency: the perception of characteristics of objects remains the same
o Size Consistency: seeing an object as being the same size, viewed at different distances
o Shape Consistency: seeing objects as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes
o Muller-Lyer Illusion- they’re the same length!!
79
o
Past Experiences and perception
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Perceptual Set: mental pre disposition to perceive one thing and not another, determined by schemas
Schema: a concept or a framework that organizes and interprets information
The Thatcher Illusion: schemas for upside down faces are less, we rarely see them.
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Attention, the gateway to awareness
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Attention: the act of focusing on particular information, allows info to be processed more fully than info that is
not attended to
Selective Attention: the process of picking out a particular quality, object, or event, for relatively detailed
analysis
What grabs our attention?
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Hearing
Pop-out: occurs when a stimulus is sufficiently different from the ones around it.
Superior Colliculus: Brain stem structure underneath the thalamus activated by sudden changes in the
environment
Change blindness: failure to detect large changes in a visual scene
Stroop Task: Name the color of the font-> attention is not necessarily always in our conscious control
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Sound Waves: received by ears and translated into neural signals. A vibrating object creates a pressure wave in
molecules, creating sound waves that the ear feels.
Amplitude: volume. Larger Amplitude= louder sound
Wave Length: pitch. Longer wave length= lower pitch
Sound intensity measured in decibels
Structure of the ear (pg 217 of text book)
o Sound Waves go to the eardrum and that vibrates 3 tiny bones ( the malleus, incus, stapes) that amplify
vibrations . They go through the “oval window” to the basilar membrane inside the cochlea
Basilar Membrane is lined with cilia (hair cells)
o Cilia : hearing :: rods and cones : vision
Vibrations move hair cells creating a neural impulse that goes to the thalamus, and then the auditory cortex in
the temporal lobe.
Cocktail Party Effect: not being aware of the content of other people’s conversations until your name is
mentioned, then suddenly hearing it-> bottom up processing until attention is drawn by self relevant info
Dichotic Listening task: different stimuli delivered in 2 ears via headphones, instructed to monitor only one
signal-> still perceive some info (like the speaker’s gender) from ignored ear
Deafness
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Nerve Deafness: hair cells destroyed by loud sounds- tinnitus= constant ringing in the ears
Conduction Deafness: physical impairment of the outer or middle ear (like a broken eardrum)
Smell and Taste: Chemical Senses
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Rely on sensing the presence of certain chemicals
Sensory interaction: the principle that one sense may influence another
Smell: Olfaction
o Odor sensed by around 5 million receptor fibers on the roof of each nasal cavity. There are different
receptors for different smells. Like color, we detect smell by the combination of receptors that fire
o Smell and memory liked: evolutionary explanation of detecting food and poison. Biological explanation
of olfactory info delivered through hippocampus and limbic system
Pheromones: chemical means of communicating between people. They are substances produced by the body
that serve as a means for interpersonal communication
Taste
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Taste buds: microscopic structures on the bumps on the tongue surface, at the back of the throat, and inside the
cheeks.
All foods are a combination of bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and possibly umami, the savory, meaty flavor
Taste and smell are closely related. They converge in the same region of the frontal lobe.
Somasthetic Senses- senses that have to do with perceiving the body and its position in space
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Touch, Kinesthetic Sense, Vestibular Sense, and Magnetic Sense (possibly)
o *Skin= Largest organ
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Touch: Atleast four skin senses (heat, cold, pressure, pain). Other sensations are just combinations/ degrees  Tickle:
Gentle stoke on adjacent pressure spots. Itch: Gentle stroke on pain spot.
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Pain—it’s a good thing for us! Alerts when something’s wrong, signals for change in behavior.
Congenital Analgesia: Rare condition in which a person is unable to feel physical pain.
*Pain is both bottom up and top down. Bottom Up= damage to portion of the bodythalamus
sensory cortex in the parietal lobe. Top Down= Brain anticipates pain, body feels expected pain. (Like,
bending back rubber fingers)
Experience of pain= combination of signals from three types of nerve fibers in spinal cord.
1. Long nerve fibers- conduct most sensory info, but not pain
2. Two types of short fibers conduct pain signals
a. Fast myelinated neurons for sudden intense pain
b. Unmyelinated nerves for slower, more consistent chronic pain
Pain Relief = stimulation of long nerves (massage, acupuncture etc.)
Somasthetic Senses
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Kinesthetic sense: The sense that registers the movement and position
Two specialized cells:
1. In tendons, triggered by tension
2. In muscles themselves, triggered by length of muscles
*Can be temporarily impaired during growth/bodily change. Used as sobriety test.
Vestibular Sense: The sense that provides information about the body’s orientation relative to gravity. Relies on
semicircular canals in the inner ear.
*Vision, Vestibular and Kinesthetic Sense combine to give us balance.
Magnetic Sense: Birds migrate by sensing the earth’s magnetic field.
*Some evidence of weak Magnetic Sense in humans.
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)- The claim that perception can occur without sensory input
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Telepathy: Ability to send and receive thoughts mind to mind.
Clairvoyance: The ability to know about distant events without sensory information.
Precognition: The ability to predict future events.
Psychokinesis: Ability to move things with your mind.
Synesthesia
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Syn(union)+ Aisthises(of the senses)- phenomenon in which stimulation of one sense leads to automatic
experiences in a second sense.
grapheme to color, music to color, lexical to gustatory, number to form etc.
*Why does Synesthesia happen? Increased communication between specialized parts of the brain that
are physically close to one another?
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Marisa Marsteller & Melanie Lehnhardt
return to Table of Contents
Unit 4: Sensation and Perception Study Guide
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Sensation: process by which sensory receptors and the nervous system creates an awareness of the
properties of an object/event in the environment.
Perception: the act of organizing and interpreting sensory input.
o Sensation and perception can sometimes mismatch.
Types of Processing
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Bottom-up Processing: stimulus-input processing; processing that begins with senses and works up to
brain’s integration of sensory information.
Top-down Processing: processing that is guided by knowledge, experience, or beliefs.
Absolute Threshold: the smallest amount of a sensory stimulus needed to notice at least fifty percent of
the time that the stimulus is preset (bare minimum amount of information needed).
Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) : the size of a difference in a stimulus property needed to notice a
change has occurred
o Weber’s Law: size of JND depends on the overall magnitude of the stimulus; stimuli must differ
by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount.
Subliminal Sensation: a sensory signal below the threshold that is not consciously registered
Priming: The tendency for recently used words or ideas to come to mind easily- which influences the
interpretation of new information.
o Priming: Immediate short term effect on simple judgements and actions
o Subliminal Messages: aim for long term effects on consumer purchases, voter sentiment, or
even suicide. Subliminal messages may have the ability to affect our short term decisions, for
example, striking while the iron is hot.
Signal Detection Theory: a theory explaining why people detect signals, which are always embedded
in noise, in some situations and not others.
Sensory Adaptation: decreased sensitivity due to constant stimulation.
Perceptual Adaptation: the ability to adjust to new modalities of perception. The brain can adapt to
new ways of perception, such as the right/left up/down flipped glasses
Transduction: transforming sensory input into neural impulses that our brain can interpret
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Vision: Visual Sensation: Eyes register light waves reflected from objects in the visual field.
Cornea: the outermost, transparent covering of the eye
Pupil: the small adjustable opening that allows light to enter the eye
Iris: the circular colored muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil
Lens: the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus
imagine on the back of the eye
Retina: the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye
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Rods: retinal receptor cells that detect white, black, and gray. Necessary for peripheral and twilight
vision
Cones: retinal receptor cells that detect colors and fine detail. Function in daylight and well-light
conditions
Fovea: the point of clearest most detailed vision
Ganglion Cells and Bipolar Cells: rods and cones are connected to these cells which transmit visual
information from light receptors to the brain
Feature Detector Neurons: nerve cells in visual cortex that respond to very specific features of a
stimulus, such as a shape, angle, or movement
Parallel Processing: processing several aspects of information simultaneously
Serial Processing: processing of information step-by-step in a specific order. Vision is NOT serial
processing.
Color Vision: Objects do not possess color, but rather color is a product of our brain’s transduction of light
waves.
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Trichromatic Theory: combinations of neural impulses from three different kinds of cones which
respond to different wavelengths
Opponent Process Theory: the presence of one color of a pair inhibits perception of the other color in
the pair
Afterimage: the image left behind by a previous perception
Color Blindness: the inability to see color
Visual Perception: first step of visual perception; organize sensory input into shapes that correspond to objects
and to specify their sizes and locations.
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Figure: the set of characteristics that correspond to an object such as shape, color, texture, etc.
Ground: the background which must be distinguished in order to pick out figures
o Figure-ground relationship can be ambiguous; in that case the mind organizes the visual world.
Depth Perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions.
 Visual Cliff Studies (Gibson & Walk 1960)
 Binocular Cues: cues to depth perception that comes from the use of eyes working together.
o Retinal Disparity
 Monocular Cues: cues to depth that can be perceived by one eye alone
o Relative Size
o Interposition
o Relative Clarity
o Texture Gradient
o Relative Height
o Relative Motion
o Linear Perspective
o Light and Shadow
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Motion Perception: we see movement that is “actually” there
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Phi Phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or more lights blink on and off in quick
succession
Stroboscopic movement: perception of movement in series of still images flashed quickly in sequence
Perceptual Constancy: Perceptions of characteristics of objects remain the same, even though sensory
information changes.
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Size Constancy: seeing an object as being the same size when viewed at different distances
Shape Constancy: seeing objects as having the same shape even when image retina changes
Perceptual Set: mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another, determined by schema.
Schema: concept/framework that organizes and interprets information like computer folders in the
mind.
Attention: the act of focusing on particular information
Selective Attention: the process of picking out a particular quality, object, or event for relatively
detailed.
Pop-out: occurs when a stimulus is sufficiently different from the ones around it that it is
immediately evident
Grabbing Attention: sudden changes in the environment that grab our attention
o Superior Colliculus: brainstem structure underneath the thalamus activated by the sudden
changes that grab our attention
Voluntary Attention: when you are searching for something
o Frontal and Parietal Lobes
Change Blindness: failure to detect large changes in a visual field
Hearing: sounds waves received by ears, transduced into neural signals, measured in decibels.
Structure of ear: Sound waves -> eardrum (tympanic membrane) -> vibrates 3 tiny bones (Malleus, Incus,
Stapes) that amplify vibrations -> oval window -> basilar membrane (inside cochlea)
Basilar membrane: lined with Cilia
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Cilia: hair cells, vibration -> move hair cells, creating neural impulses -> thalamus -> auditory cortex(
temporal lobe)
Cocktail Party Effect: not being aware of the content of other people’s conversations until your name
is mentioned, then suddenly hearing it.
Dichotic Listening Task: different stimuli delivered to two ears via headphones, instructed to only
monitor one signal in one of your ears.
Sensory Interaction: the principle that one sense may influence another
Smell and Pheromones
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Pheromones: chemical substances produced by the body that serve as a means of interpersonal
communication
Taste Buds: microscopic structures on the bumps of the tongue surface at the back of the throat, and
inside the cheeks
o Bitter
o Salty
o Sweet
o Sour
o Umami: savory, meaty flavor
Somasthetic Senses
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Kinesthetic Sense: the sense that registers the movement and position of the body
Vestibular Sense: the sense that provides information about the body’s orientation relative to gravity
Magnetic Sense: sensing Earth’s magnetic field- birds magnetic sense to flock
Extrasensory Perception (ESP): the claim that perception can occur without sensory input
o Telepathy: the ability to send and receive thoughts directly, mind to mind
o Clairvoyance: ability to know about distant events without any sensory info
o Precognition: ability to predict future events
o Psychokinesis: ability to move things with your mind
Synesthesia: Phenomenon in which stimulation of one sense/sensory pathway leads to automatic experiences in
a second sense/sensory pathway
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Color Synesthesia: letters and or numbers associated with specific colors
Music/Color Synesthesia: specific tones or songs associated with specific colors
Lexical/Gustatory Synesthesia: individual words and sounds associated with experience of specific
tastes (Very rare!)
Number Form Synesthesia: mental map of numbers, oriented in
space
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Maggie Duncan
return to Table of Contents
Unit 4- Sensation and Perception
Sensation: process by which sensory receptors and the nervous system create an awareness of the properties of an
object or event in the environment
Perception: the act of organizing and interpreting sensory input
Bottom-up processing: started by a stimulus input- begins with senses and moves up to the brain’s integration of
sensory information
Top-down processing: started or guided by knowledge, expectations, or belief- then we make perception fit that belief
Absolute threshold: the smallest amount of a stimulus needed for us to notice at least 50% of the time that the stimulus
is there
Just-noticeable difference: the size of a difference in a stimulus needed to notice that a change has occurred
Weber’s Law: the size of a just-noticeable difference in a stimulus needed to notice that a change has occurred
Subliminal sensation: a sensory signal not registered by our conscious awareness
Priming: the tendency for recently used words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new
material
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This can happen even on the subliminal level, for example if a positive image is flashed so quickly that you don’t
see it consciously, it can still influence your perception of things you sense afterward
Signal detection theory: why people detect signals, which are always embedded in noise, in some situations but not
others
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People faster to detect signal among noise when they expect the signal, when it’s important to detect it, and
when they are alert
Sensory adaptation: decreased sensitivity due to constant stimulation
Transduction: transforming sensory input into neural impulses the brain can interpret
Amplitude: height of the wave
Wavelength: the distance between peaks of
light waves
Frequency: the rate at which light moves past a
given point
Cornea: transparent covering of the eye, which protects it and bends light to give focus
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Pupil: opening that lets light into the eye
Iris: circular, colored muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil
Lens: transparent structure behind pupil that changes shape to
back of the eye
focus image on
Ciliary muscles: control curvature of lens
Retina: light-sensitive inner surface of the eye
Rods: cells in the retina that detect black and white and are needed for peripheral and twilight vision
Cones: retinal cells that detect color and fine detail, needed in daylight and well-lit conditions
Fovea: central part of the retina with the highest density of cones, providing the clearest and most detailed vision
Optic nerve: bundle of nerve fibers that carry messages from the retina to the thalamus (there is a blind spot where the
optic nerve is)
Nearsightedness: seeing well close
Farsightedness: seeing well far away
Inversion of images: the image you are looking at is projected upside down on the retina after passing through the lens
Feature detector neurons: nerve cells in the visual cortex that respond to very specific features of a stimulus, like shape,
angle, or movement
Serial processing: processing of information step by step in specific order
Parallel processing: processing several aspects of information at the same time
Opponent process theory of color vision: visual information is analyzed in terms of the opponent colors red and green,
white and black, and blue and yellow
Trichromatic theory of color vision: the retina has 3 kinds of color receptors, respectively sensitive to red, green, and
blue, and other colors are seen when combinations of the different cones are
stimulated
Afterimages: when you stare at one color for a while, you see its opposite when
away
you look
Color blindness:
Perceptual constancy: perception of characteristics of objects remains the same, even though sensory information
changes- relies on top down processing
Size constancy: seeing an object as the same size even when it’s viewed from different distances
Shape constancy: seeing an object as having the same shape even when the image on the retina changes
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Perceptual set: mental predisposition to perceive on thing and not another, as determined by schema
Schema: a person’s concept, framework, or prior knowledge that organizes and interprets information
Attention: the act of focusing on particular information
Selective attention: the process of picking out a particular quality, object, or event for relatively detailed analysis
Pop-out: occurs when a stimulus is sufficiently different from the ones around it that it’s immediately evident
Change blindness: failure to detect large changes in a visual scene
Stroop task: colors printed in different color ink
Sound waves  Tympanic membrane (eardrum) 3 bones
incus, stapes) amplify vibrations oval window basilar
with cilia- hair cells)  neural impulse  thalamus 
in the ear (malleus,
membrane (lined
auditory cortex
Place theory: we hear different pitches because different
activity at different places in the basilar membrane
sound waves trigger
Frequency theory: the whole basilar membrane vibrates, at a different speed according to the sound wave, so we hear
different pitches
Cocktail party phenomenon: not being aware of the content of other people’s conversations until (your name or other
pertinent personal information) is mentioned, then suddenly hearing it
Nerve deafness: hair cells destroyed by loud sounds
Conduction deafness: physical impairment of outer or middle ear
Evolutionary explanation for smell: smell used by most mammals to detect food (good and bad) and poison
Biological explanation: there are 2 major neural tracks that deliver olfactory information: through the thalamus to
hippocampus (memory), and through the limbic system (emotion)
Pheromones: chemical substances produced by the body that serve as a means of interpersonal communication
Taste buds: microscopic structures on the bumps of the tongue surface, at the back of the throat, and inside the cheek
5 basic tastes: bitter, sweet, salty, sour, and umami- savory, meaty, flavor
Somasthetic Senses: senses that have to do with perceiving the body and its position in space- touch, kinesthetic sense,
vestibular sense, and possibly magnetic sense
Gate-control theory of pain: long nerve fibers can interfere with functioning of short nerve fiber functioning, possibly
inhibiting pain
Long nerve fibers: conduct most sensory information, but not pain
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Short nerve fibers: conduct pain signals
Kinesthetic Sense: registers movement and position of the body
Vestibular Sense: provides information about the body’s orientation relative to gravity, relying on the semicircular
canals of the inner ear
Magnetic Sense: sensing of the earth’s magnetic field, may or may not occur in humans
Extrasensory Perception (ESP): the idea of perception without sensory input- telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition,
psychokineses
Synesthesia: a phenomenon where stimulation of one sense leads to an automatic experience in another sense. May
happen because of increased communication between parts of the brain that are close to each other, like color
processing and letter recognition
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Felipe Bauer & KT Tawadros
return to Table of Contents
UNIT 5: States of Consciousness
Consciousness:
A person's awareness of his or her own existence, sensations, cognitions, and environment. Usually arises from several
areas in the parietal and frontal lobes.
*** Consciousness is not merely perception***
Normal/Waking Consciousness:
Occurs during the usual waking state.
Altered Consciousness:
Other than normal waking state (e.g. sleep, hypnosis and psychoactive drugs).
Sleep:
Naturally recurrent experience during which normal consciousness is suspended; essential to mammals and most other
animals.
Circadian Rhythm:
The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur within a roughly 24 hour cycle, includes blood pressure, pulse
rate, body temperature, blood sugar level, hormone levels and metabolism.
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Regulated through hypothalamus, specifically through the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the light sensitive
portion of the hypothalamus that receives info on light of day through receptors in eyes.
Stage 1 Sleep:
Transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnogogic sleep).
Characterized by alpha waves: relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state.
May "see" flashing lights/geometric patterns.
May feel Hypnic Jerk: Experience a falling/floating sensation and jerk violently.
Easily awakened from stage 1.
Lasts for about five minutes.
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Stage 2 Sleep:
Characterized by the following:
Sleep Spindles: brief bursts of rapid rhythmic brain activity.
K-Complexes: single high amplitude waves.
Relatively easily awakened.
Lasts for about 20 minutes.
Stage 3 & 4 Sleep:
Marked by production of delta waves: slow, high-amplitude waves.
Stage 3: 20-50 % delta waves
Stage 4: more than 50% delta waves.
Marked by decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and body temperature. Lasts about 30
minutes.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep:
Brain activity similar to stage 1.
Rapid and irregular breathing and heart rate, bursts of eye movement behind closed lids.
REM dreams: emotional, story like, rich and vivid unlike earlier stage dreams.
Visual and auditory cortices in brain more active in REM than any other stage.
Sleep Cycle:
1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM (repeat).
Repeats about every 90 minutes and 4-5 times per night.
Why Do We Sleep?
Restorative Theory: helps the body recover from the day’s events.
Evolutionary Theory: keeps people out of trouble at night
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Cognitive Theory: helps consolidate memories.
Parasomnias: sleep disorders involving transitions in and out of sleep, or between sleep stages.
Sleep Walking (somnambulism): moving around, sometimes performingnother actions, as if awake even though the
person is asleep. Positively correlated with stress/anxiety.
Sleep Talking (somniloquy): talking out loud during sleep. Usually occurs during transitions between non REM stages but
occasionally occurs during REM.
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia: repeated difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep or waking up to early.
Usually due to stress, anxiety or excitement.
Treatments:
Medications: sedatives that depress central nervous system activity.
Non-Medication: restrict sleeping hours to same schedule every night.
Stimulus Control: association between bed and sleep by using bed for sleep only.
Narcolepsy: overwhelming sleep attacks that last 5-20 minutes. Sufferers slip into REM sleep within 10 minutes. Possibly
due to deficit in hypocretin, a neurotransmitter that keeps us alert.
Treatments:
Medication: stimulants, similar to amphetamines.
Sleep Apnea: person temporarily stops breathing during sleep, usually accompanied by loud snoring. Airway muscles
relax during sleep, narrowing passage to lungs. Decreased blood oxygen wakes sleeper, sometimes up to 400 times per
night. Person usually doesn’t remember these occurrences.
Treatments:
Non-Medication:
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machine: stream of
directed down airway that keeps airway open.
compressed air
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Night Terrors: Vivid and extremely frightening experiences while you are sleeping. Person wakes up gasping, sometimes
screaming, sweating and breathing heavily. Usually impossible to wake up, typically no memory of incident. Positively
correlated with stress and anxiety.
Treatments:
Medication: antidepressants
Non-Medication: therapy
Dreams:
Sequence of images, emotions and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons mind.
One can dream during any stage of sleep.
Why Do We Dream?
Freud: "royal road to the unconscious."
Dreams allow us to express and fulfill our unconscious desires.
Manifest Content: the obvious memorable content of a dream
Latent Content: the symbolic content and meaning of a dream
Modern Explanation:
Activation-Synthesis Theory: dreams are a product of random bursts of neural activity. Activate
auditory and visual areas; brains attempts to make sense of the hodgepodge of info using stored info.
Consolidated Memories Theory: dreams may help consolidate memories by strengthening neural
passageways
Hypnosis: a state of mind characterized by increased focus attention of vivid imagined experiences, increased
suggestibility, and decreased awareness of the external environment. Often attained using relaxation techniques that
suggest heavy limbs, eyelids, etc.
Trance Theory: a hypnotized person experiences a true altered state of consciousness and is susceptible to
suggestions.
Sociocognitive Theory: a hypnotized person expects hypnosis to work and thus enacts the role of a hypnotized
person.
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Uses Of Hypnosis?
Decreased compulsive habits (smoking, eating, and bedwetting).
Reduce pain and stress (childbirth, surgery).
Dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with
others.
Selective Attention: focusing away from pain stimulus
Drugs and Consciousness
Psychoactive Drugs: chemicals that alter perceptions and or moods (illegal drugs, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, etc).
Substance Abuse: pattern of use that leads to distress and for difficulty functioning in major areas of life.
Addiction: compulsive drug craving and use.
Tolerance: requiring more and more of a substance to achieve the same effect.
Withdrawal: discomfort and distress that occurs after stopping the use of an addictive drug.
3 Classes of Psychoactive Drugs
1. Depressants: reduce central nervous system activity and slow bodily functions and awareness.
Alcohol: has inhibitory effects on excitatory neural transmitters. Magnifies our tendencies and impulses.
Focused attention on current situations, not consequences.
Reduced REM sleep (memory interference).
Reduced self-awareness.
Barbituates (a.k.a. tranquilizers): cause sedation and drowsiness, often used as sleep aids and anti-anxiety
medication
Can be lethal alone or especially with alcohol.
Opiates: opium and its derivates (morphine, codeine, heroine)
Can alleviate physical pain and anxiety but highly addictive.
Activate dopamine-based reward pathway, mimic endorphins.
Bind to endorphin receptors, so body produces less endorphins, so person craves more opiates to
relieve pain.
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2. Stimulants: stimulate the central nervous system and speed up bodily functions. Increase heart rate and breathing,
cause pupil dilation, and increase energy
Cocaine: typically sniffed, leads to 15-30 minute euphoric rush.
Depletes the supply of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine.
Results in a depressive crash after drug wears off.
MDMA: aka. Ecstasy
Euphoric moods, feelings of social connectedness.
Triggers release of dopamine and serotonin
Even one use can permanently damage serotonin-producing neurons
3. Hallucinogens: class of drugs that distort perceptions and can evoke sensory images (hallucinations). Includes
marijuana, LSD, PCP.
Marijuana: major active ingredient is THC
Chemical similar to cannabanoids: neurotransmitters involved in appetite regulation, memory and pain.
Can lead to distortions in perception.
Near Death Experiences
NDE (Near Death Experience): Altered state of consciousness sometimes reported after a close brush with
death.
Usually experienced after person has been declared clinically dead.
12-40% recall NDEs
Steps of NDE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Unpleasant/uncomfortable sound (buzzing ringing)
Experience of pleasant emotions (calmness)
Out-of-body experience
Moving toward bright lights, through long tunnels
Meeting the dead, religious figures, etc.
Encountering a "being of light" (life review)
Reunified with body (often reluctantly)
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Nathan Vita & Sam Kagen
return to Table of Contents
Unit 5 -- States of Consciousness
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What is Consciousness
 Early psychology all about consciousness
 Then behaviorism….
Consciousness like a speedometer?
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Just something that lets us know what's going on inside
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Then came a re-emergence of mental processes
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 Today's psychological definition:
 A person's awareness of his or her own existence, sensations, cognitions, environment
 Different parts of brain involved in experiencing consciousness, depending what the person is aware of
at a given time
 Does not arise from perceptual areas of brain (primary visual/auditory cortices ->
occipital/temporal lobes)
 Instead arises from several areas of brain in parietal and frontal lobes
***CONSCIOUSNESS IS NOT MERELY PERCEPTION***
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Conscious vs. Unconscious
 Great deal of processing occurs unconsciously (parallel), but some also conscious (serial)
 Sergent & Dehaene (2004) -- surpassing certain intensity threshold of brain activity =
consciousness?
Types of Consciousness
 Normal/waking consciousness: state of awareness that occurs during the usual waking state
 Altered states of consciousness: states of awareness other than normal waking state
 e.g. sleep. Hypnosis, psychoactive drugs
Timing of Consciousness
 Consciousness of action lags slightly behind the brain events that evoke it. (Libet, 1985, 2004)
 Decision to move becomes conscious~ .2 sec. before movement, but…
 Motor cortex activity begins about .35 seconds before movement
 Brain gets the ball rolling before we are ever consciously aware of our decision…
 Are decisions ever truly "conscious"? Is consciousness simply awareness of what our brain is
already doing?
Sleep
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What is Sleep?
 Naturally recurrent experience during which normal consciousness is suspended
 Essential to survival of humans/mammals, most studied animals on earth
 Circadian rhythm -- the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur within a (roughly) 24 hour
cycle
 Cycles in blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, blood sugar level, hormone levels, and
metabolism
 Hypothalamus reminder: regulates bodily functioning (hunger, thirst, temperature, blood
pressure, heart rate
***regulation ebbs and flows in a daily rhythm***
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 Circadian rhythm regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus
Light-sensitive portion of the hypothalamus
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Receives information about time of day, seasons from light receptors in eyes (via optic
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nerve)
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SCN -- pineal gland: endocrine gland that secrete the hormone melatonin
Melatonin: hormone that makes people feel sleepy
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"hormone of darkness"
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 The Rhythm of Sleep
 Circadian rhythm sensitive to external cues of dark and light…
But also cultural cues to time (eg. Clocks, TV shows)
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 People deprived of such cues end up living on a 24.9 hour day.
Same with blind people
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 ***Our 24 hour schedule, dictated by daily rotation of Earth, is not "Natural" but maintained by
exposure to light-dark cycles and artificial cues like clocks and radios. (about 25 hour cycle in
reality)***
 Why care?
Jet lag: disruption of circadian rhythm as a result of rapid travel between time zones
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Symptoms: fatigue & irregular sleep patterns, loss of appetite, irritability,
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disorientation, loss of appetite, nausea
Daylight/darkness cycle not aligned with body's expectations
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Unidirectional -- most disruptive from west ~ east
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Lose an hour, shorten our 24 hour cycle
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East ~ west adds an hour, caters to our "natural" 24.9 hour circadian
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rhythm
"Monday morning blues"?
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Bad moods occur (in part) when we are awake while our circadian rhythm tells
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us we should be sleeping
Staying up late/getting up late on weekends puts you in another time zone
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(metaphorically) for the weekend
MONDAY LAG?!?! I think so.
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Stages of Sleep Diagram of Stages of Sleep with pictures
 Brain does not "turn off" during sleep
 Sleep not a single state, but several different stages (accidental EEG discovery in 1952)
 Stage 1 Sleep (hypnogogic sleep)
 Lasts for about 5 minutes, transition from wakefulness to sleep
 Alpha waves -- relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
Become less regular, lower amplitudes in stage 1
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May 'see' flashing lights/geometric patterns, experience a falling/floating sensation, or
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feel body jerk violently and suddenly (hypnic jerk)
 Easy to be awakened from stage 1
Would easily report that you weren't asleep at all
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 Stage 2 Sleep
 Lasts for about 20 min
 Marked by sleep spindles (brief bursts of rapid rhythmic brain activity) and K-Complexes (single
high-amplitude waves)
 Relatively easy to be awakened, but would most likely report that you were asleep
 Stage 3 and 4
 Marked by production of delta waves: slow, high-amplitude associated with deep sleep
Stage 3: 20-50% of brain activity comprised of delta waves
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Stage 4: more than 50% of delta waves
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 Lasts for about 30 minutes
 Stage 5 (REM sleep)
 Pattern of sleep
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1,2,3,4,3,2,REM

EEG shows marked brain activity, similar to that of stage 1 sleep (when you are nearly awake)
Rapid & irregular breathing and heart rate, quick bursts of eye movement behind closed lids
Stage where you are most likely to have dreams that you remember
REM dreams: emotional, story like, rich and vivid
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Earlier stage dreams: fleeting images, less story like
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Visual and auditory cortices in brain more active during REM than other stages
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 Sleep Cycle repeats about every 90 minutes, 4-5 times per night
 Stages 3-4 get shorter and shorter, eventually disappear
 REM gets longer; 20-25% of night's sleep is REM
 Sleep Deprivation
 40% of adults are so sleepy during the day that their daily activities are affected (National Sleep
Foundation, 2002)
 Cognitive, emotional and physical difficulties after 3 nights of inadequate sleep
 Responding quickly to visual cues more difficult after 2 nights of sleep deprivation
 Sleepy drivers account for at least 100,000 accidents per year (20% of American traffic
accidents)
 Less than 6 hours per night = increased impatience and aggravation at minor frustrations, greater
dissatisfaction with life as a whole
 Why do we sleep?
 Restorative theory: helps the body recover from the wear and tear of the day's events
 Evolutionary theory: keeps people out of trouble at night, when poor night vision makes us susceptible
to predators, falling off a cliff, etc.
 Cognitive theory: helps consolidate memories and thought processes
 Dreams!!!
 Sequences of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
 Can dream during any stage of sleep
 Awakened during REM sleep: recall dreams 78% of times
Sleep Disorders See Table at the End
 Why Do We Dream?
 First psychological dream theory proposed by Sigmund Freud (“royal road to the unconscious”)
-dreams allow us to express and fulfill unconscious desires
-The interpretation of Dreams (1899)
 2 Levels of dream interpretation
-manifest content: the obvious memorable content of a dream
-latent content: the symbolic content and meaning of a dream
-”sometimes a cigar is just a cigar...”
 not much empirical evidence still under investigation to this day
 Modern Explanations of Dreams
 activation-synthesis theory: dreams = a product of random bursts of neural activity
-especially during REM sleep (high brain activity)
-activate auditory and visual areas => brain attempts to make sense of the
hodgepodge of
information using stored information
-may explain why dreams can seem so random and disconnected
 dreams may help consolidate memories
-better performance on learned tasks after REM sleep
 dreams may strengthen neural pathways by providing periodic stimulation (especially during REM sleep)
-infants: lots of REM sleep (quickly-developing neural networks)
 Sleep Disorders See Table at the End



100


Parasomnias (includes sleep talking): sleep disorders involving transitions in and out of sleep, or
between sleep stages
Hypnosis
 Roots
 Franz Mesmer (1734-1815)
German doctor who proposed animal magnetism

 Patients drank solution with trace amounts of iron
Magnets waved over different parts of body as pain relief?

'artificial tide' running through body

Later eliminated magnets, waved hands in patients' faces

 Abbe Faria (1746-1819) -- Indo-Portuguese monk who established scientific study of hypnotism
 Based on studies of Mesmer's work, but
Believed effects were due to suggestibility, not animal magnetism

Definition
 A state of mind characterized by:
 Increased focused awareness of vivid, imagined experiences
 Increased suggestibility
 Decreased awareness of the external environment
 Hypnotic induction: process of attaining a hypnotic state
 Often using relaxation techniques that suggest heavy limbs, eyelids, etc.
 2 perspectives on hypnosis:
 1 Trance theory: a hypnotized person experiences a true altered state of consciousness, and is
susceptible to (and responsive to) suggestions
 Sociocognitive theory: a hypnotized person expects hypnosis to work, and thus enacts the role
of a hypnotized person
Hypnotic behaviors simply an extension of everyday social behavior?

 Is hypnosis 'real'?
 Highly hypnotizable people see a picture in color when instructed to, even when the actual
picture is black and white (and vice versa) (Kosslyn et al., 2000)
In pet scans the color area of occipital lobe (de)activates with suggestion (turns on and

off as a person is suggested to)
***That is outside conscious control! Does that suggest that hypnosis is indeed

a 'real' altered state of consciousness?
Some people are more hypnotizable than others

Most people at least moderately hypnotizable (losing ourselves in

trances, daydreams, etc.)
Not correlated with absorption: the capacity to concentrate totally on material

outside oneself
Variety of behavioral, medical uses

Reduce anxiety, fears (e.g. phobias)

Decrease compulsive habits (e.g. smoking, overeating, bedwetting)

Treat medical conditions (e.g. asthma, insomnia)

 Applications of Hypnosis
Mehl (1994): 100 pregnant women with babies in feet-first position

IV: women hypnotized/not hypnotized

Hypnotized: relax and let nature take it's course

DV: % of babies that re-oriented to headfirst position

50% in DV turned around

80% in IV turned around

101


Hypnotized persons experiences pain stimulus, but not pain (e.g. bucket of ice water)
Some post-op patients recover faster (and with less medication) when hypnotized
May work due to dissociation:

A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to

occur simultaneously with others
e.g. sensation (cold water) dissociated from perception (pain)

May work due to selective attention

Focusing away from pain stimulus

 Bottom line:
Evidence for both sides

Hypnosis likely a product of both altered state AND social phenomena

Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive drugs
Near Death Experiences
 Altered state of consciousness sometimes reported after a close brush with death
 Usually experienced after a person has been declared clinically dead
 12-40% recall Near Death Experiences
 Sometimes interpreted as a window to the afterlife (consciousness without brain activity?
 Typical progression of an NDE
 Unpleasant/uncomfortable sound (Buzzing, ringing)
 Experience of pleasant emotions (calmness)
 Out of body experiences
 Moving toward bright light, through a long tunnel
 Meeting the dead, religious figures, family/friends, etc.
6. Encountering a 'being of light' (life review)
7. Reunified with body (often reluctantly)
 Other altered states
 Descriptions of NDEs, Hallucinogenic experiences very similar
 Recalling old memories, out-of-body sensations, visions of tunnels and bright lights
 Also similar to temporal lobe seizures
 Electrically stimulating temporal lobe = sensations of floating and seeing self from above
 Oxygen deprivation can produce hallucinations, tunnel vision
 Deactivation of inhibitory neurons = increased visual cortex activity, resulting in growing patch
of light
 Siegel (1980): NDEs are "hallucinatory activity of the brain"
 Differences between NDEs and drug-induced hallucinations?
Disorder
Description
Biology
Groups at Risk
Sleep walking
Moving around, sometimes performing
other actions, as if awake even though
person is asleep
Occurs during slow
wavelength sleep
(3-4)
7% of girls, 6% of boys,
3% adult women, 4%
adult men (more
prevalent in children,
possibly because kids
spend more time in
stages 3-4)
Sleep Talking

Somniloquy talking out loud during sleep
Simple

sounds --> complete sentences /
Occurs during
About 50% of children,
transitions b/w
and about 5% of adults
non-REM stages, or
during REM
Treatment
102
streams of thought

Often
simple, nonsensical language
Insomnia
Repeated difficulty falling asleep, staying
asleep, or waking up too early (more than
just b/c of stress or anxiety
N/A
Narcolepsy
Uncontrollable overwhelming sleep attacks
during which the sufferer falls into REM
sleep every 10 min
Possibly due to a
deficit in
Hypocretin
(neurotransmitter
that keeps us alert)
Sleep Apnea
Person temporarily stops breathing while
asleep
Airway muscles
relax during sleep,
narrowing passage
to lungs, decreased
blood oxygen
wakes up sufferer
(sometimes up to
400x / night)
Night Terrors
Vivid Extremely frightening experiences
while asleep: NOT NIGHTMARES, night
terrors are not remembered
Person wakes up
gasping,
sometimes
screaming, not able
to wake up on
command
Stress, or anxiety
caused?
Class
Purpose
Depressants
Reduce central nervous
system activity; slow
bodily functions and
awareness
With
medication:
xanax, valium,
lunesta,
ambien,
alcohol
Stimulus
Control: hot
showers or
reduced
activity right
before bed
CPAP Machine
Most common among 37 year olds (about 15%)
More common among
boys than girls
Can occur among men
and women of any age
Example
Effects
Pros
Cons
Alcohol
Inhibitory effect,
Person can
Person can commit
Stimulants
103
magnifies tendencies,
become more
focused attention on
helpful, nicer
the short term, reduced
REM (memory
Interference), reduced
self-awareness
sexual assults, be
more aggressive
Barbituates
Cause sedation and
(e.g.
drowsiness (often used
Tranquilizers) as sleep aids and antianxiety medication, can
be lethal alone or
especially in
conjunction with
alcohol
Opiates
Pain-killer, activate
dopamine to mimic
endorphines
Caffeine
Increase heart rate and
breathing, cause pupil
dilation, and increase in
energy
Cocaine
Depletes supply of
dopamine, serotonin,
and norepinephrine
Ecstacy
(MDMA)
Euphoric moods,
feelings of social
connectedness, triggers
release of dopamine
and serotonin
Marijuana
Major ingredient is THC,
chemical like
cannabinoids,
neurotransmitter linked
with appetite
regulation, memory,
and pain, distorts
senses
Stimulate the central
nervous system and speed
up bodily functions
Hallucinogens Distort perceptions and
can evoke sensory images
(hallucinations)
Binding to endorphin
receptors cause lack
of natural production
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Drisana Martinez & Kailey Moonen
return to Table of Contents
Unit 5: States of Consciousness
Important terms:
Consciousness- A person’s awareness of his/her own existence, sensations, cognitions and environment.
Sleep- Naturally recurrent experience during which normal consciousness is suspended.
Circadian Rhythm- The biological clock. Regular bodily rhythms that occur within a roughly 24 hour cycle. However,
when people are deprived of external and cultural cues to time they end up living an approximately 24.9 hour day.
Jetlag- Disruption of the rhythm as a result of rapid travel. It’s more disruptive going West to East, which subtracts an
hour, where as going East to West adds an hour and caters to the natural 24 hour day.
Stages of Sleep- Sleep is not a single state, but rather multiple stages including Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4 and Rapid Eye
Movement (REM).
Sleep Deprivation- Cognitive, Emotion, and Physical difficulties after 3 nights of inadequate sleep. Less than 6 hours per
night equals increased impatience, and aggravation at minor frustrations, greater dissatisfaction with life as a whole.
Dreams- Sequences of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. It’s possible to dream
during any stage of sleep, but they are most memorable during REM.
Sleep Walking- (Somnambulism) Moving around, sometimes performing other actions as if awake, even though the
person is asleep.
Sleep Talking- (Somniloquy) Talking out loud during sleep.
Sleep Disorders- A disturbance of sleep, such as: Insomnia, Narcolepsy, Sleep Apnea, and Night Terrors.
Hypnosis- A state of mind characterized by increased focused awareness of vivid imagined experiences. Increased
suggestibility in decreased awareness of the external environment.
Classes of Psychoactive drugs- Depressants, Stimulants, and Hallucinogens.
Near Death Experiences- Alerted State of Consciousness, sometimes reported after a close brush with death. Usually
experiences after person has been declared clinically dead.
Further Explanation of :
Stages of SleepStage One:
105
· Lasts for about 5 minutes, transition from wakefulness to sleep (Hypnogogic
Sleep)
· Alpha Waves- relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
· May see flashing lights/geometric patterns experiencing a falling/floating
suddenly. (Hypnic Jerk)
sensation or feel body jerk violently and
· Easily awakened from Stage One and would likely report not being asleep at all.
Stage Two:
· Lasts for about 20 minutes.
· Marked by sleep spindles (brief bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain activity) and K- complexes (single high-amplitude
waves)
· Relatively easily awakened, but would now report being asleep.
Stages Three and Four:
· Combined, lasts for about 30 minutes.
· Marked by production of Delta Waves (slow, high-amplitude waves associated
with deep sleep.)
-Stage 3: 20-50% Delta Waves
-Stage 4: More than 50% Delta Waves
· Marked by decreases in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and body
the day during Stage 4.)
temperature (all the lowest part of
Rapid Eye Movement (REM):
· EEG shows marked brain activity similar to that of Stage One sleep (where you
are nearly awake)
· Rapid and irregular breathing and heart rate.
· Quick bursts of eye movements behind closed lids.
· Stage where you are most likely to have dreams that will be remembered.
more active during REM than other stages.)
-Sleep Cycle occurs about every 90 minutes, 4 to 5 times per night.
-As is progresses, the REM stage gets longer.
-Pattern of Sleep: 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM, 2, 3, 4...
Why Do We Sleep?
(Visual and Auditory Cortex in brain
106
·Restorative Theory: helps the body recover from the wear and tear of the day’s
·Evolutionary Theory: keeps people out of trouble at night, when poor night
predators, falling off a cliff, etc.
event.
vision makes us susceptible to
·Cognitive Theory: helps consolidate memories (memory of how to perform tasks
is better after sleep).
Why Do We Dream?
·First psychological dream theory proposed by Sigmund Freud (“royal road to the unconscious”): dreams allow us to
express and fulfill unconscious desires.
·Manifest Content: the obvious, memorable content of a dream.
·Latent Content: the symbolic content and meaning of a dream.
·Modern explanations of dreams:
·Activation-synthesis Theory: dreams are a product of random bursts of neural activity especially during REM sleep when
visual and auditory areas of brain are especially active, making sense of the hodgepodge of information using previously
stored information.
·Dreams may help consolidate memories.
·Dreams may strengthen neural pathways by providing periodic stimulation, especially during REM sleep.
Insomnia:
· Defined as repeated difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too easily.
· More than the occasional difficult sleeping due to stress, anxiety.
Treatment (With Medication):
· Typically sedatives that depress the activity of the central nervous system.
· Treated with medications such as Xanax, Valium, Lunesta, Ambien (Alcohol is
at treatment)
· Medication suppresses REM Sleep, is addictive, and causes a tolerance to
dangerous, but some suffers do use it
develop.
Treatment (Without):
· Restrict sleeping schedule to same hours every night. (including weekends and
· Use of Stimulus Control: Create Association between bed and sleep.
days off)
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· Getting out of bed, hot showers, lights dimmed help. No caffeine or exercise.
Narcolepsy:
· Uncontrollable overwhelming sleep attacks that last 5 to 20 minutes.
· Suffers slip into REM sleep within 10 minutes.
· Possibly due to a deficit in hypocretin (a neurotransmitter that keeps us alert).
Treatment:
· Usually treated with stimulants.
Sleep Apnea:
· A person temporarily stops breathing during sleep, usually accompanied by loud snoring.
· Airway muscles relax during sleep, narrowing the passageway to lungs.
· Decreased blood oxygen wakes sleeper, sometimes up to 400 times per night, but the person typically doesn’t
remember waking or having trouble breathing.
· Usually diagnosed by others watching person sleep, or effects on the body (extreme exhaustion for unknown reasons).
Treating Sleep Apnea:
· Most common treatment: CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) machine
·stream of compressed air directed down airway, via mask, keeping airways open
breathing.
and allowing unobstructed
Night Terrors:
· Vivid and extremely frightening experiences while sleeping.
* NOT just nightmares.
· Person wakes up gasping and screaming, suddenly sits up sweating and heavily breathing.
· Sometimes an imagined object of fear.
· Wake up typically with no memory and with a pure experience of fear.
· Correlated with stress and anxiety.
108
Occur among:
· 3- 7 year old children.
· More commonly among boys.
· 15% of kids experience night terrors.
Hypnosis:
· Modernly defined as a state of mind characterized by: increased focused awareness of vivid, imagined experiences,
increased suggestibility, decreased awareness of external environment.
· Created by Franz Mesmer, a German doctor who proposed Animal Magnetism, a new cure of physical ailments.
· Patients drank solution with iron, and magnets waved over different parts of body for “pain relief.” Later the magnets
were eliminated, and he waved his hands instead.
· Trance Therapy- a hypnotized person experiences a true altered state of mind,
suggestions.
consciousness, and is susceptible to
· Some people more hypnotizable than others.
· Used to treat anxieties and fears
Near Death Experiences: altered state of consciousness sometimes reported after a close brush with death, usually
experienced after person has been declared clinically deceased (12-40% recall NDE when revived); sometimes
interpreted as a window to the afterlife (consciousness without brain activity?)
-Typical Progression of NDE:
1. unpleasant/uncomfortable sound (buzzing, ringing)
2. experience of pleasant emotions (calmness)
3. out-of-body experience (floating sensation, looking down on body)
4. moving toward bright light, through long tunnel
5. meeting the dead, religious figures, etc.
6. encountering a “being of light” (life review, see life flash before your eyes)
7. reunified with body (often reluctantly, steps reversed)
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Kaylee Goettel & Chris Blake
return to Table of Contents
Unit 5 Review
What is Consciousness?
*A person’s awareness of existence, sensations, cognitions, and environment.
Conscious vs. Unconscious
*Parallel processing occurs unconsciously.
*Serial processing occurs consciously.
*Sergent and Dehaene (2004)
*Surpassing certain thresholds of brain activity
*Activity from different places merges to become consciousness
*a music chord
Types of Consciousness
*Normal/Waking Consciousness: the Everyday conscious
*Altered states of Consciousness
*sleep, hypnosis, drugs
Timing of Consciousness
*Libet (1985, 2004)
*decision to move become conscious .2 seconds before movement occurs
*motor activity in the brain occurs .35 seconds before movement occurs
Sleep
*naturally recurrent experience when normal consciousness is suspended
*Circadian Rhythm: on a 24 hour cycle
*Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: light-sensitive portion of hypothalamus
*receptors sensitive to time of day and seasons
*Pineal Gland releases melatonin (making you sleepy)
110
*Disruptions:
*Cultural cues: w/out cultural cues circadian rhythm becomes a 25 hour cycle
*Jet lag: daylight/darkness cycle not aligned w/ bodies expectations
Stages of Sleep
*Stage 1
*just starting to fall asleep (hypnogogic)
*alpha waves: a relaxed, awake brain stage
*becomes less regular as you fall asleep
*flashing lights/ geometric patterns
*hypnic jerk: jerk violently
*easily woken up
*Stage 2
*about 20 minutes
*Sleep Spindles: brief burst of rapid brain activity
*dark concentration on EEG
*K-complexes: single high amplitude waves
*high peaks on EEG
*Stage 3 & 4
*about 30 minutes
*Delta waves: slow, high amplitude waves (deep sleep)
*Stage 3: 20-50% delta waves
*Stage 4: more than 50% of delta waves
*Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep
*about 1 hour of sleep
*EEG similar to Stage 1 sleep
*rapid irregular breathing and heart rate
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*quick bursts of eye movement
*most likely remember your dreams
*REM dreams: emotional, story like, rich and vivid
*earlier stage dreams: fleeting images, less story like
*visual & auditory cortices more active during REM sleep
Sleep Deprivation
*difficulties occur after only 3 nights of deprivation
*response to visual cues slow after 2 nights of deprivation
*increased impatience and aggravation
*greater life dissatisfaction
Why Do We Need Sleep?
*Restorative theory: recovery from the day
*Evolutionary theory: keep people out of trouble
*poor night vision
*Cognitive theory: consolidate memories
*memory to perform tasks better after sleep
Dreams
*images, emotions, thoughts passing through sleeping mind
*can dream at any time during sleep
Why Do We Dream?
*First theory proposed by Sigmund Freud
*dreams allow us to express and fulfill unconscious desires
*Manifest Content: obvious memorable content of dream
*Latent Content: symbolic content and meaning of dream
*Activation-synthesis theory: dreams are products of random bursts of neural activity
*especially during REM sleep
112
*activate auditory and visual areas  brain makes sense of info
*Help consolidate memories
*strengthen neural passageways
Sleepwalking and Sleep talking
*parasomnias: sleep disorders involving transitions in and out of sleep
*sleepwalking (somnambulism): during slow wave sleep cycles
*sleep talking: during transition between non-REM
Sleep Disorders
*insomnia: repeated difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early
*Medication: sedatives that depress the central nervous system activity
*Therapy: schedule sleep hours
*stimulus control: bed is only for sleep (& sex…)
*Narcolepsy: uncontrollable sleep attacks
*A deficit in hypocretin (keeps us alert)
*treated with stimulants
*Sleep Apnea: temporarily stop breathing during sleep, followed by loud snoring
*airway muscles relax and close in on air passage to lungs
*decreased blood oxygen wakes sleeper (400 times)
*no memory of waking up or trouble breathing
*CPAP Machine: forces oxygen into air way
*night terrors: vivid and extremely frightening experiences while sleeping
*wake up gasping or screaming
*Suddenly sit up, sweating, heavy breathing
*almost impossible to wake up and typically no memeory
Hypnosis
*Franz Mesmer (1734-1815) German Doctor
113
*animal magnetism: cure for physical ailments
*drink iron filament solution with water
*drag magnets over body toward hunting body part
*Abbè Faria (1746-1819) Monk from Portuguese
*believed effects of magnetism due to suggestibility
Modern Definition: state of mind
*very focused on awareness on the person
*increased suggestibility
*a decreased awareness of external environment
*Hypnotic Induction: process of going into a hypnotic state
*Trance Theory: a person experiences a true altered state of consciousness and is susceptible to
suggestions
*Sociocognitive Theory: a person expects hypnosis to work, and enacts the role of a hypnotized person
*Who is Hypnotizable?
*most people= moderately hypnotizable (daydreaming)
*slightly correlated with absorption
*capacity to concentrate on material outside of self
*Applications
*reducing anxiety and fears
*decrease compulsive habits
*treat medical conditions/ reduce pain and stress
*Mehl (1994)
* hypnotizing pregnant women with babies turned feet first
*dissociation: a split in consciousness, allowing some thoughts to occur simultaneously
with others
* selective attention: focusing away from pain stimulus
Drugs and Consciousness
114
*Psychoactive Drugs
*chemicals that alter perception and/or moods
*Depressants: depress the central nervous system
*alcohol: inhibitory effect on excitatory nervous system
*amplify small impulses, reduced memory, reduced self-awareness
*tranquilizers: feeling drowsy and sedated
*barbiturates
*opiates: pain killers
*opium (morphine, codeine, heroine)
*mimic endorphins or increase dopamine
*Stimulants: get the body going
*Cocaine: euphoric rush, good feelings
*depletes dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine= a depressive crash
*Ecstasy: euphoric moods, social connectedness (social bonds)
*triggers dopamine and serotonin receptors
*can damage the serotonin neurons
*Hallucinogens: distort perceptions, evoke images, danger w/ motor tasks
*Marijuana: effect appetite regulation, memory and pain
*cannabaniods regulations
Near Death Experiences
*altered state of consciousness reported after close brush w/ death
*conscious w/out brain activity?
*Progression
#1: uncomfortable/ loud sound (buzzing, ringing)
#2: experience of pleasant emotions (calmness, relaxation)
#3: out-of-body experience (consciousness floating away)
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#4: moving toward the bright light (feeling of movement)
#5: meeting dead family members
#6: encounter a “being of light” (life flashing before eyes)
#7: reunified w/ body (steps go in reverse)
*Siegel (1980): NDE’s are “hallucinatory activity of brain”
*Kinseher (2006): brain is scaning memory for similar feeling of death
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Freddy Driesen and Tyler Hawkins
return to Table of Contents
Unit 6 Review
Learning- a relatively permanent change in organisms behavior due t experience.
Human can learn by association
Our minds naturally connect events that occur in events
1For example, after seeing and smelling freshly baked bread, you eat some and you find it satisfying, then the next time
you see and smell fresh bread, your experience will lead you to expect that eating it will be satisfying again.
Complex animals can learn more response-outcome associations.
2

Seals in aquariums repeat behaviors, such as slapping and barking, that prompt people to toss them
herring. By linking these events that occur close together, the seal exhibits associative learning.
Conditioning- the process of learning associations
In classical conditioning, we learn to associate two stimuli, and thus to anticipate events.
For example- we learn that a strike of lightening signals an impending crack of thunder, so we start to brace ourselves
when lightening comes.
In operant conditioning, we learn to associate a response (our behavior0 and its consequence, thereby increasing the
tendency followed by x to repeat x followed by good or bad result.
Observational learning, we learn from others experiences and examples.
By conditioning with observation, he humans learn and adapt to our environment.
We learn to expect and prepare for significant events, such as food or pain. We also learn to repeat acts that bring
good results and avoid acts that give us bad results.
Classical conditioning
The idea of learning associations had long crated a philosophical discussion for Ivan Pavlov.
Through many experiments, Pavlov explored the phenomenon we now call classical conditioning
1Classical conditioning- a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate two stimuli. A neutral stimulus that
signals and unconditioned response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
2Pavlov Experiments
Salivating dogs
Noticed that when he worked with the same dog repeatedly, the dog began salivating to stimuli associated with food.
Just before placing food in the dog's mouth ti produce salivation, Pavlov sounded a tone.
117
Pavlov found that after several pairings of tone and food.
Because salivation in response to food was unlearned, pavlov called this an unconditioned response
The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salvation when food is in the
mouth.
Food in the mouth automatically, unconditionally triggers a dogs salivary reflex. This pavlov called the food stimulus an
unconditioned stimulus.
A stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response.
Salivation in response to the tone was conditioned upon the dogs learning the association between the tone and the
food. Pavlov called this the conditioned response.
The learned response to a previously neutral( but now conditioned) stimulus.
The previous tone stimules that now triggered the conditional salivation is called the conditional stimulus
An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditional
response.
Acquisition
Initial learning of a stimulus response relationship.
A question arose how much time should elapse between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, and the
unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction
What happens if the conditional stimulus occurs repeatedly with the unconditional stimulus
Pavlov found that when he sounded the tone again and again without presenting food, the dog salivated less and less.
This elicits extinction.
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not
follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Spontaneous recovery
Pavlov found, however, that if allowed several hours before sounding the tone again, the salivation to the tone would
reappear spontaneously. This spontaneous recovery.
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Generalization
Pavlov and his students noticed that a dog conditioed to the sound of one tone, also responded somewhat to the
sound of a different tone never paired with food.
This tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus is called generalization.
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The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus, to elicit similar
responses.
Discrimination
Pavlov's dogs also learned to respond to the sound of a particular tone and not to other terms.
The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli.
2. Applications of Classical Conditioning
Drug Users
Former crack cocaine users often feel a craving when they again encounter cues associated with previous highs. Thus,
drug counselors advise addicts to steer clear of settings and paraphernalia associated with the euphoria of previous
drugs.
John B. Watson
Little Albert
Little Albert was an 11 month old infant child, and like most new borns, little albert feared loud noises, but nor white
rats. Watson and his associates would present a white rat to little albert, but everytime little albert would reach to touch
it, Watson would make a lound sound, which would scare Little Albert. After several repititions, Albert eventually
became frightened every time he saw a white rat.
Application to generalization
Watson showed generalization of his conditioned response be making Little Albert react to rabbits dogs and many
other things that slightly resembled a white rat.
Operant conditioning
A type of learning in which a behavior is strengthened if not followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a
punisher.
Operant conditioning involves Operant behavior, which is a behavior that operates on the environment, producing
consequences.
Law of Effect
Rewarded behavior is likely to recur.
Skinner's Experiments
Skinner Box/ Operant Chamber
The box has a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a reward of food or water, and a device that
records these responses.
Skinner used shaping, which is a procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer
approximations of the desired behavior.
Types of reinforcements
Reinforcements are any events that strengthen, or increase the frequency of a preceding response.
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Continuous Reinforcements
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
under such conditions, learning occurs rapidly.
Positive reinforcements
Any stimuli that, such as food, that when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Negative reinforcement
Any stimulus that, such as a shock, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
Primary reinforcers
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological lead, such as getting foo when hungary.
Conditioned reinforcers/ Secondary reinforcers.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer.
Partial reinforcement
reinforces a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to
extinction than continuous reinforcements.
ex. Slot machines reward gamblers occasionally and unpredictably. This intermittent reinforcement affects them much
as it affects pigeons: they keep trying, sometimes interminably.
Fixed Ratio Schedules
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Most effective method
Variable-Ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
Fixed interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a resonse after a specified time has elapsed
Variable interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable intervals.
Punishment
decreases the behavior that it follows
Positive punishment
administer an aversive stimulus
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ex. a parking ticket
Negative Punishment
The withdrawal of a desirable stimulus
ex. revoked drivers license
Pros of punishment(parenting)
Lets children know that they have done wrong
effective in the short run
Cons of punishment(parenting)
Children can become violent
Children may suppress the punished action
Skinner did not really take emotion into consideration, which is why he is critisized by many today.
Latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to show it.
Cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of ones environment
ex. after exploring mazes several times, rats act as if they have learned a map of the maze by making it through the
maze quicker
Intrinsic motivation
a desire to preform a behavior for its own sake
Extrinsic motivation
a desire to preform a behavior due to promised rewards or threat of punishment.
Classical conditioning
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Heather Howe and Brittany Hempel
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Unit VI: Learning (part one)
Terms
Classical conditioning: A type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus becomes paired or associated with a second
stimulus.
Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that automatically elicits a response.
Unconditioned response: the automatic, reflexive response to the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus: an originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through repeated pairings with the
unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response: the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus.
Acquisition: initial learning of the association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. Level of
acquisition depends largely on the timing of the stimulus presentation.
Forward conditioning: procedure in which the conditioned stimulus begins before the unconditioned stimulus is presented.
Delayed conditioning: conditioned stimulus occurs both before and during unconditioned stimulus.
Trace conditioning: when the conditioned stimulus ends before the unconditioned stimulus begins.
Backward conditioning: conditioning procedure in which the unconditioned stimulus is presented before the conditioned
stimulus.
Simultaneous conditioning: conditioning procedure in which the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus are
presented at the same time.
Extinction: the process by which a conditioned response is eliminated through repeated presentations of the conditioned
stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.
Reacquisition: once classical conditioning has occurred, connection between conditioned stimulus and unconditioned
stimulus never completely disappears, therefore reacquisition of the learned behavior happens much faster.
Stimulus discrimination: the ability to distinguish among similar stimuli and to respond to only actual conditioned
stimulus.
Biological preparedness: a built-in readiness for a certain conditioned stimulus to elicit a certain conditioned response.
Taste aversion: classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food or taste that makes/made a person sick; typically
occurs after a single conditioned/unconditioned stimulus pairing.
People
Ivan Pavlov: Russian psychologist, did the learning studies on his dogs.
John Watson: inspired by Pavlov, father of behaviorism. Known for the Little Albert study.
Studies
Pavlov’s Dogs: Ivan Pavlov successfully conditioned his lab dogs to salivate at the ring of a bell through the process of
classical conditioning.
Little Albert: in this study an infant was conditioned through operant conditioning to fear a white rat that he was once
fond of, using loud noise as the punishment for affiliating with the rat. Little Albert also then feared white coats, white
dogs, and white beards.
Unit XI (part two)
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Biological preparedness: built in readiness for conditioned stimuli to elicit conditioned response: less learning necessary
to produce conditioning for dark, heights, ect)
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
Ex: Taste Aversion- classically conditioning avoidance of a certain food that makes one sick
Adaptive: allows animals to avoid poisonous foods in the future
Garcia+ Koeling: effects of radiation on rats, rats drank less water from bottles with radiation (plastic) than those in home
cage (glass)
IV: Drinking sweet water followed by no radiation/ mild radiation/ strong radiation, then given choice to drink
sweetened or regular tap water
DV: how much of each type of water consumed by rats
Operant conditioning
Positive punishment: when behavior leads to intro of undesired consequence (add)
Negative punishment: removal of a pleasant event/ circumstance following behavior (take away something)
3 characteristics of effective punishment:
1. Must be swift, immediately after undesired behavior
2. Consistent
3. Adversative without causing fear, anxiety, injury, ect
Problems:
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Skinner= punishment teaches to avoid it, punished behavior suppressed
Physical punishment may increase aggressive behavior
May lead to fear of punishment
Tell what not to do, rather than what to do
Punishment and reinforcement together= best
Latent learning: learning that’s not immediately acted on, but stored for later use
Tolman+ Honzik: 3 groups of rats completing maze
1. regularly rewarded= less efforts
2. no food reward until day 11= errors until get food
Mental processes such as expectations, memory, perception, ect. Involved in learning
Insight learning: when an organism suddenly grasps the meaning of something and incorporates that into new knowledge
Woflgang Kohler: studied insight learning in chimpanzees, they need to think creatively and use tools to retrieve out of
reach food= consistently demonstrated “aha moment” after initial frustration
Observational Learning
Social learning theory: learning occurs in a social context and is as much product of watching others as it is of making
associations
Modeling- process of observing and initiating a specific behavior
Bandura et Al: learning by watching others, bobo doll study= how to behave from watching others
Mirror neurons: neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing someone else engaging in those
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actions
-heaviest concentration in frontal lobe, near motor cortex
- 1 discovered in macque monkeys with tasks like grasping, holding, and tearing
- Understanding others’ intentions
- Theory of mind: ability to infer another’s mental state
- Empathy: mirror neurons for emotional experiences, stronger activiation of mirror neuron system for women
- language development
- connections to autism (hard to be socially connecting= problem with mirror neurons
st
Pervasiveness of TV, Violence and TV, exposure to media violence= positively correlated with getting into fights,
violence and video games= strong ties with video games and real life violence
Psychological effects of media violence
1. imitation (as young as 14 months)
Ex: after power rangers kids have 7xs as much violent acts
2. desensitization
more indifference to future events of violence
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Brian Kanarr & Nicole Bundy
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Learning
Associative learning
Associating two different stimuli
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov
Found out that he could teach his dogs to drool with the sound of a bell
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Unconditional response (UR)- the food in the dogs mouth automatically makes him drool
Unconditional stimulus (US) the food was an unconditional stimulus
Conditioned response (CR) the dogs drooling at the sound of the bell
Conditioned stimulus (CS) the bell being associated with food
Acquisition
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Pavlov had to find out when to give the food to make the strongest connection
Found that doing the CS before the food came out that the acquisition would be the strongest
Extinction

When CS is no longer being paired with US then the CR dimishes
Spontaneous recovery

After a period of time the CS will illicit the CR but only briefly after the response has been extinct
Generalization

Learning to generalize fears
Example: a toddler learns to fear a moving car will carry that generalization to fear motorcycles, and trucks too.
Discrimination

The ability to distinguish between CS and an irrelevant stimulus
Taste Aversion
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After becoming violently ill eating something a person will avert the taste or sometimes the sight of that
particular food because it made them sick eating it
Operant Conditioning
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Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer
or diminished if followed by a punisher
Classical conditioning also involves respondent behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner’s term for behavior
learned through classical conditioning
 A CS and the US it signals (stimulus)
 Learning associations between events that it does not control
Operant conditioning involves operant behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
 Learning associations between its behavior and resulting events
Skinner’s Experiments---Skinner became behaviorism’s most influential and controversial figure
He elaborated a simple act of life that psychologist Edward L. Thorndike called
the Law of Effect

Principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and
that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Skinner designed an operant chamber, popularly known as the skinner box
Containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or
water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar
pressing or key pecking- Used in operant conditioning research
Shaping Behavior-----In his experiments, Skinner used Shaping
A procedure which reinforcers, such as food, gradually guide an animal’s
actions toward a desired behavior
Types of Reinforcers---Reinforcer
o
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Positive reinforcement
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
o
o
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A
positive reinforcer is any stimuli that, when presented after a response,
strengthens the response
o Negative reinforcement
 Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as
shock. A negative reinforcer, is any stimulus that, when removed after a
response, strengthens the response
o Reinforcement is any consequence that strengthens behavior
o Primary and Conditioned Reinforcers---- Primary reinforcers- An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that
satisfies a biological need
 Conditioned reinfocers- A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power
through its association with a primary reinforce; also known as
secondary reinforce
 Reinforcement Schedules-----o Continuous reinforcement- Reinforcing the desired response every time it
occurs
o Partial reinforcement- Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in
slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than
does continuous reinforcement
 Acquisition is the strengthening of a reinforced response, Extinction
occurs when a response is no longer reinforced
o Fixed-ratio schedules- A reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only
after a specified number of responses
o Variable-ratio schedules- Provide reinforcers after an unpredictable number of
responses
o Fixed-interval schedules- Reinforce the first response after a fixed time period
o Variable-interval schedules- Reinforce the first response after varying time
intervals
 Punishment-----o Punishment- An event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Extending Skinner’s Understanding---- Cognition and Operant Conditioning---- Latent learning- Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to
demonstrate it
o Cognitive map- A mental representation of the layout of one’s environment
 Intrinsic motivation- A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
o Extrinsic motivation- A desire to perform s behavior due to promised rewards
or threats of punishment
Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning
 Response
 C- Involuntary/automatic, O- Voluntary
 Acquisition
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 C- CS announces US, O- Associating response with consequence
Extinction
 C- CR decreases when CS is repeatedly presented alone, O- Responding decreases when
reinforcement stops
Cognitive Processes
 C- Organisms develop expectation that CS signals the arrival of US,
O- Organisms
develop expectation that a response will be reinforced or punished
Observable behavior
Imitating a specific behavior is often called modeling
Mirror neurons
In frontal lobe and are the neural basis for observational learning
Albert Bandura

After the columbine shootings he set up a study to see if kids got violence from their parents and found that kids
learn a lot of their behaviors from their parents which is the basis for most people saying that violent video
games make kids more violent
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Michael Montoya & Katlyn Green
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1.
UNIT 6: Learning
Learning: a relatively permanent change in thought/behavior that results from experience
We learn largely by association: mentally pairing events together when they occur together
Conditioning: the process of learning associations between events


Classical conditioning: paired events are 2 stimuli
Operant Conditioning: paired events are behavior and consequences
CLASSICAL


a type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimuli (stimulus A) becomes paired (associated) with a second
stimulus (stimulus B)
Stimulus B causes an automatic reflexive behavior
-in time Stimulus A is sufficient to produce that behavior by itself
Ex) Pavlov’s dogs
Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936
 Russian physiologist Nobel Prize winning work on the digestive processes
 noticed dogs salivated when they saw people with food, then turned attention to studying learning
Classical conditioning
Conditioned = learned, unconditioned = unlearned
Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that automatically elicits a response (food)
Unconditioned response (UR): the automatic reflexive response to the us (salivation due to food)
Before conditioning a neutral stimulus (e.g. tone from a toning fork) does not elicit response
-During conditioning, US (food) is presented with the neutral stimulus (tone)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally neutral stimulus that aquires significance through repeated pairings with the
unconditioned stimulus (US)
Conditioned response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (salivation due
to the tone)
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Acquisition: initial learning of the association between a neutral stimulus (tone) and a US (food)
Level of acquisition depends on the timing of stimuli presentation
Forward conditioning: procedure in which the CS (tone) begins before the US (food) is presented
1.delayed conditioning: CS occurs both before and during US
2. Trace conditioning: CS ends before US begins
Non-forward conditioning
3. Backward conditioning: conditioning procedure in which the US (food) is presented before the CS (tone)
4. Simultaneous conditioning: conditioning procedure in which the US (food) and CS (tone) are presented at the same
time
Extinction: the process by which a CR (salivation) eliminated through repeated presentations of the CS (tone without the
US(food))
Reacquisition - once classical conditioning has occurred, connection between the CS (tone) and US (food) never
completely disappears
Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance , after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Stimulus generalization: tendency for the CR (salivation) to be elicited by neutral stimuli that are similar to, but not
identical to the CS (tone)
Ex) dogs began to salivate when a slightly different tone sounded
Stimulus Discrimination: the ability to distinguish among similar stimuli and to respond only to actual conditional stimuli
The Behaviorist Zeitgeist
Attitudes: an overall evaluation of an object, ranging from positive o negative (likes and dislikes)
Conditional emotional response: an emotional response elicited by a previously neutral stimulus. Can lead to phobias
Watson and Raynor 1920: Case of little Albert

Baby Albert was presented with a white rat, he enjoyed playing with it, but when he would approach the rat, he
would be startled with extremely loud noises ultimately causing him to have a phobia towards the white and
later, an immense fear of furry white things.
Taste aversion: classically conditioned avoidance of a certain food or taste that makes/made a person sick
Can treat alcoholism using the drug Antabuse
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1.physical/medical phenomena = conditioning in order to boost the immune system
Chemotherapy as a medical example
-anticipating nausea: classically conditioned response to chemotherapy, triggered by previously neutral CS
2. Drug addictions and overdoses: taking drug in a place repeatedly in a specific setting develops CR to that
place. Body compensates for expected drug. Taking drug in a new setting can cause an overdose due to missing
CR
3. Advertising: viewing political slogans (CS) while eating food (US) leads to more positive/negative evaluations
of slogans.
4. Therapy techniques
Systematic desensitization: a behavior therapy technique that teaches people to be relaxed in the presence of a
feared object or situation. Pairs feelings of being relaxed with thoughts of fears.
OPERANT CONDITIONING: type of learning in which I specific behavior becomes associated with its
consequence
 What’s the difference?
o Classical: association between 2 external stimuli, typically out of organism’s control, relevant
behavior is an automatic reflexive response
o Operant: association creatwed between organisms behavior and its consequences, typically
within organism’s control, relevant behavior is voluntary, operating on environment
 Thorndike’s puzzle box
o Thorndike put cats in a box where they had to push a lever in order to
escape
o Learn the law of effect: rewarded behaviors are more likely to be
repeated
 B.f. Skinner – influential behaviorist
o Developed principles behind operant conditioning through the use of a “skinner box”
o Shaping: The gradual process of reinforcing an organism for behavior that gets closer and closer
to the desired behavior
 Reinforcement
o Reinforcer: object or event that comes after a behavior that increases the likelihood of engaging
in THAT behavior again
 2 Types of Reinforcement: positive and negative
o Positive = adding something; Negative = take something away
o Positive reinforcement: desired reinforce is given after a a behavior, increasing the likelihood of
that behavior in future
o Negative reinforcement: an unpleasant event/circumstance is removed following a desired
behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior
 Some principles of classical conditioning are relevant to operant conditioning too
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o
o
o


Generalization: ability to generalize from a learned behavior to a similar behavior
Discrimination: ability to distinguish between learned behavior and a similar
Extinction: after the withdrawal of reinforcement, the fading out of a learned behavior following
an initial burst of the behavior
o Spontaneous Recovery: process by which an old response reappears if there is a break after
extinction
Schedules of Reinforcement
o Interval schedules: reinforcement given after a specified period of time
 Fixed: reinforcement given for the behavior after a certain interval of time
 Variable: reinforcement given for desired response after varying interval of time
o Ratio Schedules: reinforcement given after a specific number of desired behaviors
 Fixed: reinforcement after a set number of responses
 Variable: reinforcement after a variable number of responses
Punshment: consequence; not negative reinforcement
o Positive punishment: when behavior leads to the introduction of an undesired consequence
o Negative punishment: removal of a pleasant event or circumstance following a behavior
Cognitive Learning Models
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Wolfgang Kohler- insight learning
o Made chimps creatively use tools to retrieve a reward
o Consistently demonstrated that “aha!” moment
Social learning theory: learning occurs in a social context and is as much a product of watching others as
it is of making associations
Albert Bandura: bobo doll studies
o Results: children act the same way towards the doll as their parents did
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Tonatiuh Pilli & Sean Ashley
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UNIT 7
Term and concepts for chapter 9 memory:
Memory
Flashbulb memory
encoding
Storage
Retrieval
Sensory memory
Short term memory
Long term memory
Working memory
Automatic processing
Rehearsal
Spacing effect
Serial position effect
Visual encoding
Acoustic encoding
Semantic encoding
Imagery
Mnemonics
Chunking
Iconic memory
Echoic memory
Long term potentiation (LTP)
Amnesia
Implicit memory
Explicit memory
Hippocampus
Recall
Recognition
Relearning
Priming
Déjà vu
Mood congruent memory
Proactive interference
Retroactive interference
Repression
Misinformation effect
Source amnesia
Chapter 10 thinking and language:
Cognition
Concept
Prototype
Algorithm
Heuristic
Insight
Confirmation bias
Fixation
Mental set
Functional fixedness
Representativenes heuristic
Availability heuristic
Framing
Belief bias
Belief perseverance
Language
Phoneme
Morpheme
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Grammar
Semantics
Syntax
Babbling stage
One-word stage
2 word stage
Telegraphic speech
Linguistic determinism
Notes:
Memory is a three-step process:
1. encoding: which is creating/identifying/getting info
2. storage: storing that info
3. retrieval: refinding info from the storage

Encoding memories
o 3 stage model of memory
Sensory memory
o
o
o
o
Short term memory
Long term memory
Sensory memory: stores large amounts of information
 Iconic Memory: visual/picture form of sensory memory
 Echoic Memory: audio/hearing form of sensory memory
 Sensory memory helps us to have a cohesive experience
 This is why blinking doesn’t leave us confused
Short Term Memory (Working Memory): holds little info for a few seconds
 More conscious and more specific than sensory memory
 It is like a spotlight
 Rehearsal: repetition to better STM
 Chunking: grouping info to make STM more efficient
Long Term Memory: holding large amounts of info for a long time
 Encoding: STM -> LTM, Retrieval: LTM -> STM
Types of encoding
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Automatic Encoding: memories dealing with space, time, frequency of events
Effortful Encoding: encoding into LTM through rehearsal
Hermann Ebbinghaus
 Experimented with memory using three letter words. He read the list of words every
day and was eventually able to memorize the whole list.
 Created Nonsense syllables to test memory
o Craig & Tulwig (1975)
 IV: participants given memory test dealing with different types of processing
 is the word capitalized (Iconic)
 does the word rhyme (Echoic)
 does the word fit in the sentence (conceptual)
 DV: third set (conceptual) took longest to process, but was most accurate
o Self-Referent Effect: we remember info better when it’s relevant to ourselves
o Encoding & Imagery: easier to remember a group of words that have something in common than a
random group of random words
 Strategy: make up stories (remember the LL-hallway example in class? No? Maybe you should
work on your memory ^.^)
o Primacy Effect: increased memory for the first stimuli/part in a set
o Recency Effect: increased memory for the last stimuli/part in a set
Types of Memories
o Explicit Memories: memories of facts and experiences that can be retrieved at will and stored in LTM as
well as STM
 Episodic Memory: memory of events and their context (time, place, and circumstance)
 Semantic Memories: memory of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the
world
 Semantic Networks: grouped associations of Semantic Memory to organize it
o Implicit Memories: memories that cannot be voluntarily called to mind but still influence our
behavior/thinking
 Habits: (you know what they are)
 Priming: subconscious imprinting on your mind
 Classical Conditioning: (ex. Pavlov’s puppies)
Storing Memories
o Explicit Memories: there is a connection with the Hippocampus
 Retrograde Amnesia: disrupts old memories, of past
 Anterograde Amnesia: disrupts new memories being formed
 Ex. H.M. (only anterograde amnesia)
 Clive Wearing
 Has both Retrograde and Anterograde Amnesia (only 15 sec mem, but LTM seems
intact)
o Implicit Memories: there is a connection with the cerebellum
 Ex. Lesion of cerebellum, failure to learn conditioned responses
o Long-Term Potentiation: an increase in synapse firing potential after brief rapid stimulation
 The neurons we use more often, need less neurotransmitters to fire
Retrieval
o Recall: conscious retrieval of info from LTM
o Relearning: learning again
o Recognition: relating what you are currently perceiving with a memory
o (ex. Of subjectivity/unreliability of police lineups)
 Lindsay & Wells study
137
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Retrieval Cues: stimuli that trigger/enhance remembering
o Encoding Specificity Principle: better retrieval of memory when given retrieval cues which were present
during the storage process
o Déjà vu: present of certain cues link the sense of memory, but not the memory itself
o State-Dependent Memory: you remember things better when you’re in the same state of mind
 Ex. Learn math drunk, and you remember math better when you’re drunk (note: we do not
condone underage or recreational drinking)
Emotional Memories
o Mood-Congruent Memory: emotions strengthen memory
 Theory: increase in noradrenaline during emotion
 Noradrenaline critical in Hippocampus function
o Flashbulb Memories: stronger memories of traumatic/personal experiences
 Ex. 9/11
Forgetting
o 3 reasons
 encoding failure: can’t remember specific object
 storage failure: memory fails to stick
 retrieval failure: can’t recall info
o Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon
 Inability to retrieve information
o Interference: disposition of ability to remember one piece of info
o Repression: Freud’s defense-mechanism which banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts and memories to the
unconscious
Memory Construction & False Memories
o Loftus (1993)
 Study of false memories, implanting/convincing participants that an event truly did happen to
them
 Longer participant thought about memory, more they believed it was true
o Misinformation: incorporating false information into one’s memory of an event
 Ex. Was that a yield or a stop sign at the corner of the street? (psych, it was really a slippery road
sign)
 Ex. Leading questions in a trial
Improving memory
o Mnemonic Devices: strategy to improve memory through acronyms
o Method of Loci: strategy of imagining a scene
 (Remember the LL-hallway example in class? No? Maybe you should work on your memory ^.^)
o Pegwords: associate words with numbers
 Ex. To remember “bun, shoe, tree, door, hive, sticks”
 Use “one, two, three, four, five, six”
Thinking

Thinking in Words
o Whorf’s Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (1956)
 Perceptions and thoughts are determined/limited by our language
 Problems with this hypothesis
 Doesn’t explain Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon
 Words are often ambiguous while thoughts aren’t
138
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 Animals think, but don’t use spoken language
o Bilingualism, it’s a good thing 
Thinking in images, Mental Images
o Mental Space
 3 major properties
 special extent
 limited size
 limited grain (resolution)
Thinking in concepts
o Prototype: most typical example of a category
 Ex. Carrot as prototype of vegetable
Problem-Solving
o Representation Problems: challenge of how to best formulate the nature of a problem
 Can be difficult because we are stubborn
o Methods
 Algorithms: methodical, logical rules that guarantee solving the problem
 Could be inefficient, though
 Heuristics: short-cuts which don’t guarantee a correct solution, but can be more efficient
 Using Analogies: applying knowledge of solutions to old problems to new problems
 Sudden Solution: Insight Learning ………. yay
Human Motivation and Biases
o Fixation: inability to see a problem from a new perspective (aka stubborn)
o Confirmation Bias: tendency to search for info that confirms our own ideas/belief/etc
o Belief Perseverance: clinging to own beliefs even in presence of contrary evidence
Language


Language Structure
o Phonemes: smallest unit of sound
 Long vowel =/= short vowel
 Ex. Rat has three phonemes (r, a, t)
o Morphemes: smallest unit of language which carries a meaning
 Ex. Previewed has three morphemes (pre, view, ed)
o Grammar: system of rules that allow us to communicate
o Syntax: rules of combining words into grammatical correct sentences
o Semantics: set of rules for deriving meaning
 Ex. “-ed” -> past tense verb, “-s” -> plural noun
o Pragmatics: way language conveys meaning through implications/connotations
 Ex. “Do you know what time it is?”
Language Development
o Aphasia: disruption of language
 Broca’s Aphasia: problem in producing language
 Wernicke’s Aphasia: problem comprehending language
o Nature vs Nurture
 Nurture (empiricism)
 Vocabulary and grammar are learned by association
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Nature (nativism)
 Vocabulary and grammar acquisition is too rapid to be simply learned, there must be
some biological component
 Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
o Chompsky
o Innate brain mechanism which contains grammatical rules common to all
languages
 Like a template for a language to develop from
o Stages of Language Development
 Babbling Stage
 Spontaneous utterance of sound
 Starts ~4months
 Starts development of phonemes
 One-Word Stage
 Use of single words to communicate ideas
 1-2 years
 Two-Word Stage
 Use of two word statements to convey ideas
o Ex. “want juice”
 Evidence of rise of syntax
 Critical Period
 Narrow window of time when learning language is very possible (plasticity)
 Shows why brain damage affects language in adults more than children
Animals & Language
o Controversial as to communication = language?
o If spoken speech is language, what about Sign Language?
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Chad Vietti & Jesse Pegram
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Unit 7: Cognition
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Cognitive Psychology- school of psychology that studies internal mental processes (memory, thinking, problemsolving, language)
Memory- Process by which information is retained for later use
o Three Steps
 Encoding
 Storage
 Retrieval
o Memory stores- set of neurons that retain information over time
o Sensory Memory- stores large amounts of perceptual input for a short time
 Ionic Memory- the visual form of sensory memory
 Echoic Memory- the hearing form of SM
 Why do we need sensory memory?
 It allows us to construct cohesive experience of the world based on sensory input
o Short-Term Memory- a memory store that holds relatively little information for a few seconds
 Allows for conscious processing of information
 Conscious only of current contents of STM
 Strategies for Using STM
 Rehearsal- repeating information over and over to retain it in the STM
 Chunking- grouping information into clusters
o Long-Term Memory- memory store that holds a huge amount of information for long periods of time
 Encoding- passing information from STM to LTM for storage
 Automatic encoding- space, time, frequency of events
 Effortful encoding- through rehearsal and repetition, information can be committed to
LTM
 Retrieval- Recovering information from LTM for use by STM
 Hermann Ebbinghaus- created nonsense syllables to test own memory
Encoding and levels of processing
o Self-referent effect: we remember information better when it is relevant to the self
 Memory tip: make information personally relevant
o Encoding and imagery: levels of processing and self-referent finding suggest importance of imagery in
memory
 Memory tip: think of information in vivid, imagery-filled ways
o Primacy effect- increased memory for the first few stimuli in a set
o Recency effect- increased memory for the last few stimuli in a set
Types of memories
o Explicit (declarative) memory: memories of facts and experiences that can be retrieved at will and
stored in LTM, used in STM
o Episodic memory- memory of events and their context (time, place, circumstance)
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Semantic memory- memories of the meaning of words, concepts, and general facts about the world
Implicit (nondelcarative) memory- memory that cannot be coluntarily called to mind, but still influences
behacior or thinking
 Habits- a well-learned response that is carried out automatically when the appropriate stimulus
is present
 Priming- by just having performed a task, it’s easier to perform the same or similar task in the
future.
Storing memories
o Explicit memories- laid down by the hippocampus
 Retrograde amnesia- disrupts old memories
 Anterograde amnesia- leaves already consolidated memories intact, but prevents new learning
o Implicit memories- cerebellum plays key role in forming and storing implicit memories
 Long-term potentiation- an increase In a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid
Retrieval cues- stimuli that trigger or enhance remembering (reminders)
o Encoding specificity principle- memory better when given cues that were present during learning
 Déjà vu- “already seen”
o State-dependent memory- retrieval better if person is in same psychological state that was present
when information was first encoded
o Mood-congruent memory- emotion = increased noradrenaline production (neurotransmitter critical for
hippocampus functioning)
o We are able to remember emotional events more
 Flashbulb memories- an unusually vivid memory of a particularly dramatic event
Forgetting- 3 reasons why we might forget
o Encoding failure
 Often don’t encode the specific features necessary to ‘remember’ an object
o Storage decay
 Even after encoding, we sometimes forget (often quickly)
o Retrieval failure
 Inability to retrieve information from LTM
 Tip of the tongue phenomenon- inability to retrieve information, but perception that it is about
to be retrieved
 Inference- disruption of the ability to remember one piece of information by the presence of
another piece of information
Repressed Memories?
o Repression- defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories to the
unconscious
 The Courage to Heal (1988)- handbook for women who were abused
Memory Construction & False memories
o Memory is not a perfect representation.
o Construction of memories during encoding and reconstruction during retrieval can lead to misinformed
memories
 Misinformation effect- incorporating misleading information into one’s memory on an event
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Source amnesia- attributing an even we have experienced, heard about, read about, or
imagined to the wrong source
Thinking In Words – a Linguistic relativity hypothesis
o Perceptions and thoughts determined by language
o Does language determine thinking?
 Well 1) words are ambiguous, thoughts are not
 2) you do have to “put a thought into words”
 3) animals think but don’t use a spoken language
o Language does influence thought – words are used to often think, it enhances the memory with
pneumonic devices, and we perceive time as horizontal, much like how we read left to right
o Benefits to Bilingualism - More cultural understanding, become better at filtering out irrelevant
information.
Thinking in Images – Plato, Aristotle, Locke all believed in a stream of mental images, or mental representations
as if perceived but generated from memory, not sensory input. “mind’s eye”
o Mental Space – “area” where mental images seem to occur
 3 major properties – special extent, limited size, grain
 Similar brain activation in mental imagery as the visual activation
Thinking in Concepts
o Concepts – mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people
 Some members of a group are “better” members of a concept. Like a sparrow versus and ostrich
when thinking of the concept of birds
o Prototype – the most typical example of a category (sparrow)
 The closer to a prototype, the faster you can identify and the more confident you are in labeling
that object
 Memories shift toward prototypes over time
o Representation problems – it can be difficult to abandon one view of solving a problem to adopt another
 Problem solving
 1) Algorithms – methodical, logical rules that guarantee a solution
 2) heuristics – rule of thumb that does not always generate the right answer but
provides a shortcut
 3) using analogies – requires storage of solution to old problems, seeing the similarities
between the old and new problems and solving
 4)Sudden Solutions – Insight learning
o Problems with making decisions and using concept thinking
 Logic v heuristics – heuristics can sometimes lead to errors
 We all have a bias and motive.
o Different types of Heuristics (Logic v Heuristics)
 1) Availability Heuristic – if it’s easy to recall it must happen a lot.
 This can lead to poor estimation
o Being more afraid of flying rather than driving even though driving is statistically
more dangerous
 2)Representatives Heuristic – if something has a certain characteristic it must belong to a certain
category
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 Stereotypes (young child thinking a horse is a dog because of four legs and hair)
 3)Anchor and Adjust Heuristic – reference point serves as an anchor from which we adjust our
judgment
o Human Motivation and Biases (bias and motive)
 Fixation – inability to see problem form a new perspective
 Confirmation bias – the tendency to search for info that supports or confirms our ideas beliefs,
etc. (BUT we fail to mention the contradictory information
 Confirmation bias is seen ALL the time in politics
 Belief Perseverance – clinging to our beliefs, even in the face of contrary evidence (delusions but
less severe?)
Language – Spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we put them together to communicate
o Language is generative, we don’t just find sentences stored in our memory and use them
o Language structure
 Phonemes – the smallest distinctive sound units
 Rat = r-a-t 3 phonemes
 Consonants carry more information than do vowel phonemes
 Morphemes – the smallest language units that carry meaning
 Phonemes can be morphemes
o I, A, -S
o More often combined to form more complex words
 Preview = pre-view-ed 3 morphemes
 Grammar – system of rules (syntax, semantics) that enable us to communicate
 Syntax – the rule for combining words into grammatical sensible sentences (order)
o We try to organize language in the simplest way possible
 Semantics – set of rules for deriving meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences
o Language as Building Blocks
 40 english phonemes, more than 100,000 morphemes, 615,000 words, infinite sentences
o Pragmatics – the way that language conveys meaning indirectly by implying rather than assertion
 “do you know what time it is?” “yes”
 This is the biggest problem to computerized language
 Pragmatics are the key to understanding metaphors
 Language is found in the left hemisphere mostly however ability to understand
metaphors and jokes is found in the right hemisphere
Language development
o The average high school student graduate has a vocabulary of about 60,000 words
 After the age of 1, a child will learn about 3600 words each year
 We are consciously taught about 200 words per year by teachers
o Production v Comprehension
 Production – the ability to speak and use language to communicate information
 This is controlled by Broccas Area (left frontal lobe)
 Comprehension – the ability to understand the message conveyed by language
 This is controlled by Wernicke’s area (left temporal lobe)
o Aphasia – disruption of language caused by brain damage (production and comprehension)
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Broccas Aphasia – problems producing language following brain damage to the area
 Long pauses, leaving out functional words
 Wernicke’s Aphasia – problems with comprehensional language following damage to the
correlated area
 Difficulty understanding others, empty speech
Language development
o Nature v nurture
 Nature(nativism) – vocabulary, grammar acquisition much too rapid and novel to be simply
learned
 Noam Chomsky
o Language acquisition device (LAD) an innate brain mechanism that allegedly
contains grammatical rules common to all languages and allows language
acquisition
 Nurture(empiricism) – language learned through conditioning
 Associations between sights of objects and sound of words
 Imitation of models and reinforcement
 From Simple to Complex
 Comprehension develops first and then production
o Babbling – spontaneous utterance of sound
 Begins around 4 months old
 Not necessarily sounds of household languafe
 Typically just a consonant-vowel pair
o Around 10 months old – the characteristics of native language begin to emerge
 Phonemes not used in native language disappear
o One words stage – single words to communicate ideas
 Age 1-2
o Two word stage – two word statements
 Mostly noun and verb “want juice”
 Evidence of syntax is seen. Not “juice want”
o From the two words stage, children advance quickly to more complex sentences
o Critical Period – a narrow window of time when learning language is possible
 Explains why brain damage affect language in adults more than children
(plasticity?)
Animal Cognition and language
o Do animals think? Yes of course.
o Forming concepts – animals know what other animals are
o Insight learning – chimps are the best example, problems solving by using tools and figuring out how to
get the banana (Kohler)
o Cultural concepts among animals
 At least 39 localized chimp customs, tools used, grooming, courtship etc.
 Australian dolphins (scientists are about to call dolphins sentient even)
 These animals have a sense of self
o Communication v language
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 Vervet monkeys have danger signals and calls
 Honey bee dances
 Rico the border collie knows over 200 items by name but is this language
Criticisms of language research
 Difficulty in learning signs
 When sign are learned it’s only for rewards
 Lack of syntax in the chimps being taught
 People only see the results they want to see
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Matt Reyes and John Temple
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Unit 7: Cognition
Cognitive Psychology – studies internal mental processes (memory, thinking, problem solving, and language)
Memory
Sensory Memory – shortest memory that lasts only about 250 milliseconds, includes all perceptual information
Short-term memory (STM) – memory store that holds a little information for small amounts of time
chunking – grouping information into clusters or chunks
rehearsal – repeating and repeating to improve your memory
Rule of 7 – the average STM only can remember 7 +/- 2 pieces of information at a time.
Long-term memory (LTM)
Encoding – moving memories from your STM to your LTM
1. The more work you do to process the better you will remember that information
Retrieval – Retrieving information from your LTM to use by your STM
Types of Memory
Explicit Memories – memory of facts and experiences that can be retrieved at will from your LTM
Episodic Memory – memory of events and their context
Semantic Memory – memory of the meanings of words, concepts of general facts of the world
Implicit Memory – memory that cannot be voluntarily called to mind, though they still influence our behavior and
thoughts
Flashbulb Memories – an unusually vivid memory of a particularly dramatic event, “photographic memory”
Improving Memory
Mnemonic Devices – Using effective organization and integration to remember phrases or information
Peg words – Pairing easy to remember words, with what you need to remember
making it personally relevant –
make it emotion –
vivid imagery –
studying repeatedly –
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minimize interference –
method of Loki – items to be recalled are placed in familiar locations, and you walk through the place to remember
items
Forgetting
Encoding Failure
Storage Decay
Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve
Retrieval Failure
Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon
Problem Solving
Algorithms – methodical logical rules that garuntees solving a problem
Heuristics –rule of thumb that does not guarntee the correct answer, shortcuts often used when one has expertise in an
area
Problems
Fixation – the inability to see from a new perspective
Confirmation Bias – the search for information that qualifies ideas, without searching for
information
Belief Perseverance – Clinging to our beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence
Language
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis – perceptions and thoughts are determined by language
Representativeness Heuristic – things with certain characteristics belong to a certain category
Anchor and Adjustment Heuristic – reference points from which we adjust our judgments.
Language Structure
phenoms – smallest distinctive sound unit
consonant phenoms – more information then vowel phenoms
morphemes – smallest language unit that has meaning,
opposing
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Phenoms and morphemes combined to make more complex words
Grammar – systems of rules that allow us to communicate effectively
Syntax – rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences
Semantics – set of rules for deriving words from morphemes words and sentences
Pragmatics – the way that language conveys meaning directly by implying rather than asserting
Language Development
Production vs. Comprehension
production – the ability to speak and use language to communicate
comprehension – the ability to understand the message conveyed
Controlled by wernickes area
Aphasia – destruction of language caused by brian damage
Brocha's Aphasia – problems producing language, due to damage in Brocha's area
Wernickes aphasia – problems with comprehending language, due to damage in the Wernicke area
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature – we learn it so fast, that language is naturally engrained in us
Language Acquisition device – innate brain mechanism that contains grammatical rules, that allow for language
acquisition (Noam Chomsky)
Nurture – language is learned through conditioning, associations between sights of objects and sounds of words
Comprehension develops first, then production
From babbling,
the spontaneous uttering of sounds starting around 4 months of age,
to 10 months use of phonemes,
and becoming deaf to sounds not used in the native language,
to One-Word Stage
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the use of single words to communicate ideas
Two-Word Stage
language is the use of 2 word statements, mostly a noun and verb, with some evidence of syntax
Critical Period
narrow amount of time where learning language is possible
Do Animals think?
Forming concepts, insight learning, and a sense of self present in some animals
Do animals communicate?
Vervet monkeys, honeybees dancing, and a border collie that learned over 200 items by name and
learned novel objects.
Criticisms
difficulties in ape learning research
difficulty in learning signs
only learning signs to get rewards
lack of syntax
people see what they want to see
Sperling (1960)
people remember 4-5 letters (but report seeing more) with short exposure
use of partial report paradigm
almost perfect recall, but now the cue occurred after the array of letters was presented
all letters stored briefly in sensory memory, but fade quickly
Darwin et al. (1972)
replicated Sperling's experiment, but with auditory info through headphones
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echoic memory only holds a few items, lasts 2-3 seconds
Miller (1956)
people can remember about 7 pieces of information
Chase and Simon (1973)
chess players shown chess game in later stages of game, able to memorize better than non chess players,
however non-chess players are better when the pieces are arranged randomly across board
Craik and Tulving (1975)
participants shown series of words, one at a time, later given a surprise memory test
IV: level of processing of word
1/3 of words visual, 1/3 acoustic, and 1/3 semantic processing
Wason (1960)
presented participants with 3 numbers (“triples”) that conformed to a rule
had to discover rule by generating new triples
only tested “positive” examples
Shermer (2006)
democrats/republicans pre-2004 presidential election
shown contradictory statements by Kerry, Bush while in fMRI
not active: part of brain associated with reasoning
active: parts of brain associated with emotional processing, conflict resolution, and making judgements
about moral accountability
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Sarada Thanikachalam & Jenifer Wong
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Memory
 Cognitive Psychology- studies internal mental processes (memory, thinking, problem solving, and language)
 Memory- process by which information is retained for later use; an indication that learning has persisted over
time
Three Steps to memory:
Encoding (putting info in)  Storage (holding it in)  Retrieval (getting info out)
3-Stage Model of Memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin):
encoding
Sensory MemoryShort Term Memory Long Term Memory (huge amount info for large amounts of time)
retrieval
 SM- holds large amounts of perceptual input for a short time:
- Iconic and echoic memory: visual and auditory form of SM, respectively
- allows us to construct cohesive experience of the world based on sensory input
 STM-working memory; holds relatively little info for few secs; allows for conscious processing of info
- rehearsing: repeating information over and over to retain it in STM
- can increase total amount of info stored by chunking (grouping info into clusters or chunks)
 LTM- memory store that holds a huge amount of info for long periods of time
- encoding: passing info from STM to LTM for storage
 Automatic Encoding: space, time, frequency of events
 Effortful Encoding: committing info to LTM through rehearsal and repetition
- retrieval: recovering info from LTM for use by STM/working memory
o
Herman Ebbinghaus- created nonsense syllables to test own memory and found out that rote repetition keeps
info in STM temporarily not permanently
- deeper processing typically leads to better recall
- primacy effect: increased memory for the first few stimuli in a set (time for encoding
in LTM); especially for counting backward after hearing a list
- recency effect: increased memory for the last few stimuli in a set (still in STM); especially for fast
presentation of stimuli
Memory Tips:
1. A little bit of extra time and effort at the beginning will save you lots of time and effort later
2. We remember info better when it is relevant to self (Self-referent effect)
3. Think info in vivid, imagery-filled ways
Types of Memory:
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 Explicit (declarative memory)- memory of facts and experiences that can be retrieved at will and stored in
LTM, used in STM
- episodic: memories of events and their context (time, place, and circumstance)
- semantic: memories of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about world
 semantic network: semantic memories associated with related concepts in such networks;
activation of one unit (e.g. food) in the network spreads to other related ideas (e.g. eat, bread,
etc.)
- hippocampus active (even with hippocampus damage, older memories persist)
- active during slow-wave sleepconsolidation
 Implicit (non-declarative)- memory that can’t be voluntarily called to mind, but still influences behavior or
thinking (e.g. H.M who couldn’t form explicit memories)
- habit: a well-learned response that is carried out automatically when appropriate stimulus is present
- priming: by having just performed a task, it’s easier to perform the same or similar task in the future
- classical conditioning
- cerebellum play s a key role in forming implicit memories (damage leads to failure to learn conditioned
responses)
 Amnesia-loss of memory usually caused by accident, infection, or stroke; often a damage to hippocampus
- retrograde amnesia: disrupts old memories
- anterograde amnesia: leaves already consolidated memories intact, but prevents new learning
o Clive Wearing: memory loss-lost in time
- Other important cases: N.N. suffered frontal lobe damage in car accident which led to inability to imagine
future
Explicit
Episodic
Implicit
Semantic
Skills &
Habits
Priming
Classical
conditioning
Memory in neural level:
-increased serotonin production in certain synapses = greater efficiency of learning
-Long term potentiation- an increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation
-sending neuron: less excitatory signal to release neurotransmitter
-receiving neuron: increased receptor sites
 Retrieval cues: stimuli that trigger or enhance remembering (memory is better when given cues that were
present during learning)
- déjà vu: eerie sense of having previously experienced a new situation; may be because presence of certain
cues may elicit sense of memory, but not memory itself
- state-dependent memory: retrieval better if person is in same psychological state that was present when info
was first learned (we store emotionally charged memories better than non-emotional memories because of
increased noradrenaline production, which is critical for hippocampus functioning)
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 Flashbulb memory: an unusually vivid memory of a particularly dramatic event but such memories can become
distorted with time
3 Reasons We Might Forget Something:
1) encoding failure
- often don’t encode the specific features necessary to ‘remember’ an object (e.g. change blindness)
2) storage decay
- even after encoding, we sometimes forget often quickly
3) retrieval failure
- inability to retrieve info LTM
-Tip of the tongue phenomenon: inability to retrieve info, but perception that it is about to be retrieved
- inference: disruption of the ability to remember one piece of info by the presence of other info
 proactive interference-when old info disrupts recall of new info
 retroactive interference- when new info interferes with old info
- repression: defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-rousing thoughts, feelings, and memories to the
unconscious
o Elizabeth Loftus studied “false memory”
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Memory = stored info + assumptions + what we currently know
Construction of memories during encoding, reconstruction during retrieval
- can lead to misinformed memories
Why do false memories happen?
1) misinformation effect- incorporating misleading info into one’s memory of an event
2) source amnesia- attributing an event we have experienced, heard about, or imagined to the wrong source
Improving Memory:
-Be aware of ways that memory can fail (study repeatedly, think actively about material, minimize interference)
-Use retrieval cues to your benefit
-Make info personally relevant and emotional
-Attach vivid imagery to info
 Method of loci: items to be recalled are mentally placed in familiar locations; walk through locations to
remember items
 Pegwords: “one is a bun…”- associate to-be-remembered info with pegwords
Thinking
Thinking in Words:
 Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Whorf, 1956): our perceptions and thoughts are determined by language
- Intuitive appeal of thoughts as words but…
1. Difficulty “putting a thought into words”
2. Words are often ambiguous, and thoughts are not
3. Animals think, but do not use a spoken language
- However, language does influence thinking.
- Benefits of bilingualism:
- development of a cultural understanding
- learning to inhibit attention to irrelevant info (because we inhibit one language while using another)
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Thinking in Images:
Plato, Aristotle, Locke: thought= a stream of mental images
 Mental images: mental representations as if perceived, but generated from memory rather than sensory input
 Mental space: “area” where mental images seem to occur
- 3 Properties: spatial extent, limited size, grain
Thinking in Concepts:
 Representation Problem: the challenge of how best to formulate the nature of a problem
- Functional Fixedness/Fixation: difficulty abandoning one method of problem-solving to adopt
another; inability to see problem from a new perspective
 Algorithms: methodical, logical rules that guarantee solving a problem
 Heuristics: a rule of thumb that does not guarantee the correct answer, but offers a likely shortcut to it
- Availability Heuristic: belief that ease of recall= frequency of event (but it may not actually be true)
- Representativeness Heuristic: stereotypes
- Anchoring & Adjusting Heuristic: reference points that serve as anchors from which we adjust our
judgements
 Using Analogies
 Sudden Solution: e.g. insight learning
 Confirmation Bias: tendency to search for info that confirms our ideas, beliefs, etc; in doing so we also tend to
avoid contradictory info
- People use their emotional minds, not rational minds, when their own opinions are on the line.
 Belief Perseverance: clinging to our beliefs, even in the face of contrary evidence
Language
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Language is generative, meaning we don’t just find sentences stored in our memory and use them; rather,
we make them up as we go.
 Phoneme: the smallest sound unit
- 20 to 80 phonemes in any given language (English≈40)
- Consonant phonemes carry more info than vowel phonemes
 Morpheme: the smallest language unit that carries meaning
- Phonemes can be morphemes (e.g. “I”, “a”, “-s”)
 Grammar: system of rules that enables us to communicate
 Syntax: rules for combining words into grammatically sensible structures
 Semantics: rules for deriving meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences
- e.g. “-ed” = past, “-s” = plural
- independent from syntax
 Pragmatics: the way that language conveys meaning indirectly; by implying rather than asserting
- Biggest obstacle to computerized language
- Key to understanding metaphor
- Although language is mostly centered in the left hemisphere of the brain, the ability to understand
jokes depends on the right hemisphere.
Langage Development:
 Production: the ability to speak, use language to communicate info
- Controlled by Broca’s Area (left frontal lobe)
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 Comprehension: the ability to understand the message conveyed by language
- Controlled by Wernicke’s area (left temporal lobe)
 Aphasia: disruption of language caused by brain damage
- Broca’s Aphasia: problems producing language, long pauses, leaving out functional words
- Wernicke’s Aphasia: difficulty understanding others, “empty speech”
- Not an absolute split; Broca’s Area is somewhat involved with comprehension, and Wernicke’s with
production
Is language a result of nature of nurture?
- Nature (nativism): vocab, grammar acquisition much too rapid and novel to be simply learned.
 Language Acquisition Device (LAD): innate brain mechanism that allegedly contains grammatical rules
common to all languages
- Nurture (empiricism): language learned through conditioning
- association between sights of objects and sounds of words
- limitation of models and reinforcement
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Sierra Speranza & Gio Noriega
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MOTIVATION and EMOTION
States of Motivation
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instinct, hereditary responses (birds flying south) rooted in emotion
drives and incentives, drive reduction theory: psychological needs -> drive to meet needs. Wan to
restore homeostasis (balance of body temperature, diet, etc). incentives are external stimuli that
motivate behavior (smell of bread -> hungry)
optimum arousal, nothing horrible but nothing too wonderful either/ avoid stimuli that are both too
boring and too arousing (Yerkes-Dodson Law)
priorities among needs, Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs- fundamental needs pyramid
Hunger- how do we know we are hungry?
feedback from stomach, intestines, liver. Brain monitors glucose
lateral hypothalamus: initiates hunger (make full animal hungry)
ventromedial hypothalamus: suppresses hunger (stimulation= stop eating)
Taste Preferences
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body chemistry factors like stress, anxiety, etc lead to cravings for starchy, carbohydrate filled foods
experience factors like conditioning, taste aversion, etc
cultural factors
evolutionary factors, don’t eat the red berries
Eating problems: overeating- eating when the body does not need additional energy. Can lead to obesity: as
determined by Body Mass Index (BMI>30) reasons for obesity include:
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Personality, certain personality characteristics
Genetics, studies show variations in weight as much as 70% hereditary. Gene “OB” controls release of
leptin: hormone released by fat cells (leptin and fat cells positively correlated) may serve to maintain
constant level of body fat **obese have defective OB gene
Environment, environmental factors encourage overeating MCDONALDS
Eating Disorders- compulsion to eat (or not to eat) that disrupts physical and/or mental health


Anorexia nervosa: refusal to maintain even low normal weight, intense fear of gaining weight. Marked
by body image distortion and obsessive thinking about food. Most common among adolescents, 9/10
cases are female
“I had an extra piece of broccoli and was up all night worrying about it.”
Bulimia Nervosa: recurrent episodes to binge eating, following by some attempt to prevent weight
gain. Purging type (with intentional vomiting, laxatives) or non-purging type (with fasting, extensive
exercise). Most common among women in late teens, early twenties
Sexual Motivation- hormones like androgen for men (including testosterone) and estrogen for women.
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The Need to Belong ->loneliness -> social exclusion: being shunned, avoided, receiving silent treatment, etc
involved in school shootings? Virginia Tech and Columbine, but we blame media like Marylyn Manson we
blame society, psychopathology, depression, etc
Motivation at WorkIndustrial-Organizational Psychology: application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human
behavior in workplace
Emotion- a subjective positive or negative reaction to a perceived or remembered object, event, or
circumstance (positive and negative may occur at the same time). All emotional stats are a product of
combinations of basic emotions


Approach emotions (love, happiness) left frontal lobe
Withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) right frontal lobe
Catharsis: emotional release intended to relieve aggressive urges “venting”
Impact Bias: tendency to overestimate long-term impact of emotional events, underestimate ability to adapt
**lottery winners and paraplegics are equally happy within 5 years
James-Lange Theory of Emotion: idea that emotion is the awareness of physiological state in response to
emotion-inducing stimulus (smile, brain says oh we must be happy)
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion: simultaneous experience of emotion and physiological arousal, one does not
cause the other
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion: middle ground between early theories. Like James-Lange in that emotion from
awareness of physiological, like Cannon-Bard in that emotions are physiologically similar, need to be
cognitively labeled
step 1 physical arousal/ step 2 assign cognitive label to emotion (interpretation)
Lie Detection- traditionally dependent on whether someone can carry an egg on a spoon or if rice is damp
after waiting in mouth, now the Polygraph: “lie detector” machine which measures a variety of physiological
responses associated with emotional arousal (blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate)


Control Question test: asked control question which generally address questionable behavior (have
you taken something that wasn’t yours?) also asked relevant questions which address specific behavior
under investigation
then compare. Theory is that innocent has strongest reactions to control questions, while guilty has
strongest emotional reactions to relevant questions
Guilty Knowledge test: alternative to control question test. Used when info about even is available
which only guilty person would know, series of questions constructed only one of which is correct
detail (do you know it was at a shopping mall, do you know it was at a restaurant, a school?) told to
answer no every time, if event happened at school then they will have to lie, etc
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Kenia Lucey & Sarah Chon
return to Table of Contents
Unit 8: Motivation and Emotion
Chapter 12: Motivation

Motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs our behavior
o

Examples include thirst, hunger, exhaustion, social connectedness, etc.
Sources of Motivation include:
o
1. Instincts- an inherited tendency to produce unalterable responses to stimuli, e.g. birds flying south for
the winter
o
2. Drives and Incentives-
o

Drive-reduction theory: our physiological needs drive us to meet those needs

Incentives: external stimuli that motivate behavior, e.g. money
3. Optimum arousal-desire to avoid stimuli that are too boring or too arousing

o



Yerkes-Dodson Law: our best performance is at an intermediate level of arousal
4. Priorities among needs- essential, fundamental needs must be met before addressing other less
pressing needs (Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs)
Hunger Motivation- We know we’re hungry from feedback from the stomach, intestines, liver and brain,
particularly the hypothalamus
o
1. Lateral hypothalamus- initiates hunger, “I’m hungry!”
o
2. Ventromedial hypothalamus- suppresses hunger, “I’m full!”
Taste Preferences- several factors contribute to our taste preference including:
o
1. Body chemistry factors, e.g. stress and anxiety lead to craving for carbs (boost serotonin)
o
2. Experience factors, e.g. taste aversion
o
3. Cultural factors
o
4. Evolutionary factors- e.g. hotter climates tend to have spicier food (spicy inhibits bacteria)
Overeating and Obesityo
Obesity: having a BMI (Body Mass Index) > 30
159
o

Eating Disorder: a compulsion to eat (or not eat) in a way that disrupts physical and/or mental health
o
Anorexia Nervosa- refusal to maintain even a low, normal weight, and an intense fear of weight gain
o
Bulimia Nervosa- recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by some attempt to prevent weight gain
o

Obesity potentially linked to personality (“I can’t stop eating”), genetics (not enough serotonin receptors
or bad“ob” gene, which controls release of leptin, > fat= >leptin), and the environment (certain cultures
more prone to overeat)

Purging type: intentional vomiting, laxatives

Non-purging type: fasting, excessive exercise
Eating disorders potentially linked to genetics (> serotonin associated with anorexia, < serotonin
associated with bulimia), personality (perfectionist, low self-esteem), family and culture (ideal body
size)
Sexual Motivation may be looked at from several different angles:
o
o
Physiology- Hormones play a part in our sexual motivation

Androgens: male hormones (e.g. testosterone) which cause male characteristics

Estrogens: female hormones which cause female characteristics
Evolutionary Perspective

Buss & Schmitt (1993): men and woman seek different things when it comes to sex and
relationships (e.g. long vs. short-term, # of sex partners)


Trivers (1972): men and women face different adaptive problems when it comes to parental
investment



Men tend to be liberal in mate selection because more short-term whereas woman tend
to be more conservative because more long-term
Parental investment- parents only have so much time; woman have greater investment
because of birthing, feeding whereas men have less investment because can pass on
genes more easily, with less burden
Different sources of jealous- men jealous of sexual infidelity (physical) while women jealous of
emotional infidelity (emotional)
Sexual Orientation- found in all known historical cultures but active choice or a biological predispotion?
o
Brain structure as an origin
160

LeVay (1991): portion of hypothalamus twice as small in homosexual men than
heterosexual men
o
Genetics as an origin- evidence is mixed; critics say homosexuality is maladaptive (going against survival
of the fittest)
o
Prenatal hormones as an origin- exposure to certain hormones in womb can alter orientation
o

Fingerprint patters: ridges on right hand more pronounced than left hand

Lalumiere et al.(2000)- 20 studies show that homosexual participants had 39% greater
odds of being non-left handed
Environment as an origin

o
Need to Belong- deep-seated motive to feel social connectedness; balance between social and alone
time


o
Loneliness- sad emotional reaction to feeling deprived about existing social relations, often as a
result of shyness

Shyness: feeling of being socially awkward, inhibited, reluctant to approach others

Chronic loneliness associated with cancer, strokes, cardiovascular disease, depression,
substance abuse
Social exclusion: Being shunned, avoided, silent treatment, can lead to depressed mood,
anxiety, eventual withdrawal, performance deficits on aptitude tests
Motivation at Work

o
Being raised by homosexuals is NOT a predictor so no real factors found yet
Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology: application of psychological concepts and methods to
optimize human behavior and performance in the workplace
Flow

Csikszentmihalyi (1990, 1999): higher quality of life when purposefully engaged, when we
experience “flow”

Flow- a completely involved, focused state of consciousness; diminished awareness of
self and time
o
Flow a result of optimal engagement of one’s skills
161
o
People who often experience flow include dancers, chess players, surgeons,
writers
o
Seen among all ages, across all cultures
Chapter 13: Emotion
Emotion: a subjective positive or negative reaction to a perceived or remembered object, event, or circumstance.
Three Components to Emotion:
1. Physiological Arousal
2. Expressive Behaviors
3. Conscious Experience (thoughts and feelings)
Types of Emotion
All emotional states are a product of combinations of basic emotions.
Darwin (1872): Cultural universality of emotional behaviors
-
Facial expressions are unanimous (even for blind people)
Facial expressions are not a result of learning; just happened
Inborn Emotions
Ekman and Friesen (1971): Visited tribe in New Guinea that had little to no exposure to white people
-
Tribe members were able to identify the basic emotions = happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, and surprise
All emotions are combinations of these six basic emotions at the same time.
Positive vs. Negative Emotions
It is possible to experience positive and negative emotions at the same time.
Cacioppo et al. (1997): Participants assess positive and negative feelings about their roommates.
-
The score on one scale did not reflect the other. One can feel positively and negatively at the same time.
Davidson et al. (2000, 2002): EEG studies of positive and negative emotions.
Approach emotions (love, happiness): Centered in the left frontal lobe, e.g. Friendship, the draw towards other
people
Withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust): Centered in the right frontal lobe, e.g. pulling away
162
Types of Emotion: Fear
Where does fear come from? Is fear a good thing?
Fear is a biological preparedness and experience.
Campos et al. (1992): Infants increasingly afraid of heights after falls and near falls.
Post 9/11, tens of thousands of kids had a fear of public places
-
Women had more fear, while men had more anger.
The crucial brain structure for experiencing fear is the amygdala.
-
Conditioning is ineffective if the amygdala is damaged.
Schacter et al. (1996): Pairing a blue slide with a blaring noise resulted in a fear reaction.
-
Amygdala damage – No fear response.
-
Hippocampus damage – A fear response, but the person will not remember why.
Types of Emotion: Anger
Averill (1983): Most people get wildly angry several times a week; some, several times a day.
Chang et al. (2002): If self described as hot tempered, one is 5 times more likely to have a heart attack by age 55.
Post 9/11: Anger response, as opposed to fear, led to an increased intolerance for Muslims and immigrants.
What is Good About Anger?
Releasing anger is often healthier than pent up anger.
One is more likely to resolve the sources of anger if the anger is expressed, reducing one’s overall level of upset.
Catharsis
Catharsis: an emotional release intended to relieve one’s aggressive urges (“venting”)
-
The usefulness? Catharsis does feel good and can be calming, but it often leads to more anger
-
Aggression breeds aggression.
-
Problems – Acting angry can make us angrier, leading to retaliation and escalation of a conflict.
Bushman et al (1999): Venting anger keeps arousal levels high, increasing the chance of further anger expression.
163
Bushman (2002): Participants wrote an essay on abortion, getting negative feedback from another “participant” e.g. this
is the worst essay ever!
IV: Hitting a punching bag while ruminating, punching with a distraction, or no punching the bag
DV: Emotional reports and blasts of noise
Results: Those who ruminated while punching the bag felt angrier afterwards, delivering more assertive blasts of
noise
Handling Anger
1. Wait it out – Physiological arousal decreases with time
2. Calm yourself with distraction – Rumination increase anger and makes one more impulsive
3. Practice forgiveness – Witvliet et al (2001)
-
Participants told to mentally release grudges against someone who had hurt them, rehearsing forgiveness
-
Their negative feelings were lower, along with their perspiration, blood pressure, heart rate, and facial tension
Types of Emotion: Happiness
Impact bias: the tendency to overestimate the long term impact of emotional events and to underestimate the ability to
adapt to those emotional events (Poor affective forecasting)
-
Good is not that good; Bad is not that bad
Money and Happiness
Evidence for short term link:
Steel and Ones (2002): People in rich countries are moderately happier than those in poor countries.
Diener and Oishi (2000): Those who have experienced a recent windfall from a lottery, an inheritance, or a surging
economy typically feel some elation. Losing money has even more emotional impact (Hobfoll and others, 2003;
Kahneman and Tversky, 1979). Noted Roy Baumeister and his colleagues (2001), “bad is stronger than good.”
Evidence for the long term link between affluence and happiness? Mixed evidence
Burkholder (2005): 1994 to 2004, growing economic prosperity in China, though the rate of satisfaction declined.
Perkins (1991): Among 800 college alumni surveyed, those preferring a high income and occupational success
and prestige to having very close friends and a close marriage were twice as likely to describe themselves as
“fairly” or “very” unhappy.
One can be happier if one:
-
Realizes that happiness is not equal to success
-
Takes control of his/her time
164
-
Acts happy
-
Seeks work and leisure that engage one’s skills
-
Exercises
-
Practices healthy sleeping habits
-
Prioritizes close relationships
-
Focuses on helping others
-
Is grateful
-
Nurtures and develops a spiritual self
Theories of Emotion
1. James – Lange theory of emotion:
-
Emotion is an awareness of one’s physiological state in response to an emotion inducing stimulus
-
STIMULUS »PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE »LABELING OF EMOTION
-
Using physiology as information: Evidence to show that we infer emotion from facial expressions.
-
o
Larsen et al. (1992): Furrowing brows to make golf tees on eyebrows touch caused participants to be
sadder when viewing sad images
o
Zajonc et al. (1989): Saying the phonemes “e” and “ah,” which activate smiling muscles puts people in a
better mood than saying the German ü
o
Strack et al. (1988): Holding a pen in the teeth, rather than in the lips, is enough to make cartoons to
seem more amusing
o
Kleinke et al. (1998): Looking at oneself in a mirror amplifies the effect
Problems
o
Physiological responses are too similar to produce distinct emotions
o
Responses are too slow to trigger sudden emotion
2. Cannon – Bard theory of emotion:
-
Simultaneous experience of emotion and physiological arousal; one does not cause the other
-
STIMULUS »PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE AND LABELING OF EMOTION SIMULTANEOUSLY
3. Two – factor emotion: Middle growth between the early theories of emotion
-
STEP 1: Experience Physiological Arousal
165
-
STEP 2: Assign cognitive label to emotion (Conscious interpretation)
o
Like James and Lange, emotion comes from awareness of a physiological arousal
o
Like Cannon and Bard, emotions are physiologically similar, so need to be cognitively labeled
-
But we can misinterpret our physiological states…
-
Dutton and Aron (1974): Do people misattribute the emotional source of a physiological arousal?
o
Capilano Suspension Bridge in Vancouver, Canada
o
IV: 18 to 35 year old men approached on suspension/sturdy bridge by attractive female/male researcher
with questionnaire. Ask, “Will you take it?”
o
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Write a story about a picture; Men also given phone number for
more info
o
DV: How many men called the phone number, and the amount of the sexual imagery
o
Results: The percentage filling out the questionnaire – 70% for female researcher, while significantly less
for male (few took the number and few called back)
o
50% on suspension bridge actually called, while only 10% on the sturdy bridge
Lie Detection: The Polygraph
Polygraph: machine that measures a variety of physiological responses (blood pressure, pulse, perspiration, galvanic skin
response) associated with emotional arousal
Control question test (CQT): (Reid, 1947)
1. Control questions: Generally address questionable behavior, e.g. In the last 20 years, have you taken
something that did not belong to you?
2. Relevant questions: Address specific behavior under investigation, e.g. Did you take money from your register
at work?
If innocent, stronger reactions to the control question; the control content is of greater concern.
If guilty, stronger emotions to the relevant questions.
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So how good are polygraph tests?
-
Kleinmuntz and Szucko (1984): Polygraph experts study the test results from 50 guilty thieves and 50 innocent
people. One third of the innocents were declared guilty, while one fourth of the guilty were declared innocent.
Problems with the polygraph:
-
Assumption: Increased physiological arousal indicates a lie.
o
Physiological behaviors across the emotions are similar.
o
Easy to “fail” test with emotional, truthful answers.
Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT): an alternative, more effective to the traditional CQT approach, though still uses
physiological measures
-
GKT is used when information about events is available that only the real culprit would know.
-
A series of questions is constructed, only one of which has correct critical detail.
-
The suspect answers “no” to each item, thus lying about the critical detail if guilty.
-
A consistent peak of physiological response on critical alternative suggests guilt.
Assessment of GKT
-
GKT is superior to the CQT, particularly in protecting the innocent.
-
GKT utilizes the recognition as a guilt index, rather than an ambiguous physical reaction.
-
The chance of an innocent person looking guilty on a 10 item GKT is 1 in 9,765,625.
-
GKT is met with resistance among those in the polygraph community.
-
Applicability in high profile cases.
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Derek Wong
return to Table of Contents
Unit 8 Motivation and Emotion

Motivation- a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
 Power of motivation- could be thirst, hunger, exhaustion, social connectedness, desires.
 Four sources of motivation1. Instinct- inherited tendency to produce responses to stimuli. complex behavior that is rigidly patterned
throughout a species and is unlearned.
2. Drives and incentives- drive reduction theory: - the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused
tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Psychological needsdrive us or igves motivation to meet those needs. The psychological aim of drive
reduction is Homeostasis- the maintenance of a steady internal state.
Incentive: Positive or negative external stimuli that motivates behavior.
3. Optimum Arousal- desire to avoid stimuli that are too boring or too arousing. Best performance in a
person is at intermediate level of arousal aka. Yerkes-Dodson law
4. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Self-actualization needs to live up one’s fullest and unique potential
Esteem needs
Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from
others
Belongingness and love needs
Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation
Safety needs
Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable
Physiological needs
Need to satisfy hunger and thirst.
begins with physiological needs that must be satisfied
the higher-level safety needs become active
then psychological needs become active
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Motivation-Hunger
How do we know your hungry?
 Feedback from our stomach causes Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger.
 Glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood provides the major source of energy for body tissues when its
level is low, we feel hungry.
 Set Point the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set when the body falls below this
weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
 Metabolic Rate- body’s base rate of energy expenditure
 The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions. Two places in the hypothalamus, one is
the side lateral which initiates hunger. Lesion=no interest in food. Ventromedial- suppresses hunger by causing
stimulations to stop eating.
The psychology of Hunger




Memory of last meal=part of knowledge about when to eat.
Eating Problems- Overeating- eating when the body does not need the additional energy. Can lead to obesity, as
defined by a body index of greater than 30. BMI>30
Can lead to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer.
Eating Disorders
 Anorexia Nervosa-When a normal weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still have
thoughts of feeling fat and continues to starve the body.
 Usually in adolescent female, but can happen to men.
 When a person weighs less than 85% of their normal body weight
 95% of sufferers are female
 most are between the ages of 18-30
 30% of persons diagnosed with anorexia nervosa die
 Bulimia Nervosa- Disorder characterized by private “binge-purge” episodes of overeating, usually of high
caloric foods, followed by vomiting or laxative use to purge the body of the recent calorie intake.
 Non purging type: fasting or excessive excerise.
 High levels of serotonin associated with anorexia, and low level with bulimia.
 Cultural and family influence seem to take affect more in cultures where a thinner body size is desired.
Sexual Motivation


Sex is a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values.
Important roles of hormones. Androgens are male hormones, including testosterone, which cause secondary
male sex characteristics. Estrogen is female hormone which causes female characteristics. Everyone has both
just for each sex different amounts.
Sexual Response Cycle
169





The four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson
Excitement
Plateau
Orgasm
Resolution
Refractory Period- resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
Sexual Disorders- problems that consistently impair sexual arousal or functioning
In Men
Premature ejaculation- ejaculation before them or their partners wish
Impotence- inability to have or maintain erection
In Women
Orgasmic disorder- infrequent or absent orgasms
Sexual Orientation- an enduring sexual attraction toward members of wither one’s own gender (homosexual
orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation)


Homosexuality known in many cultures. Could there be an inability to change orientation?
A study shows that portions of hypothalamus are twice as small in homosexuals than heterosexuals.
Achievement Motivation- a desire for significant accomplishment for mastery of things, people, or ideas for attaining a
high standard
Intrinsic Motivation- desire to perform a behavior for its own sake or to be effective
Extrinsic Motivation- desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment rewards Affect
Motivation
The need to belong





The need to belong is a deep seated motive to feel social connectedness. There is an almost homeostatic
balance of social and alone time.
Loneliness- is a sad emotional reaction to feeling deprived about existing social relations.
Chronic loneliness is associated with: cancer, strokes, poor sleep, depression, substance abuse. It is often the
result of shyness, which is the feeling of being socially awkward or inhibited.
Social exclusion- being shunned, avoided, or receiving the silent treatment.
Social exclusion and aggression usually go hand in hand. Where excluded people are usually more aggressive
towards others.
Emotion- a response of the whole organism. A subjective positive and negative reaction to a perceived or remembered
object, event, or circumstances, which includes:
170
Physiological arousal- such as heart pounding
Expressive behaviors- such as quickened pace
Conscious experience- such as thoughts, and feelings ( a sense of joy or fear)
Arousal and Performance- Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or
well-learned tasks.
Theories of Emotion
Does your heart pound because you are afraid…or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?
James-Lange Theory of Emotion- Experience of emotion is awareness of physiological responses to emotion-arousing
stimuli.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion-Emotion-arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger: physiological responses and
subjective experience of emotion
Schachter’s Two Factor Theory of Emotion -To experience emotion one must: be physically aroused and cognitively
label the arousal.
Experiencing Emotion
Fear

The amygdala is a neural key to fear learning. Cannot condition fear with damage to amygdala. Hippocampus
damage=fear response but will not know why. Amygdala damage=no surprise or fear response.
Subjective Well-Being- self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life; used along with measures of objective wellbeing (physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life.
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon- tendency to from judgements relative to a “neutral” level (i.e. brightness of lights,
volume of sound, level of income); defined by our prior experience
Relative Deprivation- perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
Anger





How often do you get angry? Most get mildly angry several times a day or week.
Catharsis- emotional release; catharsis hypothesis- "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy)
relieves aggressive urges feel-good, do-good phenomenon- people's tendency to be helpful when already in a
good mood.
Anger may feel good but it will often lead to more anger, if not calmed. Aggression breeds aggression.
Problem with catharsis- retaliation, escalation of conflict. Acting angry makes us angrier.
Handling anger
1. Wait it out because psychological arousal decreases with time.
2. Distract yourself- calm yourself through distractions. Often rumination increases anger.
171
3. Practice forgiveness- mentally rehearses it.
Emotion-Lie Detectors
Polygraph- machine that is commonly used in attempt to detect lies; measures several of the physiological responses
accompanying emotion (i.e. perspiration, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing changes)





Ways to detects lie, can be: Control question test (CQT, Reid 1947), two types of question
Control Question- generally address questionable behavior
Up to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone?
Relevant Question-address specific behavior under investigation
Did the deceased threaten to harm you in any way?
CQT theory- if innocent then will have strong reaction to control question. The guilty will have a stronger emotion to
relevant questions. Compare the magnitude of control and relevant responses.
Relevant>Control, Lie
Guilty Knowledge Test- this test uses test and info about events of a crime or something that is available to only the real
culprit would know. So it would ask questions that are relevant to the events that occurred that only the real person
would know.

This test is usually better than the CQT test, mostly in protecting the innocent, because it utilizes recognition.
Predicting Happiness


Impact bias: tendency to overestimate long-term impact of emotional events, the person will underestimate the
ability to adapt.
How to be happier: take control of your time, act happy, exercise, seek work or leisure that engage your skills,
healthy sleep habits, be grateful, focus on helping others, prioritize close relationships, and realize that enduring
happiness doesn’t come from financial success.
BE HAPPY!
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Senovia Quihuis
return to Table of Contents
Unit 8 Review: Motivation and Emotions
Motivation
 Definition: a need or desire that energizes and directs peoples’ behavior
 4 Sources of Motivation:
1. Instinct- inherited tendency to respond to stimuli
2. Drives and incentives- Drive reduction theory
3. Optimum arousal- the want to avoid stimuli that is too boring or too arousal (Yerkes-Dodson)
4. Priorities over needs- hierarchy of needs
 Hunger
o Brain monitors glucose, the source of energy, when hungry
o Importance in the Hypothalamus
 lateral hypothalamus initiates hunger
 ventromedial hypothalamus suppresses hunger
o Eating Problem: Too Much
 Eat when bored, lonely, emotional, or as just a habit; leads to obesity
 3 Reasons Why
1. Personality: certain characteristics lead to inability to resist food, Fidget Factor (small,
uncontrollable movement)
2. Genetics: predisposition for obesity; serotonin involved with satiation; Gene Obcontrols release of leptin (hormone released by fat cells)
3. Culture: environment encourages overeating (fast food that cheap and quick; less
exercise in schools)
o Eating Problem: Too Little
 Anorexia Nervosa- intense fear of becoming overweight causes, leading to not eating or trying
to lose weight
 Most common in female teens; distorted body image and obsession with food
 Bulimia Nervosa- recurrent episodes of binge eating, then trying to prevent weight gain; spells
of depression before and after episodes
 Non-Purging involves fasting, extreme exercise
 Purging involves intentional vomiting or taking laxatives
 Most common in female teens-20’s
 Maybe caused by genetics (twin similarities if one twin has disorder; high serotonin levels with
anorexia, low levels with bulimia) and culture (powerful cultural norms for body and “accepted”
body image)
 Sexual Motivations
o Physiology
 Androgen hormone: male hormones
 Estrogen hormone: female hormones
o Evolution
 Women seek few long-term relationships
 Greater investment- more choosy about mating partner
 Men want multiple short-term relationships
 Less investments- less particular in mating partner
 Sexual Orientation
o Choice to be gay to predisposition?
 Can you change orientation?
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 “Gay animals”
Brain Structure: portion of hypothalamus twice as small in homosexual men than heterosexuals
Environment?
 Being raised by homosexual partners is NOT a predictor of child’s orientation
 Homosexual men recall puberty starting earlier than heterosexual men
o Orientation mainly originates from biological basis
Need to Belong
o Loneliness- sad, emotional reaction to being alone, without social interaction
 Most common in U.S teens
 Chronic loneliness correlated with cancer, strokes, and depression
o Social Exclusion
 Twenge (2001): Participants meet fake participants, rated each other on likeability, and took
personality test
 IV: accepted/rejected by group members; then played multiplayer computer game,
where they set levels of sudden noises for other player
 DV: Noise intensity and duration
 Even if other player was unknown, rejected participants blast painful noises in game
o
o


Motivations at Work
o Industrial organization psychology: application of psychology concepts and methods to optimize
behaviors
o Flow, or “being in the zone”, is a completely focused state of conscious
Emotions
 Definition: a positive or negative reaction to a perceived or remembered object, event, or situation
 Inborn Emotion: Ekman and Friesen (1971)
o Went to New Guinea; citizens able to identify basic emotions: happy, sad, disgust, fear, and surprise
 Positive and Negative Emotions
o Approach emotions: (love, happiness) left frontal lobe
o Withdrawal emotions: (fear, disgust) right frontal lobe
 Fear
o Combination or biological preparedness and experience
o The Amygdala
 Brain center for fear and anger
 Fear conditioning ineffective if amygdala is damaged
 Anger
o Williams (2000): angry people are 3 times more likely to have a heart attack
o Catharsis: emotional release to relieve aggressive urges
 Better than pent-up anger
 However, aggression can lead to more aggression
o Ways to deal with anger
1. Wait it out
2. Calm yourself with distractions
3. Practice forgiveness
 Happiness
o Impact bias: tendency to overestimate long-term impact of emotional events, and underestimate ability
to adopt
o Money and Happiness
 Definite evidence for short-term happiness, but mixed evidence for long-term
174


o How to be happier: take control of your time, act happy, be grateful, and nurture spiritual self
3 Theories of Emotions
o James-Lang: awareness of physiological state in response to emotion-inducing stimulus ( stimulus to
body to brain)
o Cannon-Bard: simultaneous experience of emotion and physiological arousal
o Two Factor: first experience physiological arousal, then assign a cognitive label of emotion
Difficulty in Detecting Lies
o The Polygraph
 Machine that measures physiological responses (blood pressure, pulse) associated with lying;
the “Lie Detector”
 Control Question Test: 2 Types of Questions
 Control questions- generally address questionable behavior
 Relevant questions- address specific behavior under investigation
 Assumption: increased physiological arousal means you’re lying?
o Guilty Knowledge Test
 Used when information about the event is available that only the culprit would know
 Series of questions constructed, only one of which has the correct detail
 Person must answer no to each questions, therefore forced to lie if they are guilty
 Seems to be better than CQT at protecting the innocent
175
Kia Hitt
return to Table of Contents
Unit 9: Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychology: branch of psychology that studies physical,
cognitive and social change across the life span
Prenatal Development


The Learning Fetus
Decasper & Fifer (1980): The Cat in the Hat Study
o Pregnant women read Cat in the Hat aloud 2x daily for 6 weeks before
giving birth
 Few hrs after birth, babies outfitted with headphone-pacifier
device
 Sucked pacifier more when hearing: a. mom’s voice
b. reading Cat in the Hat than
other story
La Fuente et al. (1997): Fetal Exposure to Music
o IV: 172 pregnant women played/did not play music to fetus for 2
months
o DVs: gross and fine motor control, linguistic, development
o Results: music = better motor control and faster linguistic
development
Threats to Prenatal Development

Environment
o Teratogens: any chemical, virus or type of radiation that can cause
damage to zygote, embryo or fetus (e.g. hormones, viruses, drug use)
o Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: physical and cognitive abnormalities caused
by mother’s heavy drinking during pregnancy, includes possible
symptoms:
176
-mental retardation
-attention deficits
-social deficits
-poor memory
-epileptic seizures
-stunted growth
- facial abnormalities
o

Primary mental deficit= cognitive, yet creative and artistic
capabilities often intact
Genetics
o Down Syndrome: genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome; prevents
proper neural development
 1 in 800-1000 births
 Symptoms:
-heart, eye & ear deficits
-sleep apnea
-poor muscle tone
-sloping forehead
-short limbs
-almond-shaped eyes



-flattened nose
-mental retardation
No treatment for Down Syndrome, but rather treat symptoms
Prenatal genetic screening=ethical?
False: Younger mothers are more likely to have a down syndrome
baby
The Newborn – “blooming, buzzing confusion”

Human newborns far less competent than newborns of many other species, but
not always true..
Reflexes


Newborns have a preference for social connectedness: Turn head in direction
of human voices, gaze longer at face-like patterns, prefer looking at object
8-12“ away
Slowed rate of neural formation after birth, begin developing neural
networks through puberty, and then a pruning process
Infancy & Childhood
Cognitive Development

Jean Piaget (1896-1980):
Swiss developmental psychologist developed stage
model
o Stages driven by struggle to understand experiences, develop schemas
 Schema:
concept or framework that organizes and interprets
information
177


Assimilation:
interpreting one’s experiences in terms of
existing schemas
Accommodation: adapting one’s schemas to incorporate new
information
Piaget’s 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
1.
Sensorimotor Stage



2.
Birth to 2 yrs old
World knowledge=simple sensory impression and motor activities
Gain object permanence: awareness that objects still continue to exist when
not perceived
Preoperational Stage


2-7 yrs old
learning language, ability to create mental representations, but still lack
concrete logic
 egocentrism:
preoperational child’s difficulty taking another‘s point of
view
 Yet, early development of Theory of Mind: people’s idea about their own and
other’s mental states to understand other and predict what they feel, think
or might act
o Jenkins & Astington (1996): What is in the Bandaid Box?
 What would someone else have guessed?
 3 yr old: “pencils” vs. 4/5 yr old: “bandaid”
 3 yr old: “look in the box” vs. 4/5 yr old: “look in the
basket”
3. Concrete Operational Stage


7-12 yrs old
Ability to engage in concrete operations
o Manipulation of mental representations
o Gains understanding of conservation: principle that quantity remains
the same despite changes in shape
Formal Operational Stage


12 yrs old-adulthood
expansion of logical capabilities
o concrete (actual experience) to abstract (imagined realities and
symbols)
o not necessarily reality-bound (enjoyment of hypothetical/cognitive
challenges)
Schaffer: Concrete vs. Formal Stages
o 9-10 yrs old: all put 3rd eye on forehead (concrete experience around
face)– “this is silly!”
4.

178
o
11-12 yrs old:
unique locations (thinking abstractly outside the
box)- “I wuv it!”
Children’s Social Development
o
Attachment:
An emotional tie with another person
o
o
o

Harry & Margaret Harlow: Attachment vs. Nourishment with Monkeys
 IV: nourishment from wire/cloth mother
 Strong preference for cloth mother for both groups
 Focused on the primary role of body contact in crating
attachments
o Similar characteristics for humans
 Stronger attachment to rocking/feeding/patting parents
 Great deal of parent-infant communication=touch (cuddling,
tickling, ect.)
Familiarity: attached to those experienced during critical period - optimal
time shortly after birth when exposure to a stimulus produces “proper”
development
Imprinting: process by which certain animals form attachments during
critical period
o Konrad Lorenz (1937): What if he was the first creature ducklings
saw?
o Human children don’t imprint, but rather attachment from familiarity
 Mere- exposure effect: repeated exposure to something increases
liking
4 Attachment Styles
Ainsworth et al. (1978): “Strange Situation”
1. Secure Attachment
 65% of North American infants
 Active exploration and outgoing with strangers when mother is present,
but may be visibly upset by strangers
 Greets mother warmly upon return, and if highly distressed, seeks
physical contact
2. Resistant Attachment
 10% of North American Infants
 Stay close to mother, little exploration and wary of stranger even if
mother is present
 Very distressed when mother departs, but upon return is ambivalent
o Remain near mother, but act angry toward her and resist physical
contact
3. Avoidant Attachment
 20% of North American infants
 Sometimes sociable with strangers, but often ignore and avoid them
 Little distress when separated from mother and upon return, turn
away/ignore mother
4. Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
179



5-10 % of North American infants
most stressed by “strange situation”
o combination of resistant and avoidant syles
 When reunited with mother, may act dazed/freeze or may move closer,
than abruptly move away
Attachment style as a child often predicts style of adult relationships
Autism


Developmental disorder typically evident from infancy
3 classic symptoms
1. social interaction impairments: impaired theory of mind, little
nonverbal communication, little eye, contact, not likely to
spontaneously approach others
* Does not mean a preference for solitude
2. Communication impairment: delayed onset of babbling, decreased
responsiveness,
echolalia, difficulty understanding pointing
3. Repetitive Behavior: stereotype, sameness, restricted behavior,
self-injury, compulsive behaviors


Potential Causes
o Complex gene interaction; inability of brain regions to communicate
properly
o A “gendered” brain (Baron- Cohen!)
 Females- “empathizers” – better interpretation of facial
expressions, gestures
 Male – “systemizers” – understanding rules and laws
False: Facial abnormalities are defining characteristics of autism
o Vaccines cause autism
Autistic Savants

Several mental deficits but also extraordinary abilities
o Lower than evg. IQ, but very high intelligence in one or more fields
o Most savant syndrome among those with autisim
o More common among men than women
Adolescence

Transition between childhood & adulthood (tension between biological
maturity & social dependence)
Social Development

Marked by puberty (period of sexual maturation)
o Primary sex characteristics: body structures that make reproduction
possible
180
o
Secondary sex characteristics: non-reproductive characteristics
Neural Development

Growth of myelin sheath
o Limbic system (emotion) before frontal lobe (control, judgment)
o Explanation for impulsiveness, risky behaviors in adolescence
o Brain matures until about 25
Cognitive Development

Egocentrism (see Preoperational Stage) in early adolescence
o Belief in uniqueness of experience
o spotlight effect: viewing self as actor and everyone else as an
(imaginary) audience
 belief that social spotlight shines more brightly on you than it
actually does
 Gilovich et al. (2000): Barry Manilow
 IV: Participants assigned to be observer/target (wear
Barry Manilow shirt)
 DVs: “How many noticed who was on your shirt?”
o # who actually remembered who was on the shirt
Moral Development

o
Laurence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
o Based on responses to hypothetical moral dilemmas
o Built on Piaget’s ideas
o Moral thinking stages=dependent on stage of cognitive development
o 3 Stage Model
1. Pre-conventional stage: morality of self-interest
2. Conventional Stage: care for others, follow rules because they
are rules
3. Post-conventional Stage: broad, abstract ethical principles of
right vs. wrong
Haidt (2001, 2002): Moral Feeling Comes Before Moral Reasoning
o Emotion: instantaneous response
o Reasoning: convince self and others of what you intuitively feel
The Search for Identity
o
o
Erik Erikson (1902-1994): Sense of self (Who am I?) formed in adolescence
o Influenced by Freudian ideas
o 8 stage model of psychosocial development
 each stage = issue/crisis to be resolved
 success = psychosocial growth -> move on next stage
 failure = psychosocial deficits
Identity becomes personalized, self-contained
Adulthood & Old Age
181
Life Expectancy


1950 (49 yrs old) vs. 2010 (67 yrs old)
males more prone to dying
o Strickland (1992): 126 male embryos begin life for every 100 female
o Ratio at birth: 105: 100
o Infant death rate during first year is %25 higher in boys than girls
o Worldwide lifespan for women is 4 yrs higher
Why?


Males…
o consumes more alcohol/nicotine & other drugs
o more likely to commit suicide
o more aggressive and more likely to become involved in violent
confrontations
o more likely to be in military
o more risk when driving cars and motorcycles
General rule among mammals: smaller individuals have longer lives
o Some male growth and sex hormones result to shortened lifespan
Physical Changes



Senses begin to deteriorate in early adulthood
Changes in physical structures, neural connections = sensory deterioration
(e.g. vision)
Starting around 65 increasing likelihood of dementia - progressive decline
of cognitive functioning beyond that of normal aging
o Disorientation in time, place, person
o Associated with loss of brain wall
o 60% of cases of dementia due to…
Alzheimer’s disease





progressive and irreversible deterioration of memory, reasoning, language
and (lastly) physical functioning
5.1 million Americans afflicted
7th leading cause of death
causes of Alzheimer’s unclear
o most cases non-inherited, but 80% of those cases display genetic risk
factors
 5-10% inherited
o loss of brain cells
 deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine (memory &
thinking deficits)
 2 telltale abnormalities in these neurons: plagues at tips of
neuron branches and neurofibrillary tangles in cell bodies
Treating Alzheimer’s
o No cure, but treat symptoms (e.g. acetylcholinesterase inhibitors)
182


Mild-moderate reduction of Alzheimer symptoms
Psychosocial treatment (e.g. cognitive and rehabilitation
therapy)
Memory Loss


Meaningless info remembered less well with age
Schonfield & Robertson (1966): Adults of Different Ages Learn List of 24
Words
o IV: participants recall/recognize word list
o DV: # of words remembered
Intelligence




Cross-sectional study: study in which people of different ages are compared
at the same time
Longitudinal study: study in which same people are restudied and retested
over a long period
o Suggested stability, even increases
o Who survives to the end of the study?
Crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge and verbal skills increases
with age
Fluid intelligence: ability to reason quickly and abstractly decreases in
late adulthood
Psychosocial Development

The midlife crisis allegedly due to realization that there is of life behind
than in front
o McCrae & Costa (1990): 10,000 people completed personality measures
 Unhappiness, job dissatisfaction, marital satisfaction, divorce,
anxiety, and suicide DO NOT surge in early 40s
o Positive feelings increase after midlife
 Pennebaker & Stone (2003): older adults increasingly use words
that convey positive emotions
 Mather & Carstensen (2003): older adults slower to perceive
negative faces
 Mather et al. (2004): amygdala= decreased responsiveness to
negative events, stable responsiveness to positive events
o Bad feelings associated with negative events fade faster in older
adults
183
Kayla Samoy & Carly Stewart
return to Table of Contents
Developmental psychology: branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change across the life span.
Stages of Prenatal Development
-
Zygote: a fertilized egg
Embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the 2nd month
Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Environmental Threats to Prenatal Development
-
Teratogens: any chemical, virus, or type of radiation that can cause damage to the zygote, embryo, or fetus
o Hormones: stress  cortisol  slowed operation of growth development
o Viruses: HIV  attention and motor difficulties
o Drug use: nicotine  lower birth weight, greater risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: may lead to mental retardation, social deficits, poor memory, attention deficits, stunted
growth, epileptic seizures, facial abnormalities.
Downs Syndrome: genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome; prevents neuronal development. Physical: heart, eye
and ear deficits. Sleep apnea, poor muscle tone. Mental retardation. No treatment.
Autism:



Social Interaction impairments
o Little eye contact and smiling
o Not likely to approach others
o Impaired theory of mind (impairments w/ mirror neurons)
Communication impairments
o Delayed onset of babbling
o Difficulty understanding pointing
Repetitive behaviors
o Stereotypy (useless movements)
o Self-injury
o Sameness: keep things in the right place: patterns, symmetry, organization
o Restricted behaviors
o Compulsive behaviors: neat, organized, methodical
Diagnosed: typically based on behaviors genetic screening possible, not practical
184
Causes- genetics. Complex gene interaction, inability of rain regions to communicate properly
Autistic savant: Severe mental deficits, but also extraordinary abilities not displayed by most people. Lower than
average IQ, but very high intelligence in one or more narrow fields
Alzheimer’s: deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine (thus memory and thinking deficits) no cure, only treat
symptoms. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Cross-sectional study: study in which people of different ages are compared at the same time
Longitudinal study: study in which the same people are restudied/retested over a period of time
Crystallized Intelligence: accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
Fluid intelligence: ability to reason quickly and abstractly
Studies/people:
Harry and Margaret Harlow: learning in monkeys. Separated from parents, raised in individual cages, attachment to the
familiar rather than just nourishment (chose cloth mother over wire mother even when wire mother had the food)


Familiarity: attached to those experienced during critical period (optimal time shortly after birth)
Imprinting: process by which certain animals form attachments during critical period very early in life
Konrad Lorenz: first thing the ducks saw was him. First moving object.

Mere exposure effect: repeated exposure to something increases liking
Piaget: 4 stages of Piaget model with ages and abilities that develop.




Sensorimotor: Birth-2 years. Motor activities. At first lack object permanence (awareness that objects continue to
exist when not perceived)
Preoperational: 2-7 years learning language, create mental representations lack concrete logic
o Lack conservation (quantity remains same despite shape)
o Egocentrism: difficulty taking another’s view
Concrete Operational: 7-12
o Ability to engage in concrete operations. Manipulation of mental representation of concrete objects (6 vs 8
pieces)
o Emergence of logic
Formal Operational: 12-adulthood
185
o
o
Expansion of logical capabilities
Concrete  abstract
Theory of the mind: peoples ideas about their own and others mental state- interfeelings, perception, thoughts and
behaviors. Predict how they might act.
Ainsworth’s 4 attachment styles (Attachment style as child often predicts style of adult relationship)




Secure attachment
o Active exploration when mother present
o May be visibly upset by separations; greets mother warmly upon return; if highly distressed, seek physical
contact
o Outgoing with strangers while mother is present
Resistant attachment
o Stay close to mother; little exploration when she’s present
o Very distressed when mother departs; upon return – remain near her but act angry, resist physical contact
initiated by mother
o Wary of strangers
Avoidant attachment
o Little distress when separated from other; turn away from and ignore mother (even when mother tries to
gain attention)
o Sometimes sociable with strangers
Disorganized/disoriented attachment
o Most stressed by Strange Situation
o Combo of resistant and avoidant styles: confusion about whether to approach/avoid caregiver
o Reunited with mothers: may act dazed and freeze
Egocentrism: belief in uniqueness of experience
Spotlight effect (aka imaginary audience): viewing self as an actor, everyone else is the audience. Belief that the
social spotlight shines more brightly on you than it actually does
Kohlberg’s moral development- name, basis, example
-
-
-
Preconventional: morality of self-interest
o Steal: happier with wife alive, even if going to jail
o Don’t steal: life in jail would be worse than losing wife
Conventional- care for others, follow rules because they are rules
o Steal: “rule” of marriage” = do anything for spouse; willingly accept punishment for stealing
o Don’t steal: stealing is against the law: rules and laws necessary
Postconventional: broad, abstract ethical principles of right vs wrong
o Steal: everyone has a right to life no matter what, human life is more important than any amount of
property
186
o
Don’t steal: scientist has a right to fair compensation; other may be equally sick and needing medicine,
why should that one guy be an exception?
Erik Erikson: 8 stage model influenced by Freud. Each stage is an issue to be resolved.
187
Rachel High & Brandon Hellman
return to Table of Contents
Developmental Psychology
1) Developmental psychology: study of physical, cognitive, and social change across the life span
2) Prenatal Development
a) The zygote is a fertilized egg in the first stage of development. Cellular Differentiation begins.
b) Major axis of body formed by embryo stage (~2 weeks old through 2nd month)
c) Fetus from 9 weeks after conception to birth. Formed enough to allow possible survival outside of womb.
3) Threats to Prenatal Development
a) Teratogens
i) Any chemical, virus, or type of radiation that can cause damage to zygote, embryo, or fetus
(1) E.g. hormones, drug use
b) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
i) Physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by mother’s heavy drinking during pregnancy
c) Genetics
i) Down Syndrome: genetic disorder caused by extra chromosome; prevents proper neuronal development
d) Age of Mother
4) The Newborn
a) Prefer social connectedness (turn head toward human voices, prefer objects 8-12” away)
5) Infancy and Childhood
a) Physical Development
i) Brain development in womb: 250,000 neurons formed per minute at peak
ii) Slowed neuronal growth after birth; begin development of neural network
iii) Growth through puberty, then pruning
b) Cognitive Development
i) Jean Piaget: we have schemas, a concept /framework that organizes/interprets information
(1) Schemas created by:
(a) Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of existing schemas
(b) Accommodation: Adapting one’s schemas to interpret new information
6) Piaget’s Stage Model of Cognitive Development
a) Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to age 2
i) Object permanence: Awareness that objects continue to exist when not perceived
b) Preoperational Stage: Ages 2-7
i) Conservation: principle that quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
ii) Egocentrism: difficulty taking another’s point of view (never fully disappears)
c) Concrete Operational Stage: Ages 7-12
i) Concrete operations: manipulation of mental representations of concrete objects
d) Formal Operational Stage: Ages 12 to Adulthood
i) Expansion of logical capabilities
e) Assessing Piaget’s Theory
i) The Good:
188
(1) Cross-cultural verification of how human cognition evolves through childhood
(2) Understanding that cognition evolves through interactions
ii) The Bad:
(1) Continuous, rather than stage, development
(2) Less emphasis today on formal logic as paragon of cognition
7) Theory of Mind
a) People’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states
b) Allows us to understand others and predict how they might act
8) Autism
a) Brain development disorder, typically from infancy
b) 3 Classes of Symptoms:
i) Social Interaction Impairments
(1) Impaired theory of mind
(2) Little nonverbal communication
(3) Does not mean a preference for solitude
ii) Communication Impairments
(1) Delayed onset of babbling, decreased responsiveness, echolalia
(2) Difficulty understanding pointing
iii) Repetitive Behaviours
(1) Stereotypy, restricted behaviours, compulsive behaviours
c) Potential Causes
i) Genetics explains 90% of autism cases (Freitag, 2007)
ii) A “gendered” brain?
(1) Females=empathizers, difficult for autistics
(2) Males=systemizers, better understanding or rules, laws, mathematical/mechanical systems
d) Autistic Savants
i) Have both autism and savant syndrome: severe mental deficits but also extraordinary abilities
ii) Lower than average IQ, but very high intelligence in one or more narrow fields
Children’s Social Development
- Attachment – an emotional tie with another person
Harry and Margaret Harlow – 1950s learning in monkeys
- IV: nourishment from wire/cloth “mother”
- Strong preference for cloth, cling when anxious, home base for exploring
- Familiarity – attached to those experienced during “critical period”
- optimal time shortly after birth when exposure to a stimulus produces “proper” development
- Imprinting – process by which certain animals attach during critical period very early in life
Konrad Lorenz (1937) – imprinting on ducklings, he was the first thing they saw
- Imprinting best on own species
- Humans don’t really imprint
- Mere exposure effect: repeated exposure increases liking
Ainsworth et al. (1978) – four different attachment styles among children
- Strange Situation
1. Caregiver brings toys to children (use caregiver as home base?)
189
2. Caregiver leaves and child encounters a stranger (stressful?)
3. Caregiver returns (Child confronts? Return to toys?)
Four Attachment Styles
1. Secure Attachment
- 65% of North American infants
- Active exploration when parent present
- May be visibly upset by separation from parent, greets warmly upon return
- Outgoing with strangers when parent present
2. Resistant Attachment
- 10% of N. American infants
- Stay close to mother, little exploration when present
- Very distressed when mother departs, ambivalence upon return; remains near, but angry
- Wary of strangers, even when parent present
3. Avoidant Attachment
- 20% N. American infants
- Little distress when separated from mother, turn away/ignore mother
- Sometimes sociable with strangers
4. Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
- 5-10% of N. American infants
- Most stressed by Strange Situation
- Combination of resistant and avoidant
- Reunited with mothers: may act dazed and freeze; may move close, but back away when mother
approaches
Adolescence – “Storm and Stress”
Physical Development – marked by puberty - sexual maturation
- Primary sex characteristics – body structures for reproduction
- Secondary sex characteristics – nonsexual structure
- Neural Development
- Growth of myelin
- Limbic system (emotion) develops before frontal lobe (control, judgment)
- Explanation for impulsiveness, risky behavior in adolescence
- Brain matures until about 25
- Cognitive Development
- Egocentrism in early adolescence – belief in uniqueness of experience “nobody understands me!”
- Imaginary audience (aka spotlight effect)
- View self as actor on stage, spotlight shining on you more than it really does
- Gilovich et al. (2000) – people walk in to test late with a lame shirt, think everyone remembers your lame
shirt
- Moral Development
- Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)
- Three stage model of moral development based on responses to hypothetical moral dilemmas, built on
Piaget’s ideas
- Moral thinking stages = dependent on stage of cognitive development
Kohlberg’s Three Stage Model
1. Preconventional stage – morality of self interest
2. Conventional stage – care for others, follow rules because they are rules
3. Postconventional stage – broad, abstract ethical principles of right vs. wrong
-
-
Moral Feelings
-
Haidt (2001, 2002) – moral feeling comes before moral reasoning
190
-
Emotion: instantaneous response
Reasoning: convince self and others about what you intuitively feel
Psychosocial
-
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) – 8 stage model of psychosocial development
- Each stage: issue/crisis to be resolved
- Success: psychosocial growth, move on to next stage
- Failure: psychosocial deficits
- Erikson Sense of Self – found in adolescence, getting comfortable with a role
- Defining Identity
- Young children – look
- 7th graders – defined by relationships, social network
- 9th graders – defined by what you think and feel
Adulthood and Old Age
Life expectancy – Jeanne Calment: 122 year old, oldest women
Strickland (1992) – male embryos survive more, women have longer life expectancy
Old Age – Physical Changes
- Dementia – decline of cognitive skills, 60% of cases due to Alzheimer’s
- Alzheimer’s disease – progressive and irreversible brain disorder
- Gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, physical functioning (last)
- Causes: most non-inherited, loss of brain cells, deterioration of acetylcholine (used for memory and
thinking); plaques at tips of neuron branches, neurofibrillary tangles in cell bodies; no cure, just treat
symptoms
- Old Age – Memory Loss
- Schonfield and Robertson (1966)
- Results: recognition improves/stable with age; recall worsens with age
Cross Sectional Study – study in which people of different ages are compared at the same time
Longitudinal Study – same people are studied and restudied over a long period of time
Salthouse (2004) – 15 minute NY Times crossword; best done by 50s-70s year old
Two Types of Intelligence
- Crystallized intelligence – accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; increases with age
- Fluid intelligence – ability to reason quickly and accurately; decreases in late adulthood
-
Adulthood: Psychosocial Development
-
McCrae and Costa (1990) – 10,000 people completed personality measures, no sign of midlife crisis
Lochman (2004) – 1 in 4 report midlife crisis, most triggered by events like illness, divorce, job loss
Happiness increase/decrease with age?
- Inglehart (1990) – 170,000 people in 16 countries, no decrease in happiness, if anything increases with age
- Pennebaker and Stone (2003) – older adults use words with more positive emotions
- Mather and Carstensen (2003) – older adults slower to perceive negative faces
Summary:
Humans develop over entire life span
- Different ages think differently
- Growth: progress from one stage to the next
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Reed Patterson & Morgan Sierra
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Unit 9: Developmental Psychology
Prenatal Development:
1.Zygote- A fertilized egg
-Sperm contributes X chromosome for female, y for male
-Within one week, mitosis is 100-cell zygote
2.The Embryo- After two weeks after fertilization
-First signs of organ development and body parts
3.The Fetus- nine weeks after conception
-After sixth month, can survive premature birth
- Sensitive to light and sound
The Learning Fetus; Cat in the Hat Study
-De Casper and Fifer (1980)-Pregnant women read cat in the hat to unborn child
-Show preference to cat in the hat after birth.
Threats to prenatal development
-Environment-Chemicals, virus, radiation, hormones (from stress), drug use
-Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Mother consumes alcohol while child is in womb
-Poor attention, mental retardation, stunted growth, facial abnormalities, cognitive deficiency, but artistic capabilities
often intact
-Genetics
-Down Syndrome: Genetic disorder, extra chromosome, prevents proper development
-Age of mother is critical, older mother, more frequent
-Physical symptoms- heart, eye, and ear defects, poor muscle tone
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-Mental retardation occurs, lower life expectancy
Newborns preference for social connectedness- turn head in direction of human voice, prefer face like patterns
Infancy and Childhood
-Physical Development
-Brain Development in womb
-250000 neurons per minute, 23 billion at birth, constant growth until after puberty
-Cognitive Development
-Jean Piaget (1896-1980)-Swiss developmental psychologist, children think different than adults, 4 stages of cognitive
development
-Schemas-concept or framework that organizes and interprets info
1.assimilation-interpreting ones new experience in terms of existing schemas
2.accomodation-adopting one’s schema to incorporate new info
Stages of Cognitive Development
1.Sensorimotor stage-Birth to age 2
-World Knowledge is sensory impressions, motor activities
-At 8 months, begin demonstration of memory for things not seen
2.Preoperational Stage-2 to 7 years
-Learn language, still lack concrete logic
-Lack conservation- principle that quantity remains the same despite shape changes
-Egocentrism- difficulty to take another’s POV
-Theory of Mind-people’s idea about their own or others mental states
-Used to infer feelings, perceptions, thoughts and behaviors, and predict actions
3.Concrete Operational Stage-ages 7 to 12
-Gain Concrete Operations-manipulation of mental representations of concrete objects
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-Use logic, e.g. reversibility, conservation
4.Formal Operational Stage- age 12 to adulthood
-Expansion of logical capabilities
-Concrete to abstract
-“What is” vs. “what could be”
Concrete vs. Formal Operational Stages
-Tested concrete/formal operations. Younger kids less creative than older kids
Assessing Piaget’s theory:
-The good:
-Cross cultural verification of how human cognition endures thru childhood
-Understanding that cognitive endures through interactions with world
-The bad:
-Continuous, rather than stage, development
-Less emphasis on formal logic as paragon as cognition
Autism
-Brain development disorder, typically evident from infancy
3 classes of symptoms
1.Social interaction impairment.
-Impaired theory of mind, little eye contact or smiling, little nonverbal communication or emotional interchange, etc.
Not a preference for solitude, however
2.Communication impairments
-Delayed onset of babbling, decreased responsiveness, echolalia (repetition of words), difficulty understanding pointing
3.Repetitive behaviors
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-Stereotypy (rocking), sameness, restricted behavior, self-injury, compulsive behaviors.
Genetics explain 90% of autism cases
Attachment
-An emotional tie with another person
-Children seek closeness to caregiver, and experience distress upon separation from caregiver
Harry and Margaret Harlow: 1950’s research on learning in monkeys separated from parents and raised in individual
cages.
-Attachment to baby blankets in cage
-Strong preference for cloth mothers than wire mothers
Similar characteristics for humans
-Stronger attachment to nurturing parents
-Great deal of parent-infant communication-touch
Humans attached to those experienced during critical period, shortly after birth
Ainsworth et al. (1978): Different styles of attachment among children
Four attachment styles
1.Secure attachment-~65% of 1-year-old infants
-Active exploration with mother present
-May be visibly upset by separations
-Greets mother warmly upon return
-Seeks physical contact upon high distress
2.Resistant attachment-~10% of North American infants
-Stays close to Mother, little exploration with her present
-Very distressed when mother departs, and anger at her upon return
-Wary of strangers
3.Avoidant attachment-~20% if infants
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-Little distress upon separation with mother
-Ignores mother sometimes
-Sometimes sociable with strangers
4.Disorganized/Disoriented attachment- least common form of attachment
-Confused or apprehensive in the presence of a caregiver
-Often a mix of several behaviors and attachment styles
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Sam Crozier
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AP Review – Unit 10: Personality Psychology
Personality – an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Traits – relatively consistent characteristics exhibited in different situations.
Situationism – view of personality that regards behavior as mostly a function of the situation, not of internal traits.
Interactionism – view of personality as a product of both traits and situations.
Sigmund Feud: Austrian Neurologist who gained medical degree at the University of Vienna. Gained an interest in
cocaine as an Analgesic, and then became interested in nervous disorders; Started psychoanalysis.
Anna O.: A girl who came to Freud and Breuer as a last resort to be treated for hysteria, limb paralysis, vision disruption,
and hallucinations. Through hypnosis, Freud discovered that these symptoms arose due to trauma she experienced by
holding her dying father.
The Unconscious - Collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, desires, and memories.
Psychoanalysis - hydraulic theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and
concepts.
The Unconscious can reveal itself in the following ways:
1. Dreams = “The road to the unconscious.”
2. Freudian slips = slips of the tongue through which unconscious desires can be revealed.
3. Free Association = relaxing and responding to stimulus with the first thing that comes to mind.
Bottom Line: Freud believed neuroses express the unconscious.
Projective Tests: Personality tests using ambiguous stimuli to elicit projection of inner conflicts. Examples include:
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1. Rorschach inkblot test (1921) - 82% of clinicians report administering Rorschach occasionally. Problems
include extracting objective meaning from allegedly ambiguous stimuli, it requires subjective projective
perspective of the clinician, and there is no universal system of scoring and interpreting it.
2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Showing a patient 30 provocative but ambiguous pictures and having
them create a dramatic story. Problems include the test’s validity and reliability.
Freud’s Components of Personality:
1. Id (devil on the shoulder) – completely unconscious psychic energy driven by sexual and aggressive urges.
Operates on the pleasure principle, which means that it requires immediate gratification and is mindless of
societal norms and restraints.
2. Superego (angel on the shoulder) – the psychic energy that is both conscious and unconscious, represents
internalized ideals for standards of judgment, and develops around age 4-5.
3. Ego (executive) – the mostly conscious part of the personality that operates on the reality principle, meaning it
tries to gratify the id in ways acceptable to the superego.
Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development:
Oedipus complex – unconscious sexual desires for mother and jealousy/hatred of the father that develops in boys
between 3 and 6 years old and leads to anxiety over guilt and fear of punishment. Develops with castration anxiety,
which is fear of becoming inferior like a female.
Electra Complex – a girl’s feelings of inferiority and jealousy that cause anxiety. Develops with penis envy, which is anger
and regret over being female.
Defense Mechanisms – Freud’s methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. They can be adaptive
and include:
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Repression – forcibly blocking unacceptable thoughts from the conscious mind. Underlies all the other defense
mechanisms.
Projection – disguising own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Reaction Formation – unconsciously switching unacceptably impulses into their opposites.
Sublimation – redirecting psychic energy away from negative outlets, and towards positive outlets; the most productive
defense mechanism.
Neo-Freudians – People who ran with Freud’s ideas, but made two critical modifications:
1. More Emphasis on the conscious mind
2. Less emphasis on sex and aggression as primary motives
Carl Jung (1875-1961): Swiss psychiatrist who developed a relationship with Freud. Shared belief in the unconscious
with him but differed on its content; believed the unconscious also consisted of a collective unconscious, which is a
repository of all religious, spiritual, and mythological symbols and experiences. Synchronicity is when 2 or more events
seemingly co-occur meaningfully, but are casually unrelated, and come about because of the collective unconscious.
Evaluating Psychoanalysis:
The bad: many specific ideas refuted by modern research, no research to support, only explains behaviors post hoc,
development is limited to childhood, and dreams and Freudian slips can be explained differently.
The good: introduced modern definition of the unconscious, first personality and psychotherapy theories.
Gordon Allport (1897-1967): founder of modern personality psychology who aimed for a theory in between Freud’s
(psychoanalysis) and Skinner’s (behaviorism).
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Trait: a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act a certain way. Theories about which traits are
important include:
1. Lexical Approach – driven by the Lexical hypothesis that all important individual differences have been encoded
in language over time. Problems include ambiguity of traits and conveyance of personality through parts of
speech other than adjectives. Bottom Line: Good starting point, but should not be exclusive.
2. Statistical Approach – having people rate themselves on a pool of personality items (lexical), and then grouping
the ratings together with factor analysis, which is a statistical approach that clusters items that covary with each
other only.
3. Theoretical Approach – Dictates which traits are important to measure.
The Big Five (OCEAN or CANOE): five traits that are generally stable through adult lives, culturally universal, and good
predictors of other attributes.
1. Openness (to new experiences) – new and exciting vs. routine
2. Conscientiousness – Organized vs. Disorganized
3. Extraversion – talkative vs. quiet
4. Agreeableness – sympathetic vs. unsympathetic
5. Neuroticism – insecure vs. emotionally stable
Birth Order and Personality: despite numerous theories, there is little definitive research to support claims that birth
order affects personality.
Personal Control – a feeling that we control our lives rather than feeling helpless. Personal control depends on which
kind of the following loci of control we believe in:
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External locus of control – perception that chance outside forces control the things that happen to you. Can lead to
learned helplessness, which is hopeless and passive resignation learned when an animal cannot avoid repeated negative
events.
Internal locus of control – perception that you control the things that happen to you. Can lead to better grades, more
independence, better health, and less depression. However, too much choice can be a problem.
Optimism: The belief that things are more likely to go well than to go badly. Benefits include: strong positive correlation
with self-esteem, higher likelihood of turning low grades around, success at work, and higher immune system function.
The biggest problem is Optimistic bias, which is the tendency to be over-optimistic about future outcomes. This problem
can be avoided with a dose of realism because while anxiety over past failure depresses ambition, anxiety over potential
future failure increases ambition.
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Katie Marascio & Georgia Behrend
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Unit 10: Personality Psychology



Personality: “an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting; implication that there is some
degree of consistency”
Traits vs. Situationsim—outlooks on personality
o Traits: relatively consistent characteristics exhibited in different situations
o Situationism: behaviors are mostly a function of the situation, not internal traits
 Davis (1997): participants typically rate the explanatory paragraph after a personality test as
good or excellent summary of their own personality ~> certain traits experienced at certain
times, in certain situations
 Hartshorne & May (1928): gave grade-school kids the opportunity for undetected deceit ~>
dishonesty in one domain did NOT predict dishonesty in another
o Compromise—interactionism: personality is a product of both traits and situations
Personality Perspective 1: The Psychoanalytic Perspective
o Freud: “are we anxious about things of which we are unaware?”
 The unconscious [according to Freud]: collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and
memories
 Iceberg analogy
 Psychoanalysis: hydraulic theory (as pressure is exerted on the unconscious, energy—called
libido by Freud—is created and requires an outlet, resulting in projections, reaction formation,
etc) of personality that attributes thoughts and action sot unconscious motives and conflicts
 The unconscious is revealed through:
 Dreams: manifest vs latent content
 Freudian slips
 Free association: patient will say the first word that comes to mind when therapist gives
a prompting word
o Uncovering the Unconscious Today?
 Projective tests: personality tests using ambiguous stimuli to elicit projection of inner conflict
 Rorschach inkblot test
o Problems:
 Are the shapes really ambiguous?
 Requires subjective, projective perspective of clinician
 No universal system for scoring & interpretation
 Low inter-rater reliability
 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
o 30 provocative but ambiguous pictures
o patients create a dramatic story about the image
o Problems
 Validity?
 Reliability?
o 3 Components of Personality
 Id: completely unconscious psychic energy driven by sex & aggression; the “devil” on your
shoulder
 Pleasure principle: demands immediate gratification, mindless of societal norms and
restraints
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



Superego: represents internalized ideals and standards for judgment; the “angel” on your
shoulder
 The “conscience”
 Develops around 4-5 years of age
 Focuses on how we ought to behave
 Ego: mostly conscious, “executive” part of personality that mediates id vs. superego struggle
 Reality principle: seeks to gratify id in ways acceptable to the superego
o Freud’s States of Psychosexual Development
 Oedipus complex: during phallic stage (3-6 years old), boys develop unconscious sexual desires
for mom, jealousy/hatred of father—their rival
 Feelings of guilt, fear of punishment ~> leads to anxiety
 Castration anxiety: fear of becoming like a female, of powerful people overcoming them
 Electra complex: a girl’s feelings of inferiority and jealousy (anxiety)
 Penis envy: anger, regret over being female
o Managing Your Freudian Insecurities: Defense Mechanisms
 Defense mechanisms: methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
 Repression: forcibly blocking unacceptable thoughts from conscious mind (i.e. why we
don’t remember sexual desires for our parents)
o Underlies all other mechanisms
 Projection: disguise own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
 Reaction formation: unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites
 Sublimation: redirecting psychic energy away from negative outlets to positive ones
o Most productive defense mechanism, because it is socially useful
Neo-Freudians
o Built on Freud’s ideas and psychoanalysis
o More emphasis on conscious mind; less on sex and aggression
o Carl Jung
 View of unconscious differed from Freud’s:
 Freud: store unacceptable thoughts and urges (like Jung’s personal unconscious)
 Jung: collective unconscious – reservoir of human experiences. Reason why
coincidences happen (Theory of Sychronicity)
Psychoanalysis: Pros and Cons
o Bad: Many theories have been refuted by modern research (no evidence for repression, gender identity
starts earlier and ends later), based on own recollections and interpretations (not science), not
predictive
o Good: Introduced idea of unconscious, first personality and psychotherapy theories
Trait Perspective
o Gordon Allport – describe personality in terms of traits
o Which traits are important?
 Lexical Approcah
 Important individual differences have been encoded in language, “natural selection”
amongst words
 Problems: some traits difficult to interpret
 Statistical Approach
 Start with pool of personality terms, ask people to rate themselves, use factor analysis
to identify clusters of terms
 Theoretical Approach
 Theory dictates which traits are important to measure
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



Taxonomies of Personality
o Many attempts at creating list
o Five Factor Model (Big Five)
 Openness – distinguishes imaginative, creative people
 Conscientiousness – How we control, direct, and regulate our lives
 Extraversion – engagement with outside world
 Agreeableness – getting along with people
 Neuroticism – tendency to experience strong negative emotions
 Big Five generally very stable throughout life, hereditarily strong, culturally universal, predictive
of other attributes
Birth Order and Personality
o No Correlations with Big Five Study, studies often confounded or contradictory
o Intelligence
 Firstborns generally score higher on IQ, reasoning and achievement tests
Personal Control
o Feeling that we control our lives, rather than feeling helpless
o Internal Locus of Control – perception that you control what happens to you
 People with internal locus of control often have better grades, more independence, better
health, less depression
o External Locus of Control – perception that chance or outside forces control things that happen to you
 Can lead to learned helplessness – hopeless and passive resignation learned when an animal
cannot avoid repeated negative events
Optimism
o Belief that things are more likely to go well than badly
o Benefits: more likely to turn around poor grades, better immune system
o Problems: tend to be over-optimistic about future outcomes (Optimistic Bias); realism can help – anxiety
about future potential failure=increased ambition
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Chandler Wallace
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Unit 10: Personality

What is Personality?
-Definition: Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
-Broken into Traits vs. Situationism

Traits
-definition: Characteristics exhibited in different situations.

Situationism
-Personality is a product of behaviors due to external stimuli
Interactionism

-power of situation (stimuli)
-but we do carry something with us (traits)
Sigmund Freud

-The unconscious
Iceberg Analogy

-Id, Ego, Superego
-Id: Unconscious driven by sexual and aggressive impulses.
-Superego: Part of personality that represents internalized ideas and standards for judgement
-ego: Mostly conscious, balances id and superego
-reality principle: seeks to gratify id in ways acceptable to super ego.
Carl Jung

-Swiss psychiatrist, close relationship to Freud.
-Jung believes collective unconscious: Once answers are thought of, it becomes synced with
all of humanity.
Trait Perspective

-Freudian Psychoanalysis vs. Skinnerism Behaviorism
-Gordon Allport-Founder of modern psychology
3 approaches to defining personality

-Lexical Approach-traits in language
-Statistical Approach-factor analysis traits
-Theoretical approach-Theory dictates what’s important
Big Five

-Conscientiousness
-Agreeableness
-Neuroticism
-Openness
-Extraversion
Optimism Vs. Realism

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Garrett Abeln & Katherine Richard
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UNIT 10 Review
Personality
•
Personality: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
•
Traits vs. situationism
•
•
Traits = relatively consistent characteristics exhibited in different situations.
•
Situationism = a view of personality that regards behavior as a function of the situation, not entirely of
internal traits.
•
This is why astrology does not work – traits can be universal, and each of us wants to see ourselves in a
positive light.
•
The Compromise = Interactionism = each individual’s personality is a product of both our unique traits
and our situations.
Sigmund Freud
•
•
Background
•
Austrian neurologist who develops interest in nervous disorders
•
Anno O. = treated for hysteria by Freud and partner; elicits connections between mental and
physical health
The Unconscious (iceberg analogy)
•
Unconscious = collection of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, desires, feelings, and memories
(according to Freud) leads to psychoanalysis
•
Psychoanalysis = a hydraulic theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to
unconscious motives and conflicts.
•
Uncovering the Unconscious:
•
Free association: respond to stimuli with first thoughts in order to uncover
unconsciousness
•
Projective tests: personality tests using ambiguous stimuli in order to produce a
projection of inner conflicts.
•
•
Exps = Rorschach tests and Thematic Apperception Tests
Psychoanalytic Theory
•
Personality is simply the conflict between the unconscious and the conscious mind.
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•
•
•
There are three components:
•
id: entirely unconscious; driven by the pleasure principle that demands immediate
gratification – dominate in young kids
•
Superego: Large part is unconscious; immediate ideals, morals and ethics that develop
around age 4-5
•
Ego: most conscious mind; mediates the id and the superego; driven by the reality
principle which seeks to gratify the id in ways acceptable to the superego.
Stages of Psychosexual Development
•
Patients symptoms rooted in conflicts from childhood
•
Phallic stage from ages 3-6 – includes the Oedipus complex, castration anxiety for boys and the
Electra complex, penis envy for girls.
Dealing with Anxiety
•
Use defense mechanisms = methods of reducing anxiety through the unconscious distorting of
reality.
•
•
Neo-Freudians
•
•
Two critical modifications to Freud’s ideals:
•
More emphasis on conscious mind
•
Sex and aggression are no longer the complete focus
Carl Jung
•
•
Exps: regression, projection, reaction formation, sublimation
Developed a working relationship with Freud and validated his ideas. However, he developed
some changes:
•
Jung’s personal unconscious (like Freud) and the collective unconscious ( a reservoir of
experiences, religious, spiritual, and mythological symbols within our species – a human
fabric to which we all ascribe)
•
Theory of synchronicity: two or more events co-occur for a reason – meaningful
coincidences.
Evaluating Psychoanalysis
•
The Bad :
•
Scientific, evidential shortcomings.
•
Cannot predict behaviors, merely explain them post-hoc.
207
•
•




People develop over their entire lives and have many biological complexities that may explain
behavior beyond the unconscious.
The Good:
•
Introduces the idea of an unconscious mind
•
Provides a possible defense against anxiety
•
Forced humans to further confront their place within the universe, and within themselves
The Trait Personality
In the early 20th Century, there were two psychological backgrounds:

Freudian psychoanalysis (chiefly negative)

Skinnian behaviorism (bogged down in mechanics of the mind)

Gordon Allport

Founder of personality psychology

Personality should be based on traits.

3 Main Approaches:

Lexical Approach: Variations in language indicate important traits.

o Words go through natural selection. This is seen through synonym frequency (how many words for
beautiful there are) and cross-cultural universality (overlap between
languages).
Statistical Approach: A large number of people rate personality items.

o Factor analysis is a procedure that identifies clusters of items that relate, but not with other clusters.
Theoretical Approach: theory dictates which traits are important to measure

Taxonomies of Personality
Five Factor Model

Openness: vaguely demonstrates creativity as well as willingness to explore

Conscientiousness: organizational tendencies

Extraversion: social engagements

Agreeableness: concern with cooperation

Neuroticism: tendency to be anxious and insecure

Research on Big Five

Generally stable throughout life.

o Neuroticism, extraversion, and openness drop after college.
o Agreeableness and conscientiousness rise after college.
Cultural Universality of Big Five: Pervasive in essentially all cultures. There is some variation in

extraversion.
Predictions

Morning People: more conscientious

Evening People: more extraverted

Birth Order and Personality
Variation of influences both hormonal and behaviorial (older sibling effects younger greatly).

Personal Control: Whether we learn to see ourselves as having control of environment
External versus internal locus (outside forces or our own efforts).

Learned Helplessness: People learned to feel and act vulnerably in repeated trauma.

Optimism versus Pessimism greatly determines one’s own path.

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Francois Chu & Sam Winsten
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Unit 11: Intelligence
intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
 not a concrete “thing”, but a social construct/ concept that we have created to explain people’s use of
knowledge.
A. The Traditional View of Intelligence
 Charles Spearman and General Intelligence (g)
1. Spearman originally developed factor analysis to break down intelligence tests
into measurable clusters.
2. Came up with general intelligence as a factor that underlies all mental ability
 All tasks we can perform require that a person draws on “g” and “s” or
specific intelligence, such as spatial, verbal, and mechanical.
 General intelligence is highly correlated with the ability to solve new problems, ones that specific intelligence
cannot deal with alone.
 …but having general intelligence doesn’t help in “evolutionary familiar” situations such as raising children.
B. The Contemporary View of Intelligence
 Howard Gardner an Multiple Intelligences
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1. Howard believed that there must be multiple intelligences, because:
 brain trauma patients only lose some abilities, don’t become less smart overall
 savants and islands of excellence
1. low IQ overall, but amazing abilities in one area
 Howard’s intelligences and Exemplars (best examples of each):
1. linguistic: language crafting (Hemingway)
2. logical-mathematical: higher ability in logic and math (Einstein)
3. naturalist: better understanding of how nature works (Darwin)
4. spatial: manipulation of objects in 3-D space (Raphael)
5. bodily-kinesthetic: athletic, good w/ balance and movement (Martha Graham)
6. musical: musical talent (Beethoven)
7. Interpersonal: good at dealing and relating w/ other people (Gandhi)
8. Intrapersonal: understanding one’s own workings (Freud)
 can we really call all of this intelligence?
 if a person doesn’t know something from one, are they less intelligent?
 Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
1. analytical intelligence: factual, convergent intelligence
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2. creative intelligence: generation of new ideas and adaptability
3. practical intelligence: “street smarts”-- everyday tasks w/ many answers
C. Emotional Intelligence



emotional intelligence: ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
Emotional Intelligence Test Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso (2002)
assesses 4 components
1. ability to perceive emotion
recognize in faces, music, & stories
2. ability to understand emotion
predict how they change & blend
3. ability to manage emotions
how to express them in various situations
4. ability to use emotions for adaptive creative thinking
Relevance of Emotional Intelligence
Lopes et al. (2004): Us and German college students
score high on managing emotions --> higher quality interactions with friends
of both sexes
Van Rooy & Viswesvaran (2004): meta-analysis across 69 studies
score high on emotional intelligence --> better job performance
D. Intelligence and Creativity
 creativity: the ability to produce new, valuable ideas.
 positively correlated with intelligence but…
1. creativity is not higher intelligence, but a different way of thinking
 divergent (creative) thinking: imagining multiple answers
vs.
 convergent (analytical) thinking: closing in on one answer
 5 components of a creative person
1. expertise: “Chance only favors the prepared mind.”
2. imaginative thinking skills: detect patterns, make connections, see different perspectives
3. venturesome personality: tolerate risk, and are highly open and perseverant
4. intrinsic motivation: motivated by the challenge, not the payoff
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5. creative environment: surrounded by people who support and challenge each other and free of
evaluation concerns
E. Brain Size
 +.40 correlation betw. brain size and
intelligence
1. kinda low…
2. other potential causes= genes,
nutrition, pollution
3. 17% more synapses in the highly
educated
4. more gray matter in memory areas of
brain
 Speed?
1. processing speed correlated w/ IQ
2. high intellect = quicker brain waves
 core information processing ability
 the faster something is processed, the more stuff is processed overall?
F. Assessing Intelligence
 an 20th century law in France required all children to attend school, but how to discern
them from wide range of abilities?
 Assumption: intellectual development is the same for all children, but some develop
faster than others
o Bright: Performance typical of an older child
o Dull: Performance typical of a younger child
 Birth of IQ
o IQ: Intelligence Quotient developed by German
psychologist William Stern (1912)
o By definition average IQ score is 100
o Lewis Terman: at Stanford, used Binet’s test as a
measure of intelligence
o Stnadford Binet Intelligence Test

The Dark Side of the IQ Concept
212


 US govt., with Terman’s help, began evaluating immigrant’s IQ
 biased towards Anglo-Saxons; fueled racism against certain groups
 e.g. 1924 immigration law: reduced immigration quotas for Southern &
Eastern Europe to less than 1/5 of those for Northern & Western Europe
 IQ determining method works ok for kids, but not so much for adults...
 e.g. If a 40 year old scores as well as average 20 year old, is his/her IQ
really 50?
o
turn 50 with same intelligence: IQ now 40?
 today’s IQ score: specify how test_taker performs compared to performance of
other people at same age
 average still 100
Modern Intelligence Testing: The WAIS
 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): most commonly used intelligence test
today
 also the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
 14 subtests: “verbal” and “performance”
o
noticeable differences between scores may indicate learning
disabilities, brain disorders
Test Construction
 3 criteria for psychological tests to be widely accepted:
 1. standardized
o
score alone doesn’t tell you much
 standardization: defining meaningful scores relative to
pretested group
o
typically creates a normal distribution/normal curve/ bell curve
o
Stanford-Binet, WAIS, WISC, periodically restandardized
o
How do these samples compare to one another?
 Flynn effect: global improvements on intelligence scores
over past 100 years
 documented n 20 countries
o
The Flynn Effect
 avg. +3 IQ points per decade
 greatest gains in “general intelligence loaded” tests (e.g.
Raven’s Progressive Matrices)
 small gains, or even decreases, in math, vocabulary,
etc.
 greatest gains at lower end of distribution
o
So why is the Flynn Effect Happening?
 short answer (so far): Who Knows?
 better education?
o
but why only modest gains in school
topics
 familiarity with intelligence tests?
o
trend started before widespread testing
 more stimulating environments, less childhood
disease, smaller families (parental investment),
modernization?
 better nutrition?
improvements most likely to affect lower
SES, lower end of IQ curve
213
 2. Reliability
o
How consistent are the results of the test?
 test-retest: Does the person score about the same when
repeating the test
 split-half: When the test is split in two (e.g. odds & evens),
does the person score about the same on both halves?
o
higher correlation between test-retest or split-half = higher
reliability
o
Stanford-Binet, WAIS, WISC = high reliability
 3. validity
o
Does the test measure what it’s supposed to measure
 criterion validity: Does the test agree with some other
criterion (independent measure) of performance?
 What Does IQ Predict about Life?
1. High IQ positively correlated with:
 high GPA
 high prestige jobs
 less likely to be jailed
2. Does not mean high IQ guarantees success, or that low IQ prevents it
1. Jobs
 only 25% variation in success from IQ
 motivation, education and other factors
 Extremes in Intelligence
214
1. Mentally Disabled
i. IQ below 70
ii. significant limitations in everyday life
iii. must be present since childhood
iv. retardation is not
the inability to learn and perform well…
 islands of excellence: areas of
cognition and functionality
which excel above all others
1. example:
savants
o
 Williams Syndrome: combination of mental disability and
islands of excellence
o usually have extensive vocabulary
lots of facts known
215
o
o
cortical areas involving language thicker
difficulty understanding the concepts of the facts they know
v. Causes
o Genetics:
 extra chromosome (Down Syndrome)
 fragile X chromosome (repeating DNA over and over in X area)
o Environmental:
 teratogens
 premature birth
 disease, lead/mercury poisoning
2. The Gifted
I. IQ above 130
II. Problems:
a. social awkwardness
b. solitary (usu. in area w/
fewer gifted students)
c. perfectionism
d. underachievement to
“fit in” or create a
challenge
III. Good News
a. high reasoning,
creative, memory
ability
b. healthy and well adjusted
c. academically successful (mostly)
IV. Causes
a. Genetics
i. Gifted Boys: low levels of testosterone (compared to non)
ii. Gifted Girls: high levels of testosterone (compared to non)
iii. adoption studies: adopted child’s IQ scores closer to real parent than adopted one
1. twins raised apart have identical scores too.
b. Environment
i. attention/touching/verbal games when young speeds up development
ii. malnutrition, sensory deprivation, social isolation slows development
 Group Differences in Intelligence
a. Why is there an IQ difference between races?
i. The Bell Curve by
Richard Hernstien and
Charles Murray
1. claims best
predictor of
income, job
performance,
wedlock
216
pregnancy, and crime is IQ score.
2. fuels racism
a. see IQ as genetic difference between races
b. Environmental, not genetic
i. besides skin color, races remarkably similar genetically
ii. race isn’t a neatly defined biological category
1. race seen as social construction or physical boundaries
a. Russia/Austria/Iceland= white?
b. mixed races
iii. Asian phenomenon
1. seen as best at math, but this is a recent finding
2. go to school 30% more days a year and study more
iv. Flynn effect
1. IQ gap between 1930s to now same as black vs. white gap
a. suggests that environment a factor (better nutrition, education)
v. Black and White infants score equally well on infant IQ tests
vi. Different races had different high points in history
1. genes don’t change as quickly as empires
c. Which Environmental Factors Matter?
i. socioeconomic status (SES): family income,
parental education level and occupation etc.
vii.



Gender & Intelligence
 like race, gender similarities far outnumber gender
differences
 ...but typically we are more intrigued by differences
 average IQ equal across gender, but variability is different...
Gender Differences: The Female Advantage
 better spellers
 by end of high school, 3-% of males spell better than average female
 better verbal fluency, memory for verbal info
 Germany’s Test for Medical Studies: women consistently remember more
facts from medical cases than men
 better nonverbal memory too
 better at locating objects
 superior memory for picture associations
 less likely to underachieve
 less likely to be represented in special ed. classes
o
remedial reading classes: Boy:Girl ratio = 3:1
 talk earlier, stutter less
 slightly better at rapid mathematical computation
Gender Differences: The Male Advantage
 better at mathematical problem solving
 average 45 points higher than females on SAT math
 among those scoring extremely high on math SAT: male;female ratio = 13:1
o
boys in this group more likely to earn degrees in sciences,
engineering
biggest advantage: spatial tasks
217
4. viii. Bias in Intelligence Testing
 2 types of bias in IQ test construction: 1. Do IQ tests rely on cultural knowledge?
IS this where group differences come from?
 2. Is the test less valid for some groups than others? (scientific/ statistical bias)
 predictive validity for SAT, WAIS, etc.:
o
women = men
o
black = white
o
rich = poor
 Is it possible that IQ tests are based in their administration rather than their
construction?
 e.g. stereotype threat
o
What happens when we know that our group isn’t supposed to
be good at something?
G. Stereotype Threat

Stereotype Threat
 Steele & Aronson (1995): cultural stereotypes “in the air”, may affect performance
of stigmatized
 even without interacting with a biased person...
 Steps from stereotypes to performance:
 1. awareness of stereotype causes self-threat
 2. self-threat causes increased concern (anxiety) about confirming the
stereotype
 3. concern causes poorer performance in domain
 Steele and Aronson (1995)
 IVs: Black/White participants completed items from the verbal GRE
o
test framed as diagnostic/not diagnostic of innate IQ
 DV: # of items correct on test
 Results: Test Frame as not diagnostic, performance of both groups nearly
identical. With the opposite, score gap is bigger.
 not just IQ...other stereotypes too
 Spencer, Steele, & Quinn (1999): women and math
 IVs: man/women complete math test that produces/does not produce
gender differences
 DV: performance on math test
 Results: Same as IQ test, when stereotype is present, big gaps in
performance
218

Summary of Sterotype Threat Effects
 Educational performances
 African American college students
 female math majors
 SES and test performance
 Non-Educational performances
 Black & White Athletes
 female MBAs during negotiation
 males’ ability to express emotion
 Bottom line: Stereotype threat is a general psychological process that can affect ANY
croup for whom negative stereotypes exist
What Can We Do About Stereotype Threat?
 positive role models, limited testing environments, limited testing instructions, etc.
 Or....know about it!
 Johns, Schmader, & Martens (2005): Does knowing about sterotype threat make
a difference?
o
IVs: men/women took a math test: problem solving (control)/ math test
( gender differences, ST)/ teaching intervention

DV: math test performance
219
Noah Sleiman & Caitlin Newman
return to Table of Contents
Unit 11: Intelligence
What is Intelligence?
 Intelligence: the ability to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new
situations.
 Is Intelligence one ability or several specific abilities?
Traditional view: General Intelligence – “g”
 General Intelligence: an underlying factor that determines your ability to do things
o Charles Spearman
 Factor Analysis: breaking IQ test results into clusters to determine general intelligence
Evolutionary value of “g” – Kanazawa
 “g” evolved to cope with novel problems
 Correlated with ability to solve new problems, not correlated with familiarity situations
Contemporary View: Multiple Intelligences
 Intelligence is specific to certain areas, but having high intelligence in one area does not mean you have it in
others
o Howard Gardner
8 (9) kinds of Intelligence
1. Linguistic
2. Logical – Mathematical
3. Naturalist
4. Spatial
5. Bodily – kinesthetic
6. Musical
7. Interpersonal
8. Intrapersonal
9. (Existential?)
Sternberg Triarchic Theory:
1. Analytic Intelligence: Intelligence tests, problems with right answers
2. Creative Intelligence: Reacting adaptively to novel situations
3. Practical Intelligence: Everyday, ill-defined tasks with multiple possible answers
Emotional Intelligence?
 Ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
 Izard (2001): Showed 5/9 year old kids ability to recognize emotions
o More successful when 9 years old = emotional intelligence develops later in childhood
 4 Components Test
o Perceiving emotions: recognize in faces, music, and stories
o Understanding emotions: predict emotions, how they change and blend
o Managing emotions: controlling, expressing emotions in various situations
220
o
Using emotions in adaptive and creative ways
Better scores on Emotional Intelligence = better jobs, higher quality interactions with other people
Intelligence and Creativity
 Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
o A different way of thinking, not super high intelligence
 General positive correlation between Intelligence and Creativity
Intelligence – Convergent thinking (closing in on a single right answer)
Creativity – Divergent thinking (imagining multiple possible answers)
Steinberg: 5 components of creativity
 Expertise in an area: well developed base of knowledge
 Imaginative thinking skills: ability to detect patters, make connections, see things in novel ways
 Venturesome personality: tolerant of ambiguity and risk, perseverance in face of obstacles
 Intrinsic Motivation: motivated by internal drive, challenge, satisfaction, rather than external forces
 Creative Environment: surrounded by colleagues who mentor, challenge, support.
Intelligence and the Brain
 +.4 correlation between brain volume and intelligence scores
 Speed correlated with IQ score, higher intelligence = faster brain waves…
Assessing Intelligence
 Tests must be broad enough to cover the many domains of intelligence
 Assumptions:
o Intellectual development some for all kids but faster for some than others
 Measured mental age and judged against actual age to determine IQ
o Original formula: 100 x (mental age/chronological age)
o Average IQ by definition 100
The Innate IQ
 Stanford-Binet: Common IQ test today
 Lewis Terman: worked with government to label people with IQ’s, bad thing.
Test Construction
1. Standardization: Defining meaningful scores relative to protested group.
a. Typically creates a normal distribution
b. Flynn Effects: global improvements on intelligence scores over the past 10 years
2. Reliable: How consistent are the test results?
a. Test-Retest: Does the person score about the same when retaking the test?
b. Split-Half: When the test is split in two, does the person score the same on both halves of the test?
c. Higher correlations = higher reliability
3. Validity: Does the test measure what it’s supposed to measure?
a. Criterion validity: Does the test agree with some other criterion of performance?
b. Higher IQ correlated with higher GPA, better jobs, stable relationships, less jail time
Does not mean low IQ’s mean poor performance in these areas
I.
Mental Retardation
221
A.
3 Criteria to be mentally retarded:
1. I.Q. score of 70 or below.
2. significant limitations in everyday life (2 or more domains).
3. Present since childhood.
*Important note! Retardation DOES NOT mean inability to learn or perform well.
~ islands of intelligence: areas in which mentally retarded people perform remarkably well
4. Williams Syndrome: combo of mental retardation and islands of intelligence.
a) often have large vocabularies and abnormal thickening of cortical areas, involved with language.
A. Causes of Mental retardation: Common examples
1. Genetic causes
a. Down syndrome = most common. Fragile X syndrome, autism etc.
2.
Environmental
a. problems during pregnancy (fetal alcohol syndrome) or at birth (prematurity). Also, after birth (childhood disease).
II.
The Gifted
A. Criteria: people with I.Q. of 135 or above.
B. Unclear causes, possibly biological.
C. Problems:
A. “in a different world” has mixed evidence: sometimes socially awkward, but often just solitary or introverted.
B. often correlated with perfectionism. Though oddly, underachievement.
I.
Good things:
A. high reasoning ability, creativity, curiosity, vocabulary, memory.
B. Question authority, independent thinkers.
C. Academically successful.
I.
Influences on Intelligence
Genetics
1.adoption studies show that children who are adopted often have IQ scores closer to biological parents.
2. Identical twins.
A. Environment
1. Races are remarkably identical, genetically.
2. Race is not a neatly defined thing.
3. Size of Flynn effect: gap between 1930s populations and current pop is identical to gap between black/white IQ scores.
4. Different backgrounds.
5. The things that matter in race gap: SES. Socioeconomic status is family income, parental education level, parental
occupation etc. (SES and IQ is positively correlated.)
I.
Gender and Intelligence
1.There are fewer differences then there are similarities. But, the differences that lead to a female advantage:
a. Better spellers, better verbal fluency, better nonverbal memory, less likely to underachieve
(less likely to be in special ed.), slightly better at rapid math.
2. Male advantage:
a. Better at math, problem solving, special tasks.
3. There are 2 types of bias on IQ tests:
a. Do IQ tests rely o cultural knowledge?
b. Is the test less valid for some groups the others? (scientific bias).
A.
I.
Bias on Intelligence Testing
A. Is it possible that the bias is in the administration and not construction?
B. Stereotypes about IQ:
1. socially shared beliefs about a group and it’s individual members.
**Stereotype threat: Steele and Aronson (1995) - stereotypes “in the air” may affect performance of stigmatized.
Bottom line: Stereotype threat is a general psychological process that can affect and group for whom negative stereotype
exists.
A. Steps from stereotype to performance:
1. awareness of stereotype causes self threat
1. self-threat causes increased concern about confirming stereotype
2. concern causes poorer performance.
222
Anais Alonso & Angelique Keaton
return to Table of Contents
Unit 11: Intelligence
Intelligence: Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adopt to new situations.
Factor Analysis: developed by Charles Spearman. It is a statistical procedure that enables researchers to identify
clusters of test items that measure a common ability.
General Intelligence: (g) a factor that underlies various clusters and specific mental abilities. There is one general
intelligence for many things.
Multiple Intelligences: Developed by Howard Gardner. The belief that there must be different forms of intelligence.
Gardner believed there were 8 different intelligences:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Linguistic
Logical Mathematical
Naturalist
Spatial
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Musical
InterPersonal
IntraPersonal
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Multiple Intelligences:
1. Analytical Intelligence: intelligence tests, well defined problems with single right answer (facts, info)
2. Creative Intelligence: reacting adaptively to novel situations, generating novel ideas
3. Practical Intelligence: everyday tasks with multiple answers.
Emotional Intelligence: ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
4 Components to the Emotional Intelligence Test:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ability to Perceive Emotion
Ability to Understand Emotion
Ability to Manage Emotion
Ability to Use Emotion
Studies have shown that those that score high on managing emotions generally have higher quality interactions
with friends of both sexes (Lopes 2004)
Studies have shown that those that score high on managing emotions generally have better job performance
(Van Rooy & Vis Wesveran 2004)
Intelligence and Creativity
223
Creativity: The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. Different way of thinking, not just extreme
intelligence)
Convergent Though: Closing in on the single right answer. Knocked out by damage to left parietal lobe
Divergent Thought: Imagining multiple possible answers. Deficits by damage to the frontal lobe
5 Components of Creativity:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Expertise- well developed base of knowledge
Imaginative thinking skills- ability to detect patterns, connections, see new ideas
Venturesome Personality- tolerant of ambiguity and risk
Intrinsic Motivation- motivated by challenge, satisfaction of job, rather than external forces
Creative Environment- surrounded by colleagues who mentor, challenge and support them
Correlation Between Intelligence and Brain Size
Post Mortem studies have shown that highly educated people have 17% more synapses, but doesn’t imply
causation.
Haier (2004): Higher IQ correlated with more gray matter in areas involved in memory, attention and language
Correlation Between Intelligence and Speed
Processing speed correlated with IQ score
Highly Intelligent= quicker brain waves to stimuli, performing simple tasks
Alfred Binet: Commissioned by French government to create first intelligence test. Had test cover many domains
because intelligence manifests in many domains. Concluded that intellectual development was same for all kids, but
faster in some than others.
Bright=perform as typical older child
Dull=perform as typical younger child
Mental Age: The chronological age typical of a given level of performance (avg. 10 year old will have a mental
age of 10)
Intelligence Quotient (IQ): Developed by German psychologist William Stern (Avg IQ score is 100)
IQ= [(Mental Age) / (Chronological Age)] (100)
Lewis Terman: used Binet’s test as a measure of innate intelligence. Revised questions in IQ Test. The Revision was
called the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. He was an advocator for Eugenics. With Terman’s help the United States
began to evaluate and limit Immigrants coming into the country.
224
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): Most commonly used intelligence test today. Has 14 Subsets. Noticeable
differences between scores may indicate learning disabilities or brain disorders.
IQ Test Construction
3 Criteria for a psychological test to be widely accepted: 1)Standardized. 2)Reliable. 3)Valid
Standardization: Defining meaningful scores relative to pretested groups. Typically creates a normal
distribution/normal curve/bell curve
Flynn Effect: global improvements on intelligence scores over past 100 years documented in 20 countries
around the world.
Reliability: How consistent are results of test?
Test Retest Reliability: Does the person score about the same when repeating the test?
Split Half Reliability: When the test is split in two, does the person score about the same on both halves?
Validity: Does the test measure what it is supposed to measure?
Criterion Validity: does the test agree with some other criterion (independent measure) of performance?
Higher IQ Associated With: Higher GPA, Higher prestige jobs, More likely to have stable marriages
Extremes of Intelligence:
-
92% of people have an IQ score that falls between (+/-) 2 Standard deviations of the average IQ
IQ scores higher than 2 standard deviations is considered gifted, lower than 2 standard deviations is considered
mental retardation
Mental Retardation-
Main 3 criteria for mental retardation is an IQ of 70 or below, present since childhood, and
significant limitations in everyday life
Prevalence rate of mental retardation is 4-7 million people in America and is more common in males
Retardation does not mean an inability to learn, mentally retarded people can have islands of
excellence in which they perform very well
Ex- savants, Williams's syndrome
William's Syndrome- is a combination of mental retardation and island of excellence. They often
have large vocabularies and detailed knowledge of facts that may be explained by an abnormal
thickening of the cortical area of the brain.
Causes of Mental Retardation: Common examples-
225
-
Genetic causes- down syndrome= the most common type, autism, fragile X syndrome caused by a
repeating piece of DNA on the X chromosome
Environmental causes- problems before, during, or after birth
The GiftedPeople with IQ scores of at least 135 but more commonly 150 or higher
Causes are unclear but possibly biological, gifted males have less testosterone and gifted females
have more
- Problems- Gifted people seem to be "In a different world" because they are socially awkward and
socially introverted particularly when in indifferent environments. Being gifted is correlated with
perfectionism like creating standards for oneself that cannot be achieved. As well as
underachievement because of self-sabotage, boredom and social motivations to fit in.
- Good News- Gifted people have high reasoning abilities, are creative, curious, have high
vocabularies and good memories. They are independent thinkers and question authority.
Causes of Gifted people- ?
-
-
Studies show some causes may be genetic and some maybe environmental.
Ex- Twins raised apart have similar IQ scores.
Ex- Early intervention and education seems to produce higher IQ scores
What are possible environmental factors that cause the difference in IQs?:
1. All races are remarkably similar genetically
2. Race is not neatly defined, it is a social construct
3. Asian students out perform N. American students on math tests but… they spend 30 % more time in
school and more time studying. Competence vs. conscientiousness
4. Size of the Flynn effect- the gap between 30's scores and today's scores is equal to the gap between
average black and white IQ scores
5. Black and white infants both score well on infant intelligence tests
6. Different races have experienced golden ages at different points in time
7. Different backgrounds have different comfort with testing
8. Socio-economic status- family income, parental education level, parental occupation, social status of the
community
9. Bias in testing- Cultural knowledge is seem as intelligence and validity
10. Stereotype Threat- people expected to see results because of beliefs commonly held about a group and
its individual members
Studies:
Steele + Aronson (1993)- cultural stereotypes "in the air" may affect performance
IV- Black/White participants completed items from the verbal GRE and told/not told it was diagnostic
226
DV- number of correct items
Results- Not told races do the same, Told whites did better and blacks who were told did worse
Spencer, Steele, Quinn (1999)IV- men/ woman complete math test that produces/ doesn't produce a gender difference
DV- proformance
Stone, Perry, Darley (1997)- The white man can't jump study
IV- listened to and rated the performance of a basketball player that was either black/white (actually was the
same player)
DV- what they rated the player on his performance in the game
Stone et al (1999)IV- Black/ White participants played a laboratory golf course and told the test was on ability/ sports psychology/
or nothing for control
DV- Strokes needed to complete the course
Results- Not told races do the same, Told whites did better and blacks who were told did worse
227
Maddie Reckart & Amanda Johnson
return to Table of Contents
Unit 12: Psychological Disorders
Characteristics of Psychological Disorders (will be referred to as P.D.’s)
- Deviant = violation of group norms
- Distressful = discontent with life
o Sometimes people aren’t good judges of their own behavior though…
- Dysfunctional = disruption of everyday functioning
Explanations of P.D.’s
- Hippocrates’ four humors
- Ancient Egypt
o Had first psychiatric text, mental hospital, and mental physicians
- Middle Ages
o Witches!
 Malleus Maleficarum = hand book to diagnose witches
o Evil Spirits
 Trepanation = drilling holes in skull to allow spirits to escape
 Exorcisms
- Advent of Asylums
o Offer shelter and support but had poor living conditions
- Medical Model = physical causes for mental disorders, but doesn’t look at environment
Biopsychosocial Approach – modern approach (nature AND nurture)
- Classifying P.D.’s
o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – IV)
 5 Axes
 Axis 1: Clinical Syndrome
 Axis 2: Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation
 Axis 3: General Medical Disorders
 Axis 4: Psychosocial Environmental Problems
 Axis 5: Global Assessment of Functioning (scale from 1 – 100)
 Profile/portrait of patient
 Pros
 Standardized diagnosis and treatment
 Fairly reliable
 Cons
 Diagnostic criteria includes everyday behaviors
o Where do you draw the line?
 Labeling more disorders = more mental illness
Labeling Psychological Disorders
- Top-down processing
o Rosenhan (1973): 8 psychologically healthy people admitted to mental hospitals
o Labels create stereotype of violence
 but people with P.D.’s are more likely to be victims than perpetrators
Anxiety
- State of fear with apprehension, tension, and dread
o Behavioral Response: Avoid feared situation, impaired speech/motor functioning
228
o Physiological Response: increased heart and breathing rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension
Anxiety Disorders
o characterized by distressing, persisted anxiety, or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
 most common class of disorders
o General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
 Persistent state of tension, apprehension, diffuse anxiety
 Continually waiting for something bad to happen
 Secondary Anxiety: Fear of repercussions of disorder
 Affects all ages but 2/3 are women
o Panic Disorder
 Panic attacks = sudden unpredictable periods of intense fear and perceived inescapable
doom
 Cued vs. Uncued
o Cued = in response to seeing a trigger
o Uncued = not connected to a grigger
 Panic Disorder = recurrent and uncued panic attacks followed by psychological and
behavioral problems
 Causes
o excess of norepinephrine
 overstimulation of locus ceruleus (norepinephrine center in
brainstem)
o suffocation false alarm hypothesis
 hypersensitivity of CNS monitor for CO2
o Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia
 Agoraphobia = fear of inescapable situations where help may not be available
 Fear of anxiety itself
 Stay close to home, only leave with companions, etc.
o Comforted by being with others
 Appears in early adulthood and most common in women
 Panic attacks CAN cause agoraphobia, but are NOT a prerequisite
Phobias = intense, persistent fear of an object/situation and avoidance of that stimulus
- Symptoms: escalated heart rate, sweating, shaking, cued panic attacks
- Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
o Fear of social disapproval
 Avoid certain actions for fear of embarrassment or humiliation
 Comforted by avoiding others
o Symptoms: avoid social situations, low self-esteem, perfectionist self-standards
o 2x as common among women
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
- uncontrollable repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or behaviors (compulsions)
o compulsions often defensive responses to obsessions
o 2 common types of compulsions
 cleaning rituals
 checking rituals
- Men and women at equal risk
- Causes
o hyperactivity in anterior cingulated cortex
 brain region that monitors our actions and checks for mistakes
-
229
o Seratonin deficits in OCD patients
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, insomnia, numbness to surroundings
o caused by event involving actual/threatened death or serious injury to oneself or others
o incubation period: symptom-free after event, then onset later
- Typical traumatic event = war
o being closer to the traumatic event increases risk of PTSD
o more common among certain professions (e.g. military emergency responders)
- Women 2x as likely as men to have PTSD
- Cause: low cortisol = predisposition for PTSD
Explaining Anxiety Disorders
- Learning Perspective = fear conditioning
o avoiding social situations reinforces social phobia (ex. washing hands reinforces washing
compulsion)
- Biological Perspective
o Biological Preparedness: Those with the anxieties were the ones to survive
o Genetics
 predisposition for anxious reactions
 afflicted identical twins have a higher chance of own anxiety
Mood Disorders: marked by emotional extremes
- Mood = relatively lasting affective state; like an emotion, but less specific and intense, more permanent
- Major Depressive Disorder
o 5+ symptoms for 2+ weeks (depressive episode) of low mood, feelings of worthlessness and
diminished interest in most activities
o Most common P.D.
o Women = 2 – 3x as likely to experience depression in US
o Causes
 too little serotonin, norepinephrine, and omega 3
 low levels of brain activity
o Nolen-Hoeksema (1991): men distract themselves when depressed, women ruminate when
depressed
 Rumination prolongs depression
 Distraction relieves it
- Dysthymia = depressed mood and 2 other symptoms for two years
- Seasonal Affective Disorder
o depressive symptoms that arise only in the winter
o believed to be due to less light exposure (lag in circadian rhythm)
 light therapy - 75% improvement
- Suicide
o 1 million people worldwide/year; 8 attempts for every 2 successes
o 3x as more female suicide attempts than mal
 BUT 3x as more men than women are successful
o Depressed people = 5x more likely to attempt suicide
 55% of successes were previously depressed
- Bipolar Disorder
o extremely euphoric mood, hyper activity, high energy levels
 racing thoughts, short attention span, grandiosity, irritability, etc.
o too much norepinephrine; hyperactivity of brain
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o
o
o
o
Manic Episode = most of the day, every day for at least a week
Bipolar I – 1+ manic episodes
Bipolar II – cycling between mania and major depressive disorder
Cyclothymia – manic and depressive episodes that don’t meet standards
 more subtle cycling of moods
o Bipolar NOS – Not otherwise specified
 catch-all diagnosis
Causes of Mood Disorders
- Psychological influences
o self-defeating beliefs
 Depression – blame is internal
o Successful coping:
 external – I failed because my teacher is dumb.
 temporary – I’ll do better next time.
 specific – Maybe this subject isn’t my thing.
- Social and Cultural influences
o cultural expectations
o negative/traumatic events
Schizophrenia = marked by severe distortions of thoughts, perceptions, mood and bizarre behavior
- Psychoses = contact with reality is impaired, disrupting everyday life
- Universal impact: worldwide; men and women (though men afflicted earlier, more severely, and slightly
more often)
- Symptoms:
o Disorganized/Distorted Thinking and Language
 delusions = firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality
 do not abandon delusions in face of disconfirming evidence
 word salad = jumping from one idea to the next
 clanging = pairing of words because they rhyme or sound alike
 poverty of content
 neologisms = creating new words by combining 2+ regular words
o Disturbed Perceptions
 breakdown of selective attention
 hallucinations = sensory experiences without sensory stimulation
 auditory hallucinations are the most common
 not just perceptual but reality monitoring problem
o PET scans find activity in language production parts of brain while having
auditory hallucinations
o Inappropriate Emotions and Behaviors
 emotional reactions inappropriate to situation
 reduced emotional responsiveness
 blunted affect = showing little emotion
 flat affect = showing no emotion at all
 disordered motor behavior
- Dimensions of Schizophrenia
o Acute = rapid development, often in response to stress
 recovery fairly likely
o Chronic = more gradual onset, slow development
 recovery doubtful
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o Positive vs. Negative Symptoms
Possible Causes of Schizophrenia
o Genetic predisposition exists, but is not sufficient to develop schizophrenia
o Brain abnormalities
 dopamine hypothesis = 6x as many dopamine receptors as necessary
 intensified brain signals –> positive symptoms
 Tissue loss in the cortex and thalamus
 connection to Parkinson’s disease
o Psychological Factors
 Risk Factors: low birth weight, oxygen deprivation at birth, conception during famine,
and viral infection during pregnancy
Dissociative Identity Disorder (a.k.a. Multiple Personality Disorder)
- exhibition of 2+ distinct and alternating personalities (alters)
o distinct histories, names, self-images, mannerisms, ways of speaking
o Average = 10 alters (up to 100+)
- typically no memory of what happened when other alters were in control
- Causes: childhood trauma/abuse
o dissociation = splitting of the self; allows a person to escape memory
- Psychologists still divided over whether DID actually exists or not
Personality Disorders
- Antisocial Personality Disorder = lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward close others
o predominantly male disorder
o Potential Causes:
 Biology
 diminished autonomic NS activity –> fearless approach to life
 less frontal lobe tissue than normal
 Biopsychosocially
 Risk Factors: childhood poverty and obstetrical complications
- Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
o emotional instability in relationships, self-image, and behavior
o most difficult disorder to treat (instability in client-therapist relationship)
o typical onset during adolescence and early 20’s
-
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Demi Zipperian & Kevin Luke
return to Table of Contents
Unit 12: Psychological Disorders
What is a psychological Disorder?
It is defined as: Deviant, distressful and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors.
(Remember the 3 D’s and remember they ALL must be present for it to be considered a psychological disorder)
Deviant- Does the behavior violate group norms?
Norms- The rules in society that define “right” and “wrong”.
One example of deviance is statistical rarity. (i.e. Gifted/mentally retarded people)
Distressful- Is the person content with their life.
Common rule of thumb: No distress: No disorder.
Do the behaviors in question disrupt everyday functioning?
Explaining Psychological Disorders
Ancients Societies -Supernatural vs. Natural
Remember Hippocrates? –Mental illness due to natural causes.
Ancient Egypt - First society to take care of mentally I’ll and first known psychiatric text.
Medieval Europe – Witchcraft? Malleus Maleficarum and the genocide of many women.
Evil Spirits – Demonic possession
Led to drilling holes in skulls and performing Exorcisms
Asylums – Institutions offering shelter and support for mentally ill.
1800’s – we have a Medical Model for explaining mental disorders.
The Biopsychosocial Approach
Using “Bio” “Psyche” and “Social” characteristics to explain mental disease.
DSM (IV) –Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders
Axis 1 –Clinical symptom
Axis 2 –Personality disorders/Mental retardation
Axis 3 – Generic medical disorders.
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Axis 4- Psychological/environmental problems.
Axis 5 – Global assessment of well doing (1-100 rated scale)
Pros: Paints a portrait of a patient, Standardized diagnosis and treatment, Reliable
Cons: Where is the line for diagnosis, continually more disorders, promotes labeling.
Labeling Psychological Disorders
Labels = Top down processing, and create expectations.
Remember Rosenhan – tricked 7 hospitals into admitting and treating 7 psychologically stable people,
large eye opener. How well does the system work?
Anxiety
State of fear, with tension dread, apprehension usually of something in the future.
Physiological – (muscle tension, increased heart rate, breathing, dizziness)
Behavioral – (feared situations, impaired speech)
Anxiety Disorders
-Psychological disorder characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that
reduce anxiety.
-Most common class of disorder – 18% of Americans- 42 billion dollars into treating each year.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
-Persistent state of tension, anxiety, apprehension
Symptoms: jittering, restlessness, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, irritability, along with constant
increased heart rate, muscle tension, listlessness due to insomnia.
-Often people experience secondary anxiety – anxieties about anxieties.
- Present in all ages, developed early childhood, 2/3 of GAD are female.
Panic Disorder
-the state of recurring Panic Attacks in which sudden unpredictable periods of intense fear take over
causing extreme physiological responses (5-10 min).
- feel disconnected from reality
-Attacks can be either cued by some stimulus or uncued.
Agoraphobia
-Fear of the “marketplace”, but essentially fear of public situations where help may not be available.
-often people become reclusive
234
-DSM-IV – relates Agoraphobia as a complication of PD.
-More common in women, and it is often seen cross culture, however different panic fears or elements
are present in different cultures.
Phobias
-Intense persistent fear of an object, situation and avoidance of that stimulus.
-Symptoms similar to any anxiety disorder.
Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
-avoid embarrassment or humiliation from social situations
-similar means of dealing as Agoraphobia, however different causes
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
-Anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and behaviors.
-No conscious desire, yet uncontrollable
-Most commonly obsessed with: Germs/dirt, something terrible happening, order/symmetry
-Common compulsions: hand washing, checking rituals
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
-Constant stress following a seriously traumatic event.
-Most environmental of disorders
-Often a traumatic or near death event will be the catalyst.
Explaining Anxiety Disorders
Learning Perspective- fear conditioning. (little Albert)
Biological Perspective – Naturally fear is a useful thing. (heights, dark)
Genetics –predispositions for anxious reactions, same in monkeys.
What’s going on in the Brain when we are anxious?
PD, GAD, and Agoraphobia – Biologically can be explained due to an excess of the neurotransmitter
Norepinephrine.
OCD – Often excessive activity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, the part of the brain that monitors
our actions, checks for instances, etc. SSRI’s inhibit OCD symptoms.
PTSD- mostly environmental however, during anxious spurts Norepinephrine tend to rise.
235
Mood Disorders
Mood: relatively lasting affective state- like an emotion, but less specific, less intense, and more long lasting
Mood Disorders: Psychological Disorder marked by emotional extremes
Major Depressive Disorder
Depressive episode: characterized by at least 2 weeks of low mood, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished
in most activities
Dysthymia: depressed mood and two other symptoms for 2 years
Risk Factors for recurrence of MDD: greater number of previous episodes, younger age at first episode, more
painful recent events, less family support, more negative cognitions
Median # of episodes: 4
Median length of episode: 4.5 months
Rumination prolongs depression. Distraction relieves depression.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): mood disorder marked by depressive symptoms that arise only in the
winter; believed to be due to less light exposure
-lag in circadian rhythm causes experience of typical nighttime slow down during the day
Can be cured by Light Therapy: exposure to bright artificial light for several hours a day
Suicide: three times more female suicide attempts, three times more male successes
-lifetime risk of suicide attempts rise among mood disorder patients
Bipolar Disorder
Mania: medical condition characterized by extremely euphoric mood, hyperactivity, high energy levels
-racing thoughts, short attention span, irritability, etc.
Manic Episode: most of the day, nearly every day, for one week or longer
4 Types of Bipolar Disorder
1. Bipolar 1: one or more manic episodes
2. Bipolar 2:cycling between mania and major depressive disorder
3. Cyclothymia: manic and depressive episodes that do not meet DSM criteria, more subtle cycling mood
that still disrupts functioning
4. Bipolar NOS- Not Otherwise Specifies (catch all diagnosis)
Why do mood disorders happen?
Biological Influences:
Genes- mood disorders run in families, relations in mood disorders between identical twins
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The brain:
2 main neurotransmitter imbalances
1. Depression: too little serotonin
2. Norepinephrine: flight or flight response; boosts arousal mood
-depression: too low
-mania: too high
Low levels of brain activity in depression; hyperactivity in mania
Omega- 3 fatty acid: enhances brain functioning, low levels of omega-3 in depression
Psychological Influences:
Self defeating beliefs: negative assumptions about self present, future
Explanatory Style: Whom or what do we blame when things don’t go well?
Social- Cultural Influences:
Cultural expectations, traumatic or negative events
Psychoses:
-class of
psychological disorders in which contact with reality is impaired, disrupting everyday life
Schizophrenia: a group of psychotic disorders marked by severe distortion of thoughts, perceptions, mood, and
bizarre behavior
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
1. Disorganized/distorted thought and language
-Delusions: firmly held beliefs with no basis in reality
Common delusion: though tampering
-Word Salad: jumping from one idea to the next, sometimes within sentences
-Clanging: pairing of words that have no relation of one another beyond the fact that they rhyme or
sound alike
-Poverty of content: using many words, all grammatically correct, but conveying very little
-Neologisms: creating new words by combing two or more regular words in new ways
2. Disturbed Perceptions
Breakdown of selective attention causes odd associations, bizarre speech, etc.
Hallucinations: sensory experiences without sensory stimulation
3. Inappropriate emotions and behaviors
-Emotional reactions inappropriate to situation
-reduced emotional responsiveness
Flat Affect: showing no emotion at all
Blunted Affect: showing little emotion
-disordered motor behavior
Acute vs. Chronic schizophrenia
237
Acute: rapid development, often in response to stress; recovery fairly likely
Chronic: more gradual onset, slow development; recovery doubtful
Positive vs. Negative symptoms
Positive: presence of inappropriate behaviors
Negative: absence of appropriate behaviors
Where does Schizophrenia come from?
Genetic: evidence for genetic contribution across cultures
Genetic predisposition exists, but is not sufficient to develop schizophrenia.
Brain abnormalities:
-Dopamine hypothesis: six times as many dopamine receptors as necessary in schizophrenic, intensified brain
signals cause positive symptoms (see above).
-a shrinking brain: tissue loss in cortex and thalamus
Psychosocial Factors:
-low birth weight, oxygen deprivation at birth, viral infection during pregnancy
Personality Disorder
-marked by inflexible, long-lasting behaviors that impair social functioning
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): disorder in which person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating
personalities
Alters: histories, names, self-images, mannerisms, ways of speaking
Dissociation: splitting of the self
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD): personality disorder marked by lack of conscience for wrongdoing,
even toward close others
Potential Causes:
Biology: fearless approach to life- diminished autonomic nervous system activity
Biopsychosocial approach: people exposed to biological and social risk factors were more likely to have APD
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD): marked by emotional instability
Symptoms of BPD:
-Efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
-unstable, intense relationships (idealization vs. devaluation)
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-unstoppable identity, sense of self
-self damaging impulsivity
-suicidal, self-destructive behaviors
-instability of mood
-feelings of worthlessness, emptiness
-difficulty controlling anger
-paranoia, delusions, dissociation
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Dani Fisk & LaRay Graner
return to Table of Contents
Unit 12: Psychological disorders
Psychological disorders are characterized by deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thought,
feelings, and behaviors.
Perception of Psychological disorders through time
Past
Hippocrates:
mental illness
caused by
natural causes
Present Day
Ancient Egypt:
1st mental ward
and psychiatric
text.
Asylums created
Return to a more
humane
treatment of the
mentally ill.
Evil Spirits?
Trepanation: drilling
holes in the skull to
allow evil spirits to
escape.
Better yet, exorcism.
America: Is it
witchcraft? Malleus
Maleficarum (witch
hunting manual)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV): bible for clinical disorders
Axis 1: clinical syndrome
Axis 2: personality and/or mental disorders, retardation, childhood disorders that accompany and/or
contribute towards axis 1
Axis 3: general medical disorders
Axis 4: environmental problems
Axis 5: global assessment of functioning on a scale of 1-100.
Pros and Cons or the DSM
Pros
Cons
Standardized diagnosis
Not everyone fits 1 category
Reliable
Diagnostic criteria includes everyday
behavior. At what point does it become a
disorder?
Standardized treatment
More disorders=more people that fall into
240
mental category
The labeling problem
Anxiety:
State of fear including tension, dread, behavioral responses, and physiological responses
Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
Persistent state of anxiety
Symptoms:
Behavioral: jittery, restless
Psychological: difficulty concentrating, irritable
Physical: high heart rate, muscles tight, easily tired
Secondary Anxiety: anxiety about anxiety
Groups at risk:
2/3 female
Panic Disorder:
Anxiety disorder marked by uncued panic attacks
Panic Attacks: sudden spells of intense fear, perceived doom.
Agoraphobia:
Fear of inescapable situations when a panic attack may occur and help is not readily at hand
Groups at Risk:
¾ women
Typically appears during early adulthood
Phobias:
Intense persistent fear of an object/situation and an avoidance of that stimulus
Social Phobia (social anxiety disorder):
Avoidance of certain actions in front of public for fear of embarrassment
Social phobia is not one specific phobia because it is more pervasive and more life impairing
Symptoms:
Behavioral:
Avoiding of social situations, restricted behavior
Psychological:
low self-esteem, perfectionist standards
Groups at risk:
Adolescents for specific phobias
Social phobia is an even distribution of men/women
OCD:
Anxiety disorder characterized by a repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or behaviors (compulsions)
Common compulsions:
1. Washing hands
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2. Checking rituals
Groups at risk:
Men more rituals, women more cleaning
1.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
a. “incubation period”
i. Symptom free for days or weeks before PTSD onset
b. Events that cause PTSD
i. War, combat
1. combat exposure makes PTSD 2x as likely
2. civilian exposure to combat counts too (ex. Living near the World Trade Centers
during 9/11)
2. Causes for Anxiety Disorders
a. May just be fear conditioning; learning to be afraid
b. May stem from biological preparedness (avoid life threatening situations)
c. The Brain’s role
i. Hyperactivity in the anterior cingulated (monitors actions checking for mistakes)
cortex in those with OCD
ii. Excess of norepinephrine in those with Panic Disorder
iii. PTSD increased levels of norepinephrine and low cortisol leads to a better memory  hard
to forget traumatic event
3. Mood Disorders
a. What is mood?
i. Relatively lasting affective state; like an emotion but less specific, less intense and longer
lasting
b. Major Dpressive Disorder (MDD)
i. Characterized by at least 2 weeks of low mood, feelings of worthlessness and diminished
interest in most activities (depressive episode)
ii. 80% of MDD cases – first episode will not be the last
iii. Risk factors for recurrence
1. greater # of previous episodes
2. younger age @ first episode
3. painful events happening recently
4. low family support
5. negative cognitions
iv. average number of episodes – 4
1. average length of episode 4-5 months
v. 4% of men, 6% of men at risk in any month (17% over lifetime)
vi. 2nd only to schizophrenia in frequency of admission to mental hospitals
vii. Found in all cultures
c. Seasonal Affective Disorder (Winter Depression)
i. Depression brought on by low light levels during the winter months
d. Suicide
i. ~1 million people worldwide every year
1. difficult to truly estimate (15% of fatal car accidents might be suicides)
ii. females attempt 3x as often as men
1. men “succeed” 3x as often as women
iii. Suicide & Mental Health
242
1. among mood disorder patients = 19%
a. depression  5x more likely to attempt
b. 55% of successful suicides were depressed
e. Bipolar Disorder (formerly manic depression)
i. Mood disorders marked by episodes of mania
1. mania: medical condition characterized by extremely euphoric mood, hyperactivity
and high energy levels, racing thoughts, short attention span, grandiosity, irritability
etc.
ii. Bipolar I
1. one or more manic episodes
iii. Bipolar II
1. cycling between mania and major depressive disorder
iv. Cyclothymia
1. more subtle form of Bipolar II, but still disrupts functioning
v. Bipolar NOS
1. NOS – not otherwise specified
2. Catch-all diagnosis for patients presenting Bipolar-esque symptoms
4. Why do mood disorders happen?
a. The Brain
i. 2 key neurotransmitter imbalances in depressed people
1. too little serotonin and norepinephrine
2. high amounts of norepinephrine in those with mania
b. Psychological influences
i. Self-defeating beliefs
ii. Explanatory styles that blame themselves for negative events and blame any future events on
themselves as well
5. Schizophrenia
a. 3 classes of symptoms
i. Distorted Thinking and Language
1. delusions – beliefs that have no root in reality
2. poverty of content – words that sound good but don’t mean anything
3. word salad – jumping from one idea to another in rapid succession
4. clanging – saying words just because they rhyme or sound alike
5. neologisms – creating new words by combining two or more regular words; using
common words in new ways
ii. Disturbed Perceptions
1. hallucinations – sensory experiences w/o sensory stimulation
a. can be any sense but 70% are auditory
i. 2 or more voices having a conversation or a running commentary of
the patients actions/thoughts/behaviors
ii. Reality monitoring problem as well; many patients believe the
hallucinations are real
iii. Inappropriate Emotions and Behaviors
1. emotional reactions that are inappropriate to the situation (laughing at a funeral,
crying at a funny movie etc.)
2. reduced emotional responsiveness
a. blunted affect: showing little emotion
b. flat affect: showing no emotion at all
b. Dimensions of Schizophrenia
243
i. Acute: rapid development in response to stress
1. recovery is fairly likely
ii. Chronic: gradual onset, slow development
1. recovery doubtful
iii. Positive symptoms
1. presence of inappropriate behaviors
a. hallucinations, word salad etc.
iv. Negative symptoms
1. absence of appropriate behaviors
a. flat affect, toneless voice etc.
c. Where does Schizophrenia come from?
i. Brain abnormalities
1. 6x as many dopamine receptors as necessary  intensified brain signals  positive
symptoms (hallucinations)
ii. Psychosocial Factors
1. low birth weight, oxygen deprivation at birth, other problems at birth/during
pregnancy
6. Dissociative Identity Disorder
a. Disorder in which person exhibits 2 or more distinct and alternating personalities called alters
i. Alters have distinct histories, names, self-images, mannerisms, ways of speaking etc.
b. Average 10 alters (up to 100 or more in some cases?)
c. Possible Cause
i. Dissociation (splitting of self) to escape painful memory?
7. Personality Disorders
a. Marked by inflexible, long-lasting behaviors that impair social functioning
b. Antisocial Personality Disorder
i. Marked by lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward those close to them
1. superficial charm, lying, stealing, aggressive, criminal activity etc.
2. predominately male (3% of all males, 1% of all females)
ii. Potential Causes
1. Biology
a. Diminished activity in the amygdala and frontal lobe
2. Other risk factors
a. Born in poverty, premature birth weight etc.
c. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
i. Marked by extreme emotional instability in:
1. relationships
2. self-image
3. behavior
ii. often considered most difficult to treat because of the instability of the relationship between
the client and the therapist
iii. DSM-IV Criteria (5 or more of the following symptoms)
1. efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
2. unstable intense relationships
3. unstable identity/sense of self
4. self-damaging impulsivity
5. suicidal, self-destructive behaviors
6. instability of mood
7. feelings of worthlessness/emptiness
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8. difficulty controlling anger
9. paranoia, delusions, dissociation
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Angela Della Croce & Lejla Prijic
return to Table of Contents
Unit 12: Psychological Disorders
-Important: not a clear distinction between mentally ill and mentally healthy
-A psychological disorder is deviant (violates societal norms), distressful (not happy with life), and dysfunctional
(disrupts everyday functioning).
Historical View of Mental Disorders
- Most ancient civilizations historically sided with natural/biological causes of mental illnesses over supernatural
causes.
- Hippocrates- 4 humors
- Ancient Egypt- first society to emphasize mental health. Had mental healthcare and first known mental
hospitals.
- Starting in the medieval ages, Europe and America perceived mental illnesses as supernatural i.e. witchcraft,
evil spirits, demonic possession
- Malleus Maleficarum- book that “proved” the existence of witches and how to find them.
- “treatment” for mental illness: trepanation (drilling hole(s) in skull to allow evil spirits to escape) and exorcisms
(forcing evil spirit out via torturing the body).
- Asylums: institutions offering shelter and support to mentally ill. Initially had poor living conditions and were
more storage places than hospitals.
- By 1800s there was a return to a more humane treatment of mentally ill. Saw mental illness as having a
physical cause (The Medical Model).
- Most modern approach to mental illness: biopsychosocial approach- interaction between genes, physiology,
and environment
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Classifying Psychological Disorders
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)- bible for classifying mental illnesses. It yields
the entire list of known mental disorders and the criteria to diagnose it. All psychologists use it.
- 5 axes of diagnosis
- Axis 1- clinical syndrome/diagnostic label of psychological problem
- Axis 2- personality disorders/mental retardation
- Axis 3- other medical problems
- Axis 4- any environmental complications
- Axis 5- global assessment of functioning on scale from 1-100. Higher number = more stable
Anxiety
- State of fear, including apprehension, increased heart rate, tension, etc
Anxiety Disorders
- Most common class of disorders. Characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
- persistent state of anxiety; continually waiting for something bad to happen.
- symptoms: restlessness, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, secondary anxiety
Panic Disorder
- marked by reoccurring, uncued panic attacks
- panic attack: sudden, unpredictable, short periods of intense fear and perceived doom.
- symptoms: panic attacks, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, derealization and depersonalization
(disconnection from world and self), exhaustion after panic attack
- caused by excess norepinephrine and a too-sensitive brain to CO2 levels
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- agoraphobia: fear of future attacks in public where help may not be available. These people stay close to
home. It’s often a complication of panic disorder but could also be its own disorder.
Phobias
- Intense, persistent fear of an object or situation and avoidance of that stimulus
- Symptoms: increased heart rate, sweating, shaking, cued panic attacks
- Social phobia: avoid public situations for fear of humiliation. Marked by low self-esteem, perfectionism,
restricted behaviors, anxiety.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
- Characterized by unwanted reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and/or behaviors (compulsions).
- Does the behavior to suppress the anxiety temporarily.
- 2 common types of compulsions: cleaning and checking rituals
- Caused by hyperactivity in anterior cingulate cortex and low serotonin
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Result of a traumatic event i.e. war, death, abuse
- Has an incubation period after the traumatic event.
- More exposure and/or closer to traumatic event = more likely to get PTSD
- Symptoms: haunting memories, nightmares, withdrawal, insomnia
- Caused by high norepinephrine and low cortisol
Mood Disorders
Major Depressive Disorder
-2 weeks of low mood= depressive episode
-longer than 2 years= dysthymia
-response to past, current losses
-women 2-3 times more likely to experience depressing
248
Seasonal Affective Disorder
-depression during winter
-due to less light exposure
-treated by light therapy
Suicide- 55% or successful suicides were previously depressed
Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar 1- 1 or more manic episodes
Mania- hyperactivity, high energy levels for most of day
Bipolar 2- cycling between mania and MDD
Cyclothmia- manic and depressive episodes that do not meet DSM criteria
Bipolar NOS- not otherwise specified/catch all diagnosis
Biological Influences
MDD- 2 key neurotransmitter imbalances
Too low seratonin and norepinephrine
Low levels of brain activity
Low levels of omega 3
Bipolar- too much norepinephrine
Brain hyperactivity
Psychological influences
Self defeating beliefs
Negative assumptions
Depression
Interval- failed test because not smart enough
Stable- stupid for the rest of life
Global- not smart enough for anything
Schizophrenia Symptoms
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1) Disorganized/distorted thinking and language
-delusions, word salad, clanging, poverty of content, neologisms
2) disturbed perceptions
-hallucinations
3) inappropriate emotions/behaviors
Blunted affect
Flat affect
Acute vs Chronic Schizophrenia
Brain abnormalities
Dopamine hypothesis- 6 times as many dopamine receptors
Shrinking brain
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Multiple personality disorder
Do they exist?
Yes- shifting visual acuity and eye muscle balance
Distinct brain states for different personalities
No- 2 cases a decade then boom
Anti- Social Personality Disorder
Lack of conscience
Fearless approach to life
Serial killers
Borderline Personality Disorder
Unstable relationships, self image, and behavior
Back and forth of extremes
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Brendan Vos & Ryder Wilson
return to Table of Contents
Unit 12: Psychological Disorders
Psychological disorder:
Criteria 1: Deviant- Atypical of social norms
Criteria 2: Distressful- Causes distress
Criteria 3: Dysfunctional- Impairs everyday life
Explaining Psychological Disorders: Ancient Societies
Hippocrates (460-360 BC): An imbalance in the Humours causes physical/psychological manifestations.
Trepanation: Drill into skull to let out the evil spirits.
Exorcisms: Expel evil spirits by making the host uninhabitable. (Pain, near death, torture, ect)
DSM-IV:
5 axes of the DSM-IV
Axis 1: Primary Symptom (Reason they are seeking help)
Axis 2: Mental Retardation/Personality Disorders (Pre-existing conditions)
Axis 3: General Medical Disorders (Pre-existing conditions)
Axis 4: Psychosocial/environmental problems (Problems with external aspects of life)
Axis 5: Functioning rating (How well this person is functioning from 0-100)
Anxiety disorders:
1.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Constant generalized anxiety with no trigger.
Symptoms: Worry, muscular tension, agitation, sleeplessness
Groups at risk: Women are twice as prone to G.A.D. as men.
Panic Disorder (PD): Recurrent Un-cued panic attacks
2.
Panic attack: An episode of immense fear of imminent doom.
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Cued vs. Un-cued panic attacks: Response to stimuli vs. unprovoked fear
3.
Agoraphobia: Fear of open spaces (not having help if/when having a panic attack in public)
4. Phobias: Focused anxiety towards a specific situation/thing.
Social phobia (a.k.a. Social Anxiety Disorder): intense fear of being judged by others
Symptoms:
Behavioral: Avoiding social situations
Physical: Sweating, trembling, and diarrhea when speaking publicly etc.
5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
3 most common obsessions:
1. Concerns with germs
2. Fear of terrible things
3. Exactness/order
3 most common compulsions:
1. Checking
2. Cleaning
3. Repetitive rituals
6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Symptoms: Jumpiness, haunting memories/nightmares, social withdrawal, insomnia
What traumatizes us?
1. Combat (Long-term high stress situation, death of comrades)
2. Disasters (Death of a loved one or friend)
3. Sexual Assaults (2/3 of prostitutes report having had PTSD at some point in life)
Learning perspective: Conditioning=>patterns of thought, helplessness, ect
Biological perspective: Natural selection=>fears of things we should be afraid of.
1. Biological preparedness:
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2. Genetics- genetic predisposition to anxiety found in monkeys.
3a.The Brain (OCD) - Over activity in the anterior cingulate cortex.
3b. The Brain (PD) - Over production of Norepinephrine
Explanation 1: Oxygen Deprivation (Feeling of drowning)
Explanation 2: Too much norepinephrine. (fight-or flight)
3c. The Brain (PTSD) - Low cortisol (stress hormone) levels
Mood disorders: Emotional Extremes
Depressive episode: Period of constant depression (2 weeks +)
Diagnostic criteria for MDD (DSM-IV): 5 or more of the following symptoms for at least 2 weeks:
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Depressed mood
Diminished Interest in Activities
Significant Weight Loss or Gain
Insomnia or Hypersomnia
Slowed or Agitated movement
Fatigue or Loss of Energy
Feelings of Worthlessness
Indecisiveness
Recurrent Thoughts of Death
Dysthymia: Mild Depression over Long periods
MDD episode recurrence
Risk factors for recurrence: If you've had it before you're more likely to have another episode.
Median # of MDD episodes: 4
Depression & Gender: 2/3 cases are women
Depression & Age: Most common in late teens/early 20s
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Depression during winter (due to less sunlight/daytime hours)
Light therapy: Sit in front of a light to reset circadian rhythm
Suicide
Suicide & gender: More attempts among women, more success among men.
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Mania: a state of abnormally elevated or irritable mood, arousal, and/or energy levels
Manic episode: a manic episode is a period or instance of mania
4 Types of Bipolar Disorder:
1. BP 1- One or more manic episodes
2. BP 2- Cycles between manic episodes and Major Depressive Disorder
3. Cyclothymia- manic/depressive episodes that don't meet. (Period of normalcy in between)
4. BP NOS- Not otherwise Specified (So, kind-of Bi-polar)
Biological influences
Genes:
The Brain
2 key neurotransmitter imbalances in MDD:
1. Too little Serotonin
2. Too little Norepinephrine
Omega-3 fatty acids:
Psychological Influences
1. Improve mood
2. Deficiencies lead to depression and poor memory
Symptoms of Schizophrenia:
Psychoses: A loss of contact with reality
1. Disorganized/distorted thought and language
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Delusions: Beliefs that have no basis in reality
Common delusion: Thought Tampering
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Word salad: Hopelessly confused speech
 Clanging: Words with little or no logical connectivity
 Poverty of content: Overly wordy and grammatically correct, but lacks meaning
 Neologisms: Making up words by combining existing words
2. Disturbed perceptions
Hallucinations: Sensory input without stimulus
3. Inappropriate emotions and behaviors
Flat Emotions (Blank/ Emotionless)
Dimensions of Schizophrenia:
Acute vs. chronic schizophrenia
acute: Sudden onset of symptoms more easily treated
chronic: Slow development of symptoms but difficult to treat
Subtypes of Schizophrenia:
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Paranoid: Preoccupied with delusions and hallucinations
Disorganized: Disorganized speech and behavior/ Flat and inappropriate emotions
Catatonic: Immobility or Parrot-like repetition of
Undifferentiated: Many varied symptoms
Residual: Withdrawal after hallucinations have ended
Causes of Schizophrenia
Genetics:
Brain abnormalities
1. Dopamine hypothesis: 6x normal dopamine receptors
2. A shrinking brain
Psychosocial factors: Low birth weight or oxygen deprivation at birth
Personality Disorders
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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Alters: Distinct and Alternating personalities each having unique mannerisms, behaviors, and may be unaware of one another
Personality Disorders
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Avoidant PD- Social Discomfort, feelings of inadequacy
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Dependent PD- Clingy, submissive behavior; need to be cared for
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Histrionic PD- Excessive attention behavior; need to be cared for
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Narcissistic PD- Exaggerated sense of self-importance, need for admiration, lack of empathy
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Obsessive- Compulsive PD- Preoccupation with perfectionism, orderliness, and control
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Paranoid PD- Suspiciousness & distrust of others
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Schizoid PD- Detachment from social relationships, narrowed emotional range
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Schizotypal PD- Extreme discomfort in close relationships, odd behavior
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)
Potential causes of APD: Biology: Abnormally Small or Unresponsive Amygdala/stunted emotional responsiveness
Potential causes of APD: Biopsychosocial:
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
Symptoms of BPD: Emotional Instability, chaotic and unstable personal relationships
Potential causes of BPD: Childhood trauma/ Abuse, similar to PTSD
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Brandon Trappman & Solana Temple
return to Table of Contents
Unit 13: Treating Psychological Disabilities/Therapy
Biomedical therapy: prescribing medications, medical procedures that directly affect the nervous
Psychotherapy: an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone experiencing
psychological difficulties
-psychoanalysis: mental illness = result of unconscious impulses, conflicts
- based on Freudian theory
- resistance: blocking anxieties from conscious
- transference: re-focusing strong feelings toward others from early in life to the psychologist
Humanistic Therapy: emphasis on positive growth, reaching potential; “clients” not “patients”; Carl Rogers
- client-centered therapy: creating an accepting, open environment to promote client’s health; emphasis on
genuineness, accepting, and empathy
- active listening: empathetic listening technique used in client-centered therapy; psychologist as a psychological mirror
Behavioral Therapy: therapy techniques that use learning principles to eliminate unwanted behaviors
- classical conditioning techniques
- counterconditioning: behavior therapy that conditions new behaviors to stimuli that trigger disordered
behavior;
- e.g. exposure therapy )show someone a snake)
-operant conditioning techniques
- behavior can be shaped by introducing rewards and/or punishments
- e.g. token economies in mental hospitals, prisons
Cognitive Therapy: technique that teaches new, adaptive ways of thinking;
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- e.g. depressed people do not show the self serving basis
- assumptions: thoughts, explanatory style critical to maintaining the cycle of depression
- cognitive- behavioral therapy: combines both techniques to eliminate problematic thoughts and behavioral actions
4 types of Psychological Medications
1) Antipsychotic meds
- e.g. Thorazine, Clozapine
- reduce responsiveness to irrelevant info
- best for schizophrenia
- block dopamine receptor sites
2) Antianxiety meds
- e.g. Xanax, Valium
- depress CNS activity (GABA: inhibitory neurotransmitter)
- antidepressants also often used to treat anxiety disorders
3) Antidepressants
- e.g. Prozac, Zoloft
- increase amount of serotonin, norepinephrine (e.g. SSRIs)
- often used in conjunction with psychotherapy
4) Mood-stabilizers
- e.g. Lithium (simple salt)
- evens out mood swings associated with bipolar disorder
- 7/10 bipolar patients experience benefits from Lithium
Electroshock Therapy (Electroconvulsive Therapy—ECT)
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Electrically induced seizures in anesthetized patients to alleviate psychological disorder symptoms, primarily for
depression.
After medication and psychotherapy
Typically 6-12 sessions, 2-3 times a week
It Works! But who knows why…
Effects on the Brain
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Some evidence of effects on memory
 Some events close to treatment potentially lost (Retrograde Amnesia)
 Some inability to form new memories shortly after treatment (Anterograde Amnesia)
 But! These effects are not much different than those side effects of using anesthesia…which could be
the cause of the amnesia.
Other Therapies
1. Implanted electrodes
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Can relieve depression, even when ECT fails. However, this is a surgical step, and therefore a
last resort.
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Electrodes connected to limbic system (Vagus Nerve in chest)
2. Magnetic Fields
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rTMS—Repeated pulses of magneticenergy to stimulate/dampen activity in specific areas of
brain (e.g. the limbic system)
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Painless, no side effects, definite improvement
3. Light Therapy
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Seasonal affective disorder
4. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
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Imagine traumatic event while following finger moving in front of eyes.
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Release of traumatic events? Or is this just exposure therapy or a placebo effect?
Psychosurgery
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Surgery that removes/destroys brain tissue. Last resort!
Frontal lobotomy
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Surgical procedure used to cut nerves connecting frontal lobe and emotional centers of the brain
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Developed in 1930’s by Egas Moniz; received a Nobel prize
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Intended to control overly emotional and violent patients
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A quick and easy procedure to be performed at mental hospitals. 3 easy steps!
1. put patient in coma via shock
2. insert ice pick instrument through each eye socket, along the nose line, and into the brain
3. Wiggle…
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Often left patients unresponsive, and lethargic. Also became immature and impulsive, much like
Phineas Gage
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Ethical objections to brain damage and side effects. And only 1/3 of patients got better…
Does Psychotherapy Work?
1. Client’s self report
 Survey of Consumer Reports Reader (1995): 89% are “fairly well satisfied” with therapy
 But should we believe patients?
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Therapy often starts during a person’s low point
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Need to justify effort/cost of therapy
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Clients tend to like their psychologists
2. Clinician’s Report
 But…therapists are humans too and are subject to same biases (e.g. wanting to believe in
effectiveness of therapy in order to justify career)
3. Outcome Research
 Monitor employment status, salary, relationships, etc: How is this person faring in the world?
 Therapy speeds up recovery!!!
Specific Treatment for Specific Disorders
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Depression: cognitive, behavioral, psychoanalysis
Anxiety: cognitive, exposure therapy, stress inoculation (Vaccine of stress)
Phobias/OCD: Behavioral conditioning
Anorexia/Bulimia: CBT (Cognitive-behavioral therapy) more effective than medication
Bipolar/Schizophrenia: Largely biomedical therapy
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Casey Sueme
return to Table of Contents
Unit 13-Treatment of Psychological Disorders Study Guide
Names to Know
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Carl Rogers-pioneer in Humanistic Therapy. Believed in nondirective, client-centered therapy with an
emphasis on genuiness, acceptance, empathy, and creating an open environment in order to promote
growth. Involved active listening, using the therapist as a psychological mirror and source of
unconditional positive regard.
Egas Monis-originally invented the procedure of lobotomy in the 1930s.
Walter Freeman-modified lobotomies to be quick, easy, 10-minute procedures. Person who made the
practice of lobotomy widespread and popular. He was demonized later in his career for this brutal
practice
Studies to Know
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Klein 1999-studied effect of rTMS treatment in depressed Israeli patients, and found positive results
linking rTMS to reducing effects of depression
Smith 1980-studied meta-analysis people undergoing therapy vs. people on a waiting list, and found that
people tended to improve on their own somewhat without therapy
Outline
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Different techniques
o Psychotherapy-used to treat learned disorders; emotionally charged, confiding interaction
between a trained therapist and someone experiencing psychological difficulties.
o Biomedical Therapy-used to treat problems caused by biological problems; prescribing
medication that directly affects the nervous system
o Psychosurgery-rarely used last resort
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Psychotherapy Techniques
o Psychoanalysis-based on Freudian Theory: focuses on using clinicians interpretations of free
association, dreams, etc. to bring id and superego to conscious for resolution with unconscious
desires.
 Resistances-blocking anxieties from consciousness
 Transference-re-focusing strong feelings toward others from early in life toward
psychoanalyst
o Humanistic Therapy-Nondirective, client-centered therapy with an emphasis on genuiness,
acceptance, empathy, and creating an open environment in order to promote growth. Involved
active listening, using the therapist as a psychological mirror and source of unconditional
positive regard.
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o Behavioral Therapy-use of conditioning to eliminate unwanted behavior
 Counterconditioning-behavior therapy that conditions new responses stimuli that trigger
unwanted behavior
 Exposure therapy, systematic desensitization
o Cognitive Therapy-teaches new adaptive ways of thinking
 CBT(Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)-combines approaches replacing problematic
thoughts and problematic behaviors
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Biomedical- 4 types of medications
o Antipsychotic meds-block dopamine receptors
o Antianxiety meds-depress CNS activity using GABA (antidepressants work sometimes in these
cases too).
o Antidepressants-increase serotonin and norepinephrine; often used with psychotherapy
o Mood Stabilizers-evens out mood swings, like in bipolar disorder (example: Lithium).
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Alternative Therapies
o Electroconvulsive Therapy-typically 6-12 times, 2-3 times a week; used to induce seizures in a
sedated patient to alleviate depression; typically works, but we don’t know why; some evidence
of mild retrograde and anterograde amnesia, but it DOES NOT “fry the brain.”
 Also can implant electrodes in body when ECT doesn’t work, particularly on the vagus
nerve or in the limbic system.
o rTMS-repeated magnetic pulses to heighten/dampen activity in parts of the brain; used to treat
schizophrenia and other disorders; completely painless with no side effects; 20-30 minute
sessions 2-4 times a week
o Light Exposure Therapy-treats seasonal affect disorder
o EMDR-imagine traumatic events while watching finger wave in front of eyes
 Maybe release of traumatic events
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Psychosurgery-removes/destroys brain tissue; last, rarely used resort
o Frontal Lobotomy-cut nerves connecting frontal lobe and emotional centers of the brain;
intended to control overwhelming, violent, emotional impulses
 Procedure: use electric shock as anesthetic; insert icepick through each eye socket,
around eye and into brain using the bridge of the nose as a guide; shake, shake, shake it
up!
 Often left patients in unresponsive, lethargic state, or immature and impulsive
 Only about 1/3 of patients improve
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Does therapy work?
o 1995 Consumer Reports Survey- 89% of patients say fairly satisfied.
o But…
 Patients tend to like their therapists and therapists human too: bias?
 Also, therapy tends to start at a person’s low point when they have nowhere to go but up/
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Side Note: Therapy tends to be more effective when the problem is specific and focused.
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Matt Trouard & Isaiah Bice
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Unit 13 Psychological Therapy
Terms
People
o Sigmund Freud- first psychoanalyst pioneered ideas mental illness is a result of the unconscious. Also
developed ideas of resistance and transference
o Carl Rogers- pioneer of humanistic psychotherapy used client centered therapy believed in an open
environment to promote clients growth
o Walter Freedman- developed new procedures for frontal lobotomies that were more efficient and
available to a wider range of patients
o Egas Maniz- developed the first surgical procedure for frontal lobotomies developed in the 1930s and
later altered by Freedman
Psychotherapy- treating psychological disorders without the use of surgery or medication
Resistance- blocking anxieties from conscious mind
Transference- re-directing strong feelings from early in life towards the psychoanalyst
Active Listening- empathic listening technique that mirrors the patient’s feelings
Assumptions- thoughts or explanatory cycle that is critical to maintaining the cycle of depression
Psychosurgery- surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue
Frontal lobotomy- a surgical procedure developed by Egas Mariz in the1930s to control overly emotional
patients by severing the connection between the frontal lobe and the amygdala
Electron Convulsive Therapy (ECT)- Electronically induced seizures to alleviate disorder symptoms usually for
depression without any known brain damage
Counter Conditioning- associating new behaviors with old stimuli most commonly used to cure phobias
Unit Overview
Types of psychotherapy
o Psychoanalysis- Developed by Freud uses hypnosis and free association, along with interpretations by
clinician to diagnosis a problem with the patients unconscious causing the mental disorder
o Humanistic- developed by Carl Rogers emphasizes positive growth and reaching mental potential
through active listening and client based therapy
o Behavioral therapy- psychoanalysis is unnecessary because learning is the most efficient way to prevent
unwanted behavior. Uses Counter conditioning because people respond to stimuli and their behaviors
can be changed
o Cognitive Therapy- creates new adaptive ways of thinking to eliminate unwanted thought processes.
o Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT)- combined approach of behavioral and cognitive therapy. Combined
approach to replace both unwanted behaviors and thoughts.
Four Types of Psychological Medications
o 1. Antipsychotic Medication- reduces positive symptoms
 Thorazine
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 Clozapine
o 2. Antianxiety Medication- depresses central nervous system activity
 Xanax
 Valium
o 3.Antidepressants- increase serotonin and norepinephrine is often used with psychotherapy to treat
depression
 Prozac
 SSRIs
 Paxil
o 4. Mood Stabilizing Medications- evens out mood swings 7 out of 10 bipolar patients experience
benefits
 Lithium
Alternative Therapies
o Implanted electrode- used in limbic system and to stimulate the vagus nerve
o Magnetic Fields- Repeated pulses of magnetic energy used to stimulate or dampen parts of the brain
with no known side effects.
o Light Exposure Therapy- used to treat seasonal affectation disorder by shining an artificial light on
patients for a set amount of time each day.
Does Therapy Work?
o Client’s self-report: Usually very positive
o Clinician’s report: Very positive but questionable
o Outcome research: follow up to therapies