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Transcript
THE PASSIVE
Ch. 11
PASSIVE SENTENCES
All of the verb tenses & forms we have learned about so far have been ACTIVE. That
is, they focus on who or what PERFORMS the action.
Passive sentences focus on the RECEIVER or the RESULT of an action.
We use passive sentences A LOT in academic writing.
TRANSITIVE VERBS
Transitive verbs are verbs that are followed by an object.
Give an exam
Give = verb
Exam = object (what was given)
TRANSITIVE VERBS
Throw a baseball
Throw = Verb
Baseball = Object (what was thrown)
IDENTIFY THE VERB AND THE OBJECT
Bo took ESL classes this semester.
Nuttika enjoys music.
Henry ate lunch.
Hakki is drinking a bottle of water.
Kouiado hates tests.
ORDER OF PASSIVE SENTENCES
The passive form changes the order of the subject and object in a sentence.
The OBJECT becomes the subject
The subject becomes a by-phrase at the end of the sentence
OR
It is not included in the sentence at all.
EXAMPLE:
Active Sentence:
Jonah sent the letter
Passive Sentence:
The letter was sent by Jonah
EXAMPLE:
The storm damaged our roof.
Subject = storm (what did the damage)
Object = roof (what was damaged)
Our roof was damaged by the storm
PRACTICE
Complete Exercise 2 – p. 212
TENSE FORMS OF THE PASSIVE
We can change active sentences in every verb tense into passive sentences:




Simple present & past
Present & past progressive
Future – will & be going to
Present, past, and future perfect
 The progressive forms of the perfect tenses are rarely used in the passive.
SIMPLE PRESENT & PAST PASSIVE
Be + Past Participle
The boy is helped by Mary.
The boy was helped by Mary.
The National Anthem is sung at ball games.
The National Anthem was sung at the ball game.
PRESENT AND PAST PROGRESSIVE
Be + Being + Past Participle
The boy is being helped by Mary.
The boy was being helped by Mary.
The National Anthem is being sung.
The National Anthem was being sung.
FUTURE PASSIVE –
WILL & BE GOING TO
Will/Be Going To + be (the word, NOT a being verb) + past participle
The boy will be helped by Mary.
The boy is going to be helped by Mary.
The National Anthem will be sung.
The National Anthem is going to be sung.
PRESENT & PAST PERFECT PASSIVE
Has/Had + Been + Past Participle
The boy has been helped by Mary.
The boy had been helped by Mary.
The National Anthem has been sung.
The National Anthem had been sung.
FUTURE PERFECT PASSIVE
Will + Have + Been + Past Participle
The boy will have been helped by Mary.
The National Anthem will have been sung.
PRACTICE
Complete Exercises 3, 4, and 5 – p. 212-214
USES FOR THE PASSIVE
The most common use is when the agent (the person who performs the action) is not
known or not important:
Rice is grown in India.
 (Exactly who grows the rice is unknown or unimportant)
Our house was built in 1980.
 (Exactly who built the house is unknown or unimportant)
USES FOR THE PASSIVE
Sometimes the passive is used when the speaker knows who performs an action. In
this case, the passive is used with a by-phrase in order to focus attention on the
subject of a sentence.
This rug was made by my aunt.
 The focus is on the rug, not on who made the rug.
Life on the Mississippi was written by Mark Twain.
 The focus is on the book, but the by-phrase is included because it contains important information about
the book.
WHY WAS THE PASSIVE USED?
My sweater was made in England.
The new highway will be completed sometime next month.
The World Cup soccer games are being televised all over the world.
This composition was written by Ali. That one was written by Marco.
The Washington Monument is visited by hundreds of people every day.
Bananas originated in Asia but now are grown in the tropics of both hemispheres of
the world. They were introduced to the Americas in 1516.
PRACTICE
Complete Exercise 10 (Listening) – p. 216
Complete Exercise 15 (Listening) – p. 219
PRACTICE
Complete Exercises 9 and 11, p. 215-216
Complete Exercises 14 and 16, p. 218-220
PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS
Modal + Be + Past Participle
Tom will be invited to the picnic
The window can’t be opened.
Children should be taught to respect their elders
This book had better be returned to the library before Friday.
This letter ought to be sent before July 1.
Mary has to be told about the change in plans.
Fred is supposed to be told about the meeting.
PAST PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS
Modal + Have Been + Past Participle
The letter should have been sent last week.
This house must have been built over 200 years ago.
Eric couldn’t have been offered the job.
Jill ought to have been invited to the party.
LISTENING PRACTICE
Complete Exercise 22, p. 224-225
PRACTICE
Complete Exercises 18, 19, and 21, p. 221-224
THE NON-PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE
When the passive form is used to describe an existing situation or state, it is called
the non-progressive passive.
In the non-progressive:
 No action is taking place; the action happened earlier
 There is no by-phrase
 The past participle functions as an adjective
THE NON-PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE
Examples:
I locked the door five minutes ago.
NOW:
The door is locked.
Ann broke the window yesterday.
NOW:
The window is broken.
PRACTICE
Complete Exercises 26 and 27, p. 227-228
THE NON-PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE:
Prepositions other than BY can follow non-progressive passive verbs:
I am interested in Chinese art.
He is satisfied with his job.
Ann is married to Alex.
COMMON NON-PROGRESSIVE PASSIVE VERBS +
PREPOSITIONS
See chart 11-6 on p. 229 for a list of common non-progressive passive verbs and the prepositions
that usually follow them.
Examples:
He is concerned about his graded.
Water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen.
She is frightened of spiders.
He is associated with that law firm.
You are bored with grammar class.
She is dressed in slacks.
He is divorced from his wife.
PRACTICE
Complete Exercises 29, 31, and 32 – p. 229-231
THE PASSIVE WITH GET
GET may be followed by certain adjectives (see list on p. 233).
GET gives the idea of change – the idea of becoming, beginning to be, or growing to
be.
I’m getting hungry.
 I wasn’t hungry before, but now I’m beginning to be hungry.
THE PASSIVE WITH GET
GET may also be followed by a past participle.
The past participle functions as an adjective (it describes the subject)
The passive with GET is common in spoken English, but not in formal writing.
I stopped working because I got tired.
They are getting married next month.
The athlete got hurt by the ball.
The students are getting prepared for their test.
The girl got done with her chores.
* See p. 233 for a list of common past participles used with GET
PRACTICE
Complete Exercise 37, p. 234
PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES
The present participle serves as an adjective with an active meaning. The noun it
modifies performs an action.
Example:
The problem confuses the students VS. It is a confusing problem.
 The noun in the first sentence, PROBLEM, does something; it confuses. Thus, in the 2nd sentence, it is
described as a CONFUSING PROBLEM. (Or, think of it as the problem doing the action of confusing)
PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES
The past participle serves as an adjective with a passive meaning.
The students are confused by the problem
VS.
They are confused students.
 The students are confused BY something. Thus, they are described in the 2nd sentence as CONFUSED
STUDENTS. (The problem is doing the action of confusing, but you are describing the object – or what
is being confused)
PRACTICE
Complete Exercises 41 and 45, p. 236-239
Complete Chapter Review Handout