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States of Matter Y9 Diffusion Define diffusion __________________________________________ _______________________ ________________________________ The smoke forms nearer to the ammonia end – why?.________________ ___________________- Pressure Define pressure __________________________________________ _______________________ ________________________________ Draw a particles (circles) diagram Heating and cooling curves Label the graph with the state at each point. Why does the temperature not change when something changes state _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Define Solvent _________________________________________ Define Solute _________________________________________ Define insoluble _________________________________________ Define dissolve_________________________________________ Define solution_________________________________________ State 4 ways to increase pressure ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Separation techniques – draw a labelled diagram for the following and give an example of each filtering Chromatography Distillation Fractional distillation Crystallisation Purity testing Chemical reactions Y9 Metallic/Ionic/Covalent Bonding Give 4 signs that a chemical reaction has taken place •______________________________________________ •______________________________________________ •______________________________________________ •______________________________________________ Element/compound or mixture Can contain any number of substances in a different ratio A/B/C/D Element/compound or mixture Contains one type of atom A/B/C/D Element/compound or mixture Contains more than one type of atom chemically bonded A/B/C/D lement/compound or mixture Covalent Bonding – Draw on the electrons to Ionic Bonding – Draw the ions for the following show bonding Diamond Graphite Hydrogen Chlorine Use Water Oxygen Bonding (diagram) Properties Methane (CH4) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Subatomic particle Mass Charge +1 -1 0 Colour on the Periodic table • non-metals • unreactive gases • alkali metals are found (very reactive) Atoms in the same group have similar properties because they have the same number of _____________ in the outer shell. The mass number is the total number of ________ and _______. The atomic number is the number of __________. Match the pictures above with the words below and define the words Element Compound Mixture Complete the sentences with the following words. (some are red herrings!) Ionic element Isotopes • Isotopes are atoms of the same element with sodium electron covalent chlorine chlorine sodium Na+ the same/different numbers of protons. NaCl+ compoundClIsotopes are atoms of the same element with Sodium chloride NaCl is a ____________. There are __________ bonds between the two the same/ different numbers of electrons. elements _________ and _________. When these atoms bond one ____________ from the • Isotopes are atoms of the same element with ___________ atom is donated to the _____________ atom. This results in 2 ions : _______ and the same/ different numbers of neutrons. _______. Complete the electron arrangement of a boron atom Complete the electron arrangement of a boron ion ion Lost/ gained? Number of electrons Mg 2+ lost 2 Cl - Li + O 2Fe 3+ Label Nucleon number and Proton number (LHS) Protons neutrons Electrons (RHS) Periodic Table y10 Subatomic particle Mass Charge +1 -1 0 Colour on the Periodic table • non-metals • unreactive gases • alkali metals are found (very reactive) Atoms in the same group have similar properties because they have the same number of _____________ in the outer shell. The nucleon number is the total number of ________ and _______. The proton number is the number of __________which is equal to the number of ________________. Transition metals Alkali Metals What do they look like? ______________________________________ What are their physical properties? _________________________ _________________________ Why are they stored under oil? _______________________________________ Why does reactivity increase down the group? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Write the equation for sodium with water produces sodium hydroxide and hydrogen ______________________________________ What are their chemical properties? _________________________ _________________________ What are their uses? _________________________ _________________________ Halogens Give two examples of halogens ______________________________________ Describe what they look like _______________________________________ Why does reactivity decrease down the group? _______________________________________ _____________________________________ Rates of Reaction y10 What FOUR things cause a reaction to increase? Explain using particle theory! Define Rate of Reaction _______________________________________ Two reasons a reaction stops? 1. ______________________________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________ What 2 things need to occur for a reaction to happen 3. ______________________________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________ Draw the apparatus to investigate the rate of reaction Describe the role of light in photochemical reactions and the effect on the rate (speed) ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Equilibrium & Breaking Bonds Define exothermic reaction _______________________ _______________________________________________ Define endothermic reaction ______________________ _________________________________________________ Define equilibrium _______________________________ _________________________________________________ Define Dynamic ___________________________________ _________________________________________________ Exothermic/endothermic? Amount of energy needed to break bonds less than amount of energy released. Exothermic/endothermic If the energy taken in to break bonds is more than the energy released Exothermic/endothermic Burning a fuel in air Exothermic/endothermic Hydrogen Biofuel Nuclear fuel 2 pros 2 cons Increasing Pressure Increasing Concentration Increasing temperature REDOX y10 Rules Oxidation state of an element is 0 Ionic compounds oxidation state is its charge Hydrogen = +1 OILRIG stands for O_________ I__ L_______ o __ e_________ R__________ I__ G_______ o__ e_________ Work out the oxidation states : 2Mg + O2 2MgO Mg = ______ O = _____ MgO ______ Has the Mg been oxidised/reduced? Has the O been oxidised/reduced? Oxygen = -2 This reaction takes place in the blast furnace: Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO ( g) 2Fe (l) + 3CO2( g) The word equation for the reaction is: …………………………………………………………………………………………… It is a redox reaction, because …………………………………………………………………………………………… The reducing agent in this reaction is ……………………………….... Oxidation states in a compound = 0 What is the oxidation state of: Cu in CuO ___________ Cu in Cu2O ___________ Fe in FeCl2 ___________ Fe in FeCl3 ___________ Which is being oxidised and which is being reduced? a) Mg + 2HCl b) 2CO + O2 c) 3H2 + → MgCl2 → 2 CO2 N2 → d) 4Na + O2 → 2NH3 2Na2O + H2 Electrolysis y10 What is a conductor? ____________________________ What is an insulator? ___________________________ Why are the only solids that conduct are metals and graphite ___________________________________ ________________________________________________ Why do ionic substances only conduct when molten/dissolved Electrolysis Define electrolysis _______________________ ______________________________________ 4 uses of electrolysis _____________________ ______________________________________ RULES FOR ELECTROLYSIS At cathode (-), either a metal/hydrogen forms • If a metal is more reactive than hydrogen its ions stay in solution and hydrogen bubbles off • If the metal is less reactive than hydrogen the metal forms. At anode (+) a non-metal other than hydrogen forms. • If it is a concentrated solution of a halide then halogens form. • If the halide solution is dilute /no halide oxygen forms. Chemical Uses Sodium chloride Chlorine Hydrogen Sodium hydroxide Electrolysis of Brine Ionic equation at cathode ___________________________ Ionic equation at anode ___________________________ Test for chlorine _______________ Electrolysis of copper with copper electrodes Match the keyword Ionic equation at cathode ___________________________ Anode negative ions Cathode liquid which conducts electricity Anions positive electrode Electrolysis of copper with inert electrodes Cations Positive ions Ionic equation at cathode ___________________________ Electrolyte Negative electrode Ionic equation at anode Ionic equation at anode ___________________________ ___________________________ Moles y10 Avagadro’s constant is 6.02x1023 Atom calculations How many atoms of carbon are in a 10 g diamond Moles = mass/RMM = 10/12= 0.833 moles 1 moles = 6.02x1023 0.833 x 6.02x1023 = 5.02x1023 Gas Calculations What volume does 0.25moles of a gas occupy at rtp? 1 mole occupies 24 dm3 so 0.25 moles occupies 0.25 x 24 dm3 = 6 dm3 So 0.25 moles of any gas occupies 6dm3 at rtp. Q 3 What volume of nitrogen reacts with 10 kg of hydrogen to form ammonia? N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ® 2 NH3(g) Q4 What volume of oxygen reacts with 510 g of ammonia? 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) ® 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) Q1 What mass of silicon contains 1.25x1022 silicon atoms Q2 What mass of titanium contains 1.204x1024 atoms What mass of aluminium oxide is produced when 135 g of aluminium is burned in oxygen? 2 Al + 3 O2 Al2O3 Concentrations Solution A contains 2.5g copper sulphate in 1dm3 of water Solution B contains 125g copper sulphate in 0.5dm3 water Change the mass to moles. Mr of copper sulphate is 250 Solution A : 2.5g = 0.01 moles 1dm3 there are 0.01 moles/dm3 What mass of iodine is produced when 7.1 g of chlorine reacts with excess potassium iodide? Cl2 + 2 KI 2 KCl + I2 Solution B : 125g in 0.5dm3, which is 250g in 1dm3 =1 moles/dm3 = 1M For each of the following compounds the Mr and the empirical formula is shown. Work out the molecular formula of each compound. Q6 The Mr of sodium hydroxide is 40. How many grams of sodium hydroxide are in a) 500cm3 of a molar solution b) 25cm3 of a 0.5M solution 1. empirical formula = CH3 Mr = 30 2. empirical formula = NH3 Mr = 17 3. empirical formula = CH2 Mr = 98 4. empirical formula = CH Mr = 78 Calculate the percentage of the elements shown in the following compounds: C in CO N in (NH4)2SO4 O in Al(OH)3 O in Na2CO3.10H2O Q5 What is the concentration of a solution containing. a) 4 moles in 2 dm3 of solution b) 0.3 moles in 200cm3 of solution Behaviour of Metals y10 Where are metals found in the periodic table? __________________ Name 5 properties of metals _________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Chemical properties of metals________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Draw a picture of an alloy What is an alloy? ___________________ ______________________ Iron reduces copper oxide (OIL RIG) Equation Fe (s) + CuO (s) FeO (s) + Cu(s) Half equations __________________________________ _________________________________ Ionic equations _________________________________ Thermal Decomposition Reactions _____________ Oxide + carbon dioxide (except Na &K) _____________ Oxide + Water (except Na & K) _____________ Oxide + nitrogen dioxide + oxygen (except Na & K) Why does aluminium not rust? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ Explain 2 ways you can protect iron from rusting? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ USES of METALS y10 Extraction of metals from the ores Name two uses of aluminium? ______________________________ _______________________________________________________ Label on the right Which ones are extracted by electrolysis, which are found naturally and which are burnt with carbon and reduced Two uses of copper ? _____________________________________ Ores Two uses of zinc? _____________________________________ What is haematite ? ______________________ What is bauxite? _________________________ Name the uses of mild steel ________________________________ Name the uses of stainless steel _____________________________ _______________________________________________________ Name the uses of copper related to its properties ______________ _______________________________________________________ Label the blast furnace Name an iron ore used in the blast furnace. _________________________ Name two substances that are mixed with iron ore ___________________________ _______________________ Name one of the gases leaving the blast furnace. ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Name two substances which react together to produce most of the energy required to heat the furnace to 1400C ___________________________ _____________________ What impurities are found and how are they removed. ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ Extracting zinc How do you extract zinc from zinc blende? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ AIR and WATER Y11 What is the equation for respiration _______________________________________________________ What is the equation for combustion _______________________________________________________ What is the equation for photosynthesis _______________________________________________________ Seperation of air You can separate gases from air by fractional distillation. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 2 uses of oxygen _______________________________________ 2 uses of nitrogen _______________________________________ 2 uses of noble gases _______________________________________ Water treatment Add the labels chlorination (kill bacteria) coagulant sand filters and charcoal add air What is thermal decomposition? _______________________________________________________ What is the composition of air? Complete the pie chart for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other gases Name 4 pollutants in air _______________________________ _______________________________ ______________________________ Rusting What 2 conditions are needed for rusting? _______________________ Write and equation __________________________________________ How can you stop rusting _____________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Define solution_________________________________ Define solvent _________________________________ Define soluble_________________________________ 2 tests for water? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Non-Metals Y11 Thermal decomposition Define Thermal decomposition ______________________________ Making fertilisers Element What it is used for? Nitrogen _______________________________________ Phosphorous _______________________________________ Potassium _______________________________________ Equations for making fertilisers Ammonia + nitric acid __________________ ________ + Sulphuric acid ammonium _________ Ammonia + ___________ acid _________ phosphate Potassium hydroxide + nitric acid potassium ____ +water Ammonium chloride + calcium hydroxide calcium chloride + water + _______ Haber Process What does the Haber process make? ______________________ What is the equation ? __________________________________ Where does the nitrogen come from? ______________________ Where does the hydrogen come from? _____________________ 3 conditions for the Haber Process? _______________________ _____________________________________________________ 2 Uses of Calcium oxide ____________________________________ What is the equation for calcium oxide when it reacts with water? ________________________________________________________ Limestone Formula of Limestone? ___________________________________ 2 uses of limestone _____________________________________ Formula of Lime _______________________________________ 2 uses of lime ________________________________________ Formula of Slaked Lime ___________________________________ 2 uses of Slaked Lime ____________________________________ Organic Chemistry Y11 Difference between alkanes and alkenes __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ What can you use to test if something is an alkane or alkene? __________________________________________________ Cracking What is cracking? __________________________________________ _______________________ ________________________________ What conditions are needed for cracking? ________________________________________________________ What is a hydrocarbon? _____________________________________ Combustion Two ways to make alcohol __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ What is combustion? ________________________________________ Equation for Complete Combustion ________________________________________________________ Equation for Incomplete Combustion ________________________________________________________ Fractional Distillation The crude oil enters the column at the _________ where it is extremely ________. Here the different fractions _________ and evaporates. The higher they rise the _________ they become. When they _________ enough they will turn back to _________. The fractions can be collected at the __________ of the column. Fractions with ___________ boiling points are found at the bottom. Ones with _________ boiling points are found at the top. Polymers Y11 Match up the following 5 uses of plastics __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ______________________ 5 properties of plastics __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ _____________________ How can plastics be disposed of __________________________ ________________________ Acids and Bases Y10 Zinc reacts with oxygen. Zinc oxide is made. What are the reactants?________ ________ What is the product?_____________ Complete the word equation for this reaction ___________+ ____________ __________ ________ 2Zn + O2 2ZnO How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the left-hand side? Zn ______ 0_______ How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the right-hand side? Zn ______ O______ Is this equation balanced? Yes/No Reactions with Acids. Complete the equations Acid+ metal salt + hydrogen Hydrochloric acid + _________ magnesium chloride + hydrogen _________ acid + zinc zinc sulfate + Hydrogen Acid + metal oxide salt + water Acid + metal hydroxide salt + water Nitric acid + copper oxide- ___________ ___________ + water Sulphuric acid + ________ _______ zinc sulfate + water ___________acid + sodium hydroxide sodium chloride + ______ Acid+ metal carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxide Hydrochloric acid + sodium carbonate ______ ________ + water + ___________ ____________ Which gas What do you do? What happens? Gives a squeaky pop Bubble through limewater Oxygen pH 2 Colour with Universal indicator Acid Alkali, neutral? Purple Strong Alkali 7 Red 8 Blue 14 Green Acids have pHs of _____ to _____ Bases (soluble alkalis) have pHs of _______ to ______. Neutral is pH _______ Indicators are used to…. Complete the equation for a neutralisation reaction: Acid+ Alkali ________ + _________ Tick which of the following are real uses of neutralisation reactions. Indigestion tablets (neutralising stomach acid) In cars (neutralising battery acid) On fish and chips (vinegar is an acid) In Gardening (Neutralising acidic soils) In Lakes (Neutralising lakes which have become acidic due to acid rain In the Lab Metal Y11 Colour of flame Copper Ion tested Solution added Barium chloride + dilute hydrochloric acid Chloride (Cl–) colour A white precipitate Copper zinc Lilac Lithium Sodium hydroxide Brick-red Sodium Iron(III), (Fe3+(aq)) Barium 2+ White precipitate in NaOH, which dissolves in excess Sodium hydroxide with aluminium foil and heat Hydrochloric acid Bubbles of carbon dioxide are given off. Iron(II) (Fe (aq)) Colourless precipitate Iodide (I–) Barium chloride + dilute hydrochloric acid Metal Colour of flame Carbon dioxide Damp litmus gets bleached Oxygen Hydrogen A white precipitate of barium sulfate is formed.