Download Romanesque art in Barcelona The Romanesque Feudalism

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Street hierarchy wikipedia , lookup

Architecture of Portugal wikipedia , lookup

Romanesque architecture wikipedia , lookup

English Gothic architecture wikipedia , lookup

Architecture of Provence wikipedia , lookup

Romanesque secular and domestic architecture wikipedia , lookup

Portuguese Romanesque architecture wikipedia , lookup

Romanesque architecture in Spain wikipedia , lookup

Romanesque art in Barcelona
The Romanesque
Feudalism was a social, political and economic system that was formed in
Western Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries, a few centuries after the
disintegration of the Roman Empire.
Feudalism was characterized by the pacts of vassalage between the feudal
lords and the King of each kingdom that were throughout Western Europe. In
these agreements, the feudal lords promised allegiance to the king in exchange
for economic privileges and power.
Probably, for this reason, one of the great features of this system was the
strong presence that had the Catholic Church, which enjoyed large share of
power in all feudal kingdoms, and which was marked, quite clearly, the life of
During the early centuries of feudalism (X-XIII) appeared in all realms, an
artistic, cultural and architectural movement, the Romanesque.
The Romanesque was the first movement since the collapse of the Roman
Empire to have representation across the European territory. It must be said,
therefore, that although this style was present in all European kingdoms, once
introduced unique features in each kingdom.
Although, with this style, several civil and military works were built, the main
theme was the Church, being used to build a large number of monasteries and
churches that are still standing today.
The material used to construct these buildings, in this style, was the stone, a
material characterized by its weight. It is for this reason that the buildings are, in
general, thick walls, often reinforced with buttresses. In addition, another feature
is the low presence of windows in the Romanesque buildings. The few windows
present in these buildings are small openings to let inside these buildings a little
light. In addition, this style reused Roman building techniques, such as arch.
Another feature of the religious buildings of Romanesque style is that all of them
have a bell tower, which is used to call prayer. We can also see how some
churches presents the altar at the east of the building, as it was where entered
the first light of day.
Most of these buildings had a decoration inside and outside. The exterior
decoration has deteriorated with the passage of time, leaving the walls views,
as we know them today.
There are few buildings that still presented a decoration inside, as in the
nineteenth century there was a big traffic of these decorations, some of which
were sold to private collectors.
Barcelona is known for the Gothic and Modernism art, but we can find, also,
some very interesting Romanesque remains hidden. Many of the Romanesque
elements have disappeared for the successive reforms of the city.
This period begins with the fall or Barcelona under the hands of the Carolingian
Empire. The city won’t be any more part of the Caliphate of Córdoba. It will be a
small part of the border, far away of the franc power core. Bishop was foremost
the most important authority, with the counts, who designated the emperor for
each border district. In the late ninth century some changes occur into the
Carolingian Empire, where the Count started to become a hereditary titre, and
in Barcelona, like other areas, appeared the firsts own lineages. These counts
recognized the French monarch but in fact, they acted freely. In 950 Córdoba
Caliphate started new alliances combined with regional offensive that promoted
the assault and the destruction of Barcelona in 985 by Al-Mansur.
In the eleventh century Barcelona entered with the non-renewal of allegiance
with the King of France. At the same time, the Andalusia Caliphate began to be
divided into different kingdoms of taifas. In this new situation of Andalusia
Caliphate the Counts started a military pressure against these taifas that revert
with monetary compensation. On the other hand, militarization and insecurity of
land led to the acceleration of feudalism. Taking advantage of this situation, the
Count of Barcelona was imposed on all other feudal lords. Over the next three
centuries, the Barcelona dynasty made a military and political expansion that
gave some importance in the western Mediterranean.
After the destruction of the city by Al-Mansur, Barcelona entered into a period of
auto regeneration with the creation of new markets and new parishes. Also, the
emergence of suburbs outside the ancient Roman walls is a clearest example of
the growing of this city. At the same time, the authorities started to privatize the
ancient wall, where they built new palaces.
At mid-twelfth century Barcelona became the capital of the new kingdom and its
commercial and manufacturing activity received a decisive boost. In the
thirteenth century all suburbs joined the city, leading to a real urban area, and a
new wall was built around these new suburbs.
From COOLTUR suggest you to make this tour through the Romanesque
Barcelona. This tour will demonstrate that the Romanesque art is not only
for the rural areas, and also, you will see the transformation of Barcelona
into the capital of the kingdom.
We will start this tour at the Monastery of Sant Pau del Camp (Sant Pau
Street 99). The first mention of Sant
Pau dated from 985 but until 1117 it
won’t be a monastery.
It’s quite possible the existence of a
monastery before 985. We think that
because it had been found the
tombstone of Guifré Borrell, Count
of Barcelona, who died in 911. Also,
we should remember that Al-Mansur
raided the city in 985.
The monastery became extinct in 1835,
becoming parish until today.
This building is a construction inspired
by the Lombard advanced models of
XII century, as a result of the second
foundation. This building has a single
nave topped with three apse (the
central apse is bigger than the other
two). The roof is a barrel vault topped
by an octagonal dome. The main door is flanked by two columns with marble
capitals with a vegetale decoration dating from the Visigoth period (VI-VII
century). In the central eardrum we
can see the figure of Christ flanked
by Saint Peter and Saint Paul. At
the foot of these figures there is a
inscription in very poor conditions,
that it’s possible to read the names
or the promoters.
subsequent amendments, especially the
XIV and XV century, as well as numerous
restorations made after the ravages of the
Civil War. The most notable feature is the
cloister, a square and lobed arches (there
are three or five lobes) supported by
columns with figured capitals with plant motifs and storied fantastic animals,
especially of Genesis. All this constitutes a unique set in Catalunya, dating from
the thirteenth century and raised a relationship to alleged Muslim
Go northeast along Sant Pau Street to the Carretes Street
28 m
Turn left onto Carretes Street
400 m
Turn right on Cera Street
23 m
Turn to left on Botella Street
82 m
Turn right by Pedró Square
37 m
Turn Slight left to stay on Pedró Square
18 m
We arrive at Plaza del Padró where we find the
Chapel of Sant Llàtzer. Built in the twelfth
century, this chapel was part of the dels
Mesells Hospital, founded by Bishop Guillem de
Torroja and dedicated to
Lombard style. This apse
window with archivolts
and decorated capitals.
In some archaeological
excavation a set of tombs
were found. Interestingly, although it was a leper hospital,
the archaeologists didn’t find any skeleton with signs of
leprosy. The chapel has undergone several modern
reforms that give it its present appearance.
Head over to the southeast by Pedró Square to Hospital Street
18 m
Turn left on Hospital Street
Go to the roundabout.
600 m
Turn right on Las Rambles
18 m
Turn left on Boqueria Street
190 m
Turn right on Avinyó Street
170 m
Turn left on Cervantes Street
63 m
Continue along Templers Street
50 m
Turn right on Ataülf Street
Destination will be on your right
25 m
Capella del Temple, Santa María del Palau o Capilla del Palau is the name by
which the ancient chapel of the House of the Temple of Barcelona is known.
Templar settled in Barcelona in 1134, but not until the thirteenth century this
movement became important. The chapel was
consecrated in 1246. It was a single nave, with arches,
now hidden by a late Gothic back that also hides remains
of Romanesque painting.
This chapel survived the end of the Templar and became
part of the famous Royal Palace Menor built in the
fifteenth century by Pere III. This palace was demolished
in 1858. The door of the chapel comes from the Templar
chapel but not on the original site and has undergone
some changes, especially in 1868. We can see the archivolts and Romanesque
Head over to the southeast by Ataülf Street onto Comtessa of Sobradiel Street
35 m
Turn left on Calella Street
28 m
Turn right on Regomir Street
72 m
Turn left on Correu Vell Street
79 m
Turn right and continue along Correu Vell Street
13 m
Correu Vell Street, 12
In Correu Vell Street, 12 we will find a thirteenth century manor house
transformed into residential home in XVIII century. Interestingly, we can still see
Go north on Traginers Square to the Pom d'Or Street
36 m
Traginers Square turns right and becomes Pom d'Or Street
34 m
Turn left on Sots - Tinent Navarro Street
Destination will be on the left
180 m
Sots - Tinent Navarro Street, 4
The building and the tower that we can see from
Sots-Tinent Navarro Street corresponds to the
rear of the Real Academia de les Bones Lletres
located in the old Requesens Palace. This is
basically a Gothic building that have suffered
some reforms, but is quite possible, from the
street, see the Romanesque building, which is
supported by a large arcade that runs from tower
to tower (XII-XIII century). You can see traces of
its windows. The north tower is much restored, but
is clearly distinguished as ancient Roman
construction suffered a lift to the XIII century, when
double-arched windows were added.
Go northwest on Sots - Tinent Navarro Street to the Àngel Square
33 m
Turn left on Jaume I Street
44 m
Turn right on Trompetes de Jaume I Street
27 m
Continue along Veguer Street
56 m
Turn right at Rei Square
12 m
Rey Square
The Count's Palace, or Royal
Palace, was built in the XI century
on an earlier building, with a
Visigoth origin probably. Their
classrooms were based on arcades
arranged perpendicular to the old
Roman wall. You can see the
barrel vaults on the ground floor
and two longitudinal sides of the
building, two stories high. On this
facades it’s possible to see the
primitive windows, of the XI
century, and some other
windows of the XIII century.
Some of these windows are
renovations of the fourteenth
This building represented the center of
power of the Counts of Barcelona, in
addition to their primary residence,
over two hundred years.
Go southwest on Rei Square to the Veguer Street
12 m
Continue on Baixada de Santa Clara Street
22 m
Turn right on Comtes Street
Destination will be on your right 41 m
Plaza Sant Iu
Before going to visit the Cathedral of Barcelona, we should know that the
Romanesque temple, built in the mid-eleventh century, has disappeared almost
entirely under the thirteenth century Gothic building. Archaeology has shown
that the building of the thirteenth century was built at the same time that the
oldest building was in use. As an example we can say that many of the
foundations of the Gothic headquarters are exactly the same that had the
Romanesque cathedral. Therefore, its current structure continues to be an
extension of the previous temple and observe these matching items, as two of
the doors.
One of the side entrances of the Cathedral, known
as the “Door of Sant Iu” we can find some
Romanesque details. This door is one of the oldest
Gothic constructions, and it’s possible to see a
Romanesque influence on it. For many years this
gate was the main entrance of the Cathedral. It
seems that the name of this door was put in the
fifteenth century because the image that we can
see corresponds to Santa Eulàlia. It’s pretty sure
that the reliefs on the door sides are from the
Romanesque temple, where you can see the
struggle of a man against a beast, carved in the
twelfth century.
Inside the actual temple, near this door,
there are some parts of the Romanesque
temple included in the Gothic building. It is
a wall with narrow windows framed with
columns, located in the sacristy.
Superimposed on this, we can see a large
room with a barrel vault roof from the
Romanesque temple.
Also, inside the cathedral, we can see how the doorway leading into the cloister
is a Gothic portal that integrated some Romanesque elements. This portal was
made with italic white marble taking a Romanesque aspect. Some experts
believe that this is one of the side doors of the Romanesque temple (during the
twentieth century different authors have argued that
this was the main door of the Romanesque temple
that was moved to be the cloister door in the Gothic
This door has archivolts decorated with geometric
patterns and capitals, the imposts and the abacuses
are sculpted themes from the Old and New
Testaments (shown the struggle of man against
beast, resembling the door of Sant Iu).
Go northwest on Bisbe Street to the Garriga i Bachs Square
34 m
Bisbe Street 5
We arrive at Palau del Bisbe, the Episcopal
residence in Barcelona since 1160. This building is
formed for two wings with three floors on each
wing. The yard wasn’t closed by the main façade.
To build the first wing they used the Roman wall as
a support. The second wing, built in the thirteenth
century, was perpendicular to the Roman wall. The
gallery of arches and capitals, located in the main
floor, was built in the late twelfth century or early
thirteenth century.
The reforms that this building has
suffered during the twentieth
century difficult to distinguish the
original parts.
Go northeast to Santa Llúcia Street
Destination will be on the left
69 m
Santa Llúcia Street 1
In front of the Cathedral we can see
Torre de la casa del Degà, a tower
that was part of the Roman wall. The
house of the deans was built with a
Romanesque style but in the
fourteenth century it was reformed.
By 1420 the building was partially
demolished to open the Ctahedral
Square. This building still has dualarch windows dating from the twelfth
Head over to the northeast by Santa Llúcia Street to Pla de la Seu Street
27 m
Turn left on Pla de la Seu Street
48 m
Turn right onto De la Catedral Avenue
24 m
Catedral Avenue, 6
We can see a polygonal
tower of the Roman wall
that it was part of the
Canonja, also known as
Romanesque palace, built
in the eleventh century,
was the residence of the
canons until the midfourteenth century.
In the fifteenth century two
buildings were added as a
headquarters of the Almshouse, a charitable organization existing since 1009.
The Romanesque remains of the Canonja are limited to the double-arched
windows located on the polygonal tower.
Go southwest on Catedral Avenue
34 m
Turn left at Tapineria Street
110 m
Tapineria Street turn left and renamed Ramón Berenguer el Gran Square
21 m
Turn slightly right.
22 m
Ramón Berenguer el Gran Square
In this Square we can see the Romanesque arches. Built in the twelfth
century, when the Roman wall lost its defensive function, to support the new
buildings to be constructed.
During the fourteenth century the construction of the royal chapel of Santa
Agata demolished the oldest buildings that were here.
Go southeast towards the Ramón Berenguer el Gran Square
26 m
Turn left on Ramón Berenguer el Gran Square
20 m
Turn right on Via Laietana
38 m
Turn left at Bòria Street
78 m
Continue along Llana Square
53 m
Continue along Corders Street
80 m
Continue along Carders Street
Carders Street, 2
The Marcus Chapel is
Lombard style in the XIIXIII
chapel take the name of
builder of a hospital and
a shelter for the poor.
This chapel and its
cemetery were part of these hospital.
These buildings were built near the France road. This wasn’t a coincidence,
because Marcus had a network business with France. In fact, their horsemen
initiated travel from this place, which also became customary to change horses.
For these reasons the chapel was dedicated to the Virgin of the Guide.
In the fourteenth century the chapel became the headquarters of the “Torters
Brotherhood” and it was the starting point of the first mail tour in Europe.
In 1401 the five hospitals that Barcelona had were centralized in the Santa Creu
Hospital. This fact made disappear the Marcus Hospital and only the chapel has
During the eighteenth century the apse of this chapel was removed to let some
space for the new buildings. Also, the roof, the steeple and the windows of the
main façade were renovated during the nineteenth century with a neoclassical
Go northeast toward Carders Street to Giralt Pellicer Street
Turn left on Giralt Pellicer Street
48 m
Turn left on Colomines Street
Destination will be on your right
45 m
Colomines Street 1
The current Santa Caterina Market is built
on the former convent of Santa Caterina,
one of the largest convents in the city. In
1219, through a request made by the
Bishop of Barcelona, Berenguer de Palou,
the Dominicans were established in the
city. This new brotherhood received some
houses of the old Jewish quarter.
The success of the preachers was
such that in 1223 the city magistrates
gave them some land outside the
walls. This land included an old
chapel dedicated to Santa Caterina.
Alson, the same year, King Jaume I
granted the title of Real Monastery
Dominicans started to build a new
convent in 1243, and ended in 1268. They built a church that had three apses
and a nave. The other existing structures were reformed too. Also, the land
used as a cemetery was replaced by a Gothic cloister in 1252. This convent
was extended and gained a lot of importance along the XIV-XVIII centuries.
In 1823 part of the convent was
demolished to open the Freixures
Street. Also the night of 25 July 1835,
the building was set on fire during the
incident of burning convents. In 1848
Santa Caterina Market was opened.
Inside the market you can still visit
some of the remains of the original
Head over to the northeast by Colomines Street onto Sant Jacint Street
43 m
Turn right on Giralt Pellicer Street
48 m
Turn left at Carders Street
200 m
Continue straight onto Sant Agustí Vell Square
65 m
Turn left on Basses de Sant Pere Street
19 m
Turn Slight right to stay on Basses de Sant Pere Street
110 m
Girad to left on Sant Pere Square
47 m
Sant Pere Square
The Parish Church of Sant Pere was, until the nineteenth century, the
Benedictine monastery of Sant Pere de les Puelles.
This monastery is usually attributed to Carolingian Emperor Louis the Pious, in
the early ninth century. But the truth is that the documentation of the foundation
indicates us that the foundation of this church was made in the middle of the
tenth century under the patronage of Count Sunyer and his wife Countess
Riquilda. The act of consecration of the church took place on 945.
The new church replaced the
existing church of Sant Sadurní.
In 985 the convent was destroyed
by Al-Mansur. After this, Count
reconstruction of the church of
Sant Sadurní. There are some
documental evidences that in
1143 this church had a cloister of
two floors high.
Kings benefited the monastery
with numerous donations during
although the number of nuns
was limited to 50. During this
period, the area of the cloister
was reformed and built the
famous bell known as the "Torre
dels Ocells"(Tower of the Birds).
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the convent received many
bombings, and became part of the frontline during the Spanish Succession War.
Yet he survived on careful restorations.
During the nineteenth century, this convent lived different changes. In 1909, I
the context of the Setmana tràgica de Barcelona (tragic week of Barcelona), this
convent was burned and looted. The present church is the result of a restoration
of 1911 which changed the interior and the façade of the building, reaching
distort parts of the Romanesque and Gothic period.
It’s possible to see the original columns with Corinthian capitals, some imposts
arc with reliefs of the tenth century near the presbytery and the Blessed
Sacrament, and barrel vaults and the dome of the XII century. The central apse
is the fifteenth century, but restoration gave a Romanesque appearance.
Some remains of the late Romanesque cloister are preserved in MNAC
(National Art of Catalonia Museum).
From COOLTUR wish you enjoyed this tour, and you'll have a very good