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Transcript
States of Matter
Diffusion
Define diffusion __________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
The smoke forms nearer
to the ammonia end –
why?.________________
___________________-
Pressure
Define pressure __________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
Draw a particles
(circles) diagram
Heating and cooling curves
Label the graph with the
state at each point.
Why does the temperature
not change when something
changes state
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Define Solvent _________________________________________
Define Solute _________________________________________
Define insoluble _________________________________________
Define dissolve_________________________________________
Define solution_________________________________________
State 4 ways to increase pressure
________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Separation techniques – draw a labelled diagram for the
following and give an example of each
filtering
Chromatography
Distillation
Fractional distillation
Crystallisation
Purity testing
Chemical reactions
Metallic/Ionic/Covalent Bonding
Give 4 signs that a chemical reaction has taken place
•______________________________________________
•______________________________________________
•______________________________________________
•______________________________________________
Element/compound or mixture
Can contain any number of
substances in a different ratio
A/B/C/D Element/compound
or mixture
Contains one type of atom
A/B/C/D Element/compound
or mixture
Contains more than one type of
atom chemically bonded
A/B/C/D lement/compound
or mixture
Covalent Bonding – Draw on the electrons to
Ionic Bonding – Draw the ions for the following
show bonding
Diamond
Graphite
Hydrogen
Chlorine
Use
Water
Oxygen
Bonding
(diagram)
Properties
Methane (CH4)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Subatomic
particle
Mass
Charge
+1
-1
0
Colour on the Periodic table
• non-metals
• unreactive gases
• alkali metals are found (very reactive)
Atoms in the same group have similar
properties because they have the same number
of _____________ in the outer shell.
The mass number is the total number of
________ and _______.
The atomic number is the number of
__________.
Match the pictures above with the words
below and define the words
Element
Compound
Mixture
Complete the sentences with the following words. (some are red herrings!) Ionic
element Isotopes
• Isotopes are atoms of the same element with
sodium
electron covalent chlorine chlorine
sodium
Na+
the same/different numbers of protons.
NaCl+ compoundClIsotopes are atoms of the same element with
Sodium chloride NaCl is a ____________. There are __________ bonds between the two
the same/ different numbers of electrons.
elements _________ and _________. When these atoms bond one ____________ from the
• Isotopes are atoms of the same element with
___________ atom is donated to the _____________ atom. This results in 2 ions : _______ and
the same/ different numbers of neutrons.
_______.
Complete the
electron
arrangement
of a boron
atom
Complete the
electron
arrangement
of a boron
ion
ion
Lost/
gained?
Number of
electrons
Mg 2+
lost
2
Cl Li +
O 2Fe 3+
Label
Nucleon number and Proton number (LHS)
Protons neutrons
Electrons (RHS)
Periodic Table
Subatomic
particle
Mass
Charge
+1
-1
0
Colour on the Periodic table
• non-metals
• unreactive gases
• alkali metals are found (very reactive)
Atoms in the same group have similar properties because they have the same
number of _____________ in the outer shell. The nucleon number is the total
number of ________ and _______. The proton number is the number of
__________which is equal to the number of ________________.
Transition metals
Alkali Metals
What do they look like?
______________________________________
What are their physical
properties?
_________________________
_________________________
Why are they stored under oil?
_______________________________________
Why does reactivity increase down the group?
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
Write the equation for sodium with water
produces sodium hydroxide and hydrogen
______________________________________
What are their chemical
properties?
_________________________
_________________________
What are their uses?
_________________________
_________________________
Halogens
Give two examples of halogens
______________________________________
Describe what they look like
_______________________________________
Why does reactivity decrease down the group?
_______________________________________
_____________________________________
Moles
Avagadro’s constant is 6.02x1023
Atom calculations
How many atoms of carbon are in a 10 g diamond
Moles = mass/RMM = 10/12= 0.833 moles
1 moles = 6.02x1023
0.833 x 6.02x1023 = 5.02x1023
Gas Calculations
What volume does 0.25moles of a gas occupy at rtp?
1 mole occupies 24 dm3
so 0.25 moles occupies 0.25 x 24 dm3 = 6 dm3
So 0.25 moles of any gas occupies 6dm3 at rtp.
Q 3 What volume of nitrogen reacts with 10 kg of hydrogen to form
ammonia?
N2(g) + 3 H2(g) ® 2 NH3(g)
Q4 What volume of oxygen reacts with 510 g of ammonia?
4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) ® 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g)
Q1 What mass of silicon contains 1.25x1022 silicon atoms
Q2 What mass of titanium contains 1.204x1024 atoms
What mass of aluminium oxide is produced when 135 g of
aluminium is burned in oxygen?
2 Al + 3 O2  Al2O3
Concentrations
Solution A contains 2.5g copper sulphate in 1dm3 of water
Solution B contains 125g copper sulphate in 0.5dm3 water
Change the mass to moles.
Mr of copper sulphate is 250
Solution A : 2.5g = 0.01 moles 1dm3 there are 0.01 moles/dm3
What mass of iodine is produced when 7.1 g of chlorine
reacts with excess potassium iodide?
Cl2 + 2 KI  2 KCl + I2
Solution B : 125g in 0.5dm3, which is 250g in 1dm3 =1 moles/dm3 = 1M
For each of the following compounds the Mr and the empirical formula is
shown. Work out the molecular formula of each compound.
Q6 The Mr of sodium hydroxide is 40. How many grams of sodium
hydroxide are in
a)
500cm3 of a molar solution
b)
25cm3 of a 0.5M solution
1. empirical formula = CH3
Mr = 30
2. empirical formula = NH3
Mr = 17
3. empirical formula = CH2
Mr = 98
4. empirical formula = CH
Mr = 78
Calculate the percentage of the elements shown in the following compounds:
C in CO
N in (NH4)2SO4
O in Al(OH)3
O in Na2CO3.10H2O
Q5 What is the concentration of a solution containing.
a)
4 moles in 2 dm3 of solution
b)
0.3 moles in 200cm3 of solution
Acids and Bases
Zinc reacts with oxygen. Zinc oxide is made.
What are the reactants?________ ________
What is the product?_____________
Complete the word equation for this reaction
___________+ ____________ __________ ________
2Zn + O2 2ZnO
How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the left-hand side?
Zn ______
0_______
How many Zinc and Oxygen atoms are on the right-hand side?
Zn ______
O______
Is this equation balanced? Yes/No
Reactions with Acids. Complete the equations
Acid+ metal  salt + hydrogen
Hydrochloric acid + _________  magnesium chloride + hydrogen
_________ acid + zinc  zinc sulfate + Hydrogen
Acid + metal oxide  salt + water
Acid + metal hydroxide  salt + water
Nitric acid + copper oxide- ___________ ___________ + water
Sulphuric acid + ________ _______  zinc sulfate + water
___________acid + sodium hydroxide  sodium chloride + ______
Acid+ metal carbonate  salt + water + carbon dioxide
Hydrochloric acid + sodium carbonate ______ ________ + water +
___________ ____________
Which gas
What do you do?
What happens?
Gives a squeaky pop
Bubble through
limewater
Oxygen
pH
2
Colour with
Universal
indicator
Acid Alkali, neutral?
Purple
Strong Alkali
7
Red
8
Blue
14
Green
Acids have pHs of _____ to _____
Bases (soluble alkalis) have pHs of _______ to ______.
Neutral is pH _______
Indicators are used to….
Complete the equation for a neutralisation reaction:
Acid+ Alkali  ________ + _________
Tick which of the following are real uses of neutralisation reactions.
 Indigestion tablets (neutralising stomach acid)
 In cars (neutralising battery acid)
 On fish and chips (vinegar is an acid)
 In Gardening (Neutralising acidic soils)
 In Lakes (Neutralising lakes which have become acidic due to acid rain
Organic Chemistry
Difference between alkanes and alkenes
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
What can you use to test if something is an alkane or alkene?
__________________________________________________
Cracking
What is cracking? __________________________________________
_______________________ ________________________________
What conditions are needed for cracking?
________________________________________________________
What is a hydrocarbon? _____________________________________
Combustion
Two ways to make alcohol
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
What is combustion? ________________________________________
Equation for Complete Combustion
________________________________________________________
Equation for Incomplete Combustion
________________________________________________________
Fractional Distillation
The crude oil enters the column at the _________ where it is extremely
________. Here the different fractions _________ and evaporates. The higher
they rise the _________ they become. When they _________ enough they
will turn back to _________. The fractions can be collected at the __________
of the column. Fractions with ___________ boiling points are found at the
bottom. Ones with _________ boiling points are found at the top.
Polymers
Match up the following
5 uses of plastics
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
______________________
5 properties of plastics
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
__________________________
_____________________
How can plastics be disposed of
__________________________
________________________
Rates of Reaction
What FOUR things cause a reaction to increase?
Explain using particle theory!
Define Rate of Reaction
_______________________________________
Two reasons a reaction stops?
1. ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________
What 2 things need to occur for a reaction to happen
3. ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________
Draw the apparatus to investigate the rate of reaction
Describe the role of light in photochemical reactions and the
effect on the rate (speed)
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
Behaviour of Metals
Where are metals found in the periodic table? __________________
Name 5 properties of metals _________________________________
_________________________________________________________
Chemical properties of metals________________________________
________________________________________________________
Draw a picture of an alloy
What is an alloy?
___________________
______________________
Iron reduces copper oxide (OIL RIG)
Equation
Fe (s) + CuO (s)  FeO (s) + Cu(s)
Half equations __________________________________
_________________________________
Ionic equations _________________________________
Thermal Decomposition Reactions
_____________  Oxide + carbon dioxide (except Na &K)
_____________  Oxide + Water (except Na & K)
_____________  Oxide + nitrogen dioxide + oxygen (except Na & K)
Why does aluminium not rust? ______________________________
_______________________________________________________
Explain 2 ways you can protect iron from rusting?
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
REDOX
Rules
Oxidation state of an
element is 0
Ionic compounds
oxidation state is its
charge
Hydrogen = +1
OILRIG stands for
O_________ I__ L_______ o __ e_________
R__________ I__ G_______ o__ e_________
Work out the oxidation states :
2Mg + O2  2MgO
Mg = ______
O = _____
MgO ______
Has the Mg been oxidised/reduced?
Has the O been oxidised/reduced?
Oxygen = -2
This reaction takes place in the blast furnace:
Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO ( g)  2Fe (l) + 3CO2( g)
The word equation for the reaction is:
……………………………………………………………………………………………
It is a redox reaction, because
……………………………………………………………………………………………
The reducing agent in this reaction is ………………………………....
Oxidation states in a
compound = 0
What is the oxidation state of:
Cu in CuO ___________
Cu in Cu2O ___________
Fe in FeCl2 ___________
Fe in FeCl3 ___________
Which is being oxidised and which is being reduced?
a) Mg + 2HCl
b) 2CO + O2
c) 3H2 +
→ MgCl2
→ 2 CO2
N2 →
d) 4Na + O2
→
2NH3
2Na2O
+
H2
Electrolysis
What is a conductor? ____________________________
What is an insulator? ___________________________
Why are the only solids that conduct are metals
and graphite ___________________________________
________________________________________________
Why do ionic substances only conduct when
molten/dissolved
Electrolysis
Define electrolysis _______________________
______________________________________
4 uses of electrolysis _____________________
______________________________________
RULES FOR ELECTROLYSIS
At cathode (-), either a metal/hydrogen forms
•
If a metal is more reactive than hydrogen its ions stay in
solution and hydrogen bubbles off
•
If the metal is less reactive than hydrogen the metal forms.
At anode (+) a non-metal other than hydrogen
forms.
•
If it is a concentrated solution of a halide then halogens
form.
•
If the halide solution is dilute /no halide oxygen forms.
Chemical
Uses
Sodium
chloride
Chlorine
Hydrogen
Sodium
hydroxide
Electrolysis of Brine
Ionic equation at cathode
___________________________
Ionic equation at anode
___________________________
Test for chlorine
_______________
Electrolysis of copper with copper electrodes
Match the keyword
Ionic equation at cathode ___________________________
Anode
negative ions
Cathode
liquid which conducts electricity
Anions
positive electrode
Electrolysis of copper with inert electrodes
Cations
Positive ions
Ionic equation at cathode ___________________________
Electrolyte
Negative electrode
Ionic equation at anode
Ionic equation at anode
___________________________
___________________________
USES of METALS
Extraction of metals from the ores
Name two uses of aluminium? ______________________________
_______________________________________________________
Label on the right  Which ones are extracted by
electrolysis, which are found naturally and which are
burnt with carbon and reduced
Two uses of copper ? _____________________________________
Ores
Two uses of zinc? _____________________________________
What is haematite ? ______________________
What is bauxite? _________________________
Name the uses of mild steel ________________________________
Name the uses of stainless steel _____________________________
_______________________________________________________
Name the uses of copper related to its properties ______________
_______________________________________________________
Label the blast furnace
Name an iron ore used in the
blast furnace.
_________________________
Name two substances that are
mixed with iron ore
___________________________
_______________________
Name one of the gases leaving
the blast furnace.
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Name two substances which
react together to produce most
of the energy required to heat
the furnace to 1400C
___________________________
_____________________ What
impurities are found and how are
they removed.
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Extracting zinc
How do you extract zinc from zinc blende?
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
Equilibrium & Breaking Bonds
Define exothermic reaction _______________________
_______________________________________________
Define endothermic reaction ______________________
_________________________________________________
Define equilibrium _______________________________
_________________________________________________
Define Dynamic ___________________________________
_________________________________________________
Exothermic/endothermic?
Amount of energy needed to break bonds less than amount of energy
released.
Exothermic/endothermic
If the energy taken in to break bonds is more than the energy
released
Exothermic/endothermic
Burning a fuel in air
Exothermic/endothermic
Hydrogen
Biofuel
Nuclear fuel
2 pros
2 cons
Increasing Pressure
Increasing Concentration
Increasing temperature
AIR and WATER
What is the equation for respiration
_______________________________________________________
What is the equation for combustion
_______________________________________________________
What is the equation for photosynthesis
_______________________________________________________
Seperation of air
You can separate gases from air by fractional distillation.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
2 uses of oxygen
_______________________________________
2 uses of nitrogen _______________________________________
2 uses of noble gases _______________________________________
Water treatment
Add the labels
chlorination (kill bacteria)
coagulant
sand filters and charcoal
add air
What is thermal decomposition?
_______________________________________________________
What is the composition of air?
Complete the pie chart for oxygen,
nitrogen, carbon dioxide and other
gases
Name 4 pollutants in air
_______________________________
_______________________________
______________________________
Rusting
What 2 conditions are needed for rusting? _______________________
Write and equation __________________________________________
How can you stop rusting _____________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
Define solution_________________________________
Define solvent _________________________________
Define soluble_________________________________
2 tests for water?
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Non-Metals Y11
Thermal decomposition
Define Thermal decomposition ______________________________
Making fertilisers
Element
What it is used for?
Nitrogen
_______________________________________
Phosphorous
_______________________________________
Potassium
_______________________________________
Equations for making fertilisers
Ammonia + nitric acid  __________________
________ + Sulphuric acid  ammonium _________
Ammonia + ___________ acid  _________ phosphate
Potassium hydroxide + nitric acid  potassium ____ +water
Ammonium chloride + calcium hydroxide calcium chloride + water + _______
Haber Process
What does the Haber process make? ______________________
What is the equation ? __________________________________
Where does the nitrogen come from? ______________________
Where does the hydrogen come from? _____________________
3 conditions for the Haber Process? _______________________
_____________________________________________________
2 Uses of Calcium oxide ____________________________________
What is the equation for calcium oxide when it reacts with water?
________________________________________________________
Limestone
Formula of Limestone? ___________________________________
2 uses of limestone _____________________________________
Formula of Lime _______________________________________
2 uses of lime ________________________________________
Formula of Slaked Lime ___________________________________
2 uses of Slaked Lime ____________________________________
Ion tested
In the Lab
Metal
Colour of flame
Copper
Solution added
Barium chloride + dilute
hydrochloric acid
Chloride (Cl–)
colour
A white precipitate
Copper
zinc
Lilac
Lithium
Sodium hydroxide
Brick-red
Sodium
Iron(III), (Fe3+(aq))
Barium
2+
White precipitate in NaOH, which dissolves
in excess
Sodium hydroxide with
aluminium foil and heat
Hydrochloric acid
Bubbles of carbon dioxide are given off.
Iron(II) (Fe (aq))
Colourless precipitate
Iodide (I–)
Barium chloride + dilute
hydrochloric acid
Metal
Colour of flame
Carbon dioxide
Damp litmus gets bleached
Oxygen
Hydrogen
A white precipitate of barium sulfate is
formed.