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Transcript
The term "Romanesque" was first applied by critics in
the early nineteenth century to describe the
architecture of the later eleventh and the twelfth
centuries, because certain architectural elements,
principally the round arch, resembled those of ancient
Roman architecture.
Thus, the word served to distinguish Romanesque
from Gothic buildings.
Characteristics
Byzantine iconography
Common theological subjects
Life of Christ
Majestic Christ
Last judgement
development of Marian
iconology - madonna
The "Morgan Leaf", detached from the
Winchester Bible of 1160-75. Scenes
from the life of David.
Romanesque Architecture
Romanesque architecture is known by its massive
quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers,
groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading.
Each building has clearly defined forms and they
are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so
that the overall appearance is one of simplicity
when compared with the Gothic buildings that
were to follow.
Characteristics
Stained Glass & Colour
Romanesque architecture is known by its massive
quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers,
groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading.
Each building has clearly defined forms and they
are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so
that the overall appearance is one of simplicity
when compared with the Gothic buildings that
were to follow.
Social Politics
Charlemagne’s political successors continued to rule
much of Europe, with a gradual emergence of the
separate political states which were eventually to
become welded into nations, either by allegiance or
defeat, the Kingdom of Germany giving rise to the Holy
Roman Empire. The invasion of England by William,
Duke of Normandy, in 1066, saw the building of both
castles and churches which reinforced the Norman
presence.
Much of Europe was affected by feudalism in which
peasants held tenure from local rulers over the land
that they farmed in exchange for military service
Religious Architecture
Across Europe, the late 11th and 12th centuries saw an
unprecedented growth in the number of churches.
As monasticism spread across Europe, Romanesque
churches sprang up in Scotland, Scandinavia, Poland,
Hungary, Sicily, Serbia and Tunisia.
The monasteries, which sometimes also functioned as
cathedrals, and the cathedrals which had bodies of
secular clergy often living in community, were a major
source of power in Europe. Bishops and the abbots of
important monasteries lived and functioned like princes.
The monasteries were the major seats of learning of all
sorts.
Religious Fervour
The Crusades, intended to wrest the Holy Places of
Palestine from Islamic control, generated high
levels of religious fervour, which in turn inspired
great building programs. The Nobility of Europe,
upon safe return, thanked God by the building of a
new church or the enhancement of an old one.
Likewise, those who did not return from the
Crusades could be suitably commemorated by
their family in a work of stone and mortar.
The Crusades resulted in the transfer of, among
other things, a great number of Holy Relics of
saints and apostles.
Monastic Life
The monasteries were the major seats of learning
of all sorts. Benedict had ordered that all the arts
were to be taught and practiced in the
monasteries. Within the monasteries books were
transcribed by hand, and few people outside the
monasteries could read or write.
Benedictine, Cluniac, Cistercian, Carthusian,
Augustinian
Saint Sernin Basilica, Toulouse
Saint Sernin Basilica, Toulouse
Physical Attributes
The general impression given by Romanesque
architecture, in both ecclesiastical and secular
buildings, is one of massive solidity and strength.
In contrast with both the preceding Roman and
later Gothic architecture in which the load bearing
structural members are, or appear to be, columns,
pilasters and arches, Romanesque architecture, in
common with Byzantine architecture, relies upon
its walls, or sections of walls (piers).
Piers
Abazia di San Vittore
Piers & Columns
St. Michael's at Hildesheim
Cathedral of Mainz
Piers & Columns
Side aisle and gallery of the
cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Piers & Columns
Durham Cathedral
Side aisle and gallery of the
cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Romanesque Arch
Romanesque Arch
Vaults & roofs
Nivelles (Belgium),
St. Gertrude Collegiate church
groin vaults
groin vault
Speyer cathedral
Vaults
groin vault
Saint-Etienne, Caen,
both the nave and the tower are covered by ribbed vaults
Canterbury Cathedral
Schoengrabern Church, Austria, is decorated
with naif figures, here representing Adam
being approached by an angry angel.
France, Abbey of la Madaleine Vezelay, 12th
century tympanum
Speyer cathedral
Speyer cathedral
Saint-­‐Sernin, Toulouse
Le Mont-Saint-Michel
Le Mont-Saint-Michel (English: St Michael's Mount)
Scholasticism, Measure and Light
in Gothic Architecture
Ecclesiastical Architecture in
Medieval Society
Eschatology
‘Gothic’
originated in present day France
spread to modern day Italy, UK, Spain, Germany, Austria etc
revived in 19c as a ‘style’
‘Gothic’
anatomy and nomenclature