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Sunna and Hadiths
The Effects of the Prophet (pbuh)
Contains the prophets
wants and deeds. His
words, deeds and
habitual practices—a
pattern of behavior.
Literary form of the
Sunna. “’Being new’
and occurring, taking
place, coming to
pass.” When referred
to Muhammad and
his companions it
became tradition.
Parts of the Hadith
Hadith Relayed
Classification of Hadith
The Shari’a
The Watering Hole
Hudud and Tazirat
 Hudud
 Are punishments based on the Qur’an or
Sunna (divinely specified)
 Tazirat
 Are punishments left to the discretion of the
 Theft
 Amputation of hand
 Fornication
 100 lashes
 Adultery
 Stoning to death
 False accusation of unchastity
 80 lashes
 Wine Drinking
 40 lashes (Imam Shafi) 80 for others
Schools of Law
Jurisprudence within Islam
Sunni Schools of Law
There are Four
Sunni schools of
 Abu Hanifa – d. 767
 The Hanifite School
 Malik ibn Anas – d. 795
 The Maliki School
 Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi’i – d. 819
 The Shafi’i School
 Ahmad Hanbal – d. 855
 The Hanbali School
The Hanifite School
This is the Abu
Hanifa Mosque in
 The School of Opinion – It relies heavily
on reason and Hanifa argued that reason
should be the principal method by which
interpretations should be made. This
particular school is popular in Central and
Western Asia (from Afghanistan to Turkey),
Lower Egypt (Cairo and the Delta) and the
Indian subcontinent.
The Maliki School
This is the signature
of Malik ibn Anas
 The School of Tradition – It rejects free
reason and emphasized the Hadith alone
should guide the Muslim in all matters.
The Shafi’i School
This is the
mausoleum of
Muhammad ibn Idris
 The Foundations of Jurisprudence –
This school was founded by the greatest
single legal scholar in Islamic history,
Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafi’i. This well
traveled scholar developed the standard for
Islamic jurisprudence. For him it was:
 Qur’an
 Sunna
 Ijma’ (consensus of the community)
 Qiyas (analogy)
The Hanbali School
This is the signature
of Ahmad ibn
 The Rightly Guided – This school
believes that only the Qur’an and the
Hadiths can truly guide the believer. The
school is extremely conservative and has
spawned a rather fundamentalist school.
Shi’ite Schools
Shi’ite Jurisprudence
Shrine of the Hidden
 Zaydis
 The Ismailis
 Ithna-’asharis
 Aka Twelvers
 Aka Imamis
Twelver Shi’ite Jurisprudence
Called Twelvers
because hey believe
that the Prophet was
followed by 12
 Shaikh al-Bufi (d. 1022)
 Qur’an
 Shi’ite tradition
 Reason
 Ijma (consensus) when agreed with Imam
Rejected analogy
 Sharif al-Murtada (d. 1024)
 Qur’an
 Traditions
Rejected reason and One informer
 al-Hasan at-Tusi (d. 1067) aka Shaikah at-Taifa
(Sheikh of the Community)
Accepted traditions with one informer but had to
be Shi’ite.
Muslim scholars
 Science of the Content of Revelation
 Science of the Mecca and Medina Verses
 Science of Abrogation
 Science of Reputations of the Transmitters
of the text.
The Five Principles
The categories of Acts
The Five Principles - ahkam
 There are five categories of acts in
 fard or wajib
 obligatory
 mustahabb sunna, masnun, or mandub
 recommended
 mubah or ja’iz
 permissible
 makruh
 hated
 haram
 prohibited
fard or wajib
 Duties and acts required by
all Muslims
 Iranian embassy in South
sunna, masnun, mandub or mustahabb
 Duties and acts that are
 A little boy praying
recommended but not
ja’iz or mubah
 Indifferent actions
 Aisha, an American Muslim
 Actions that are
disapproved but not
 Two boys of the Kazakh
and Kyrgyz people in
Russia eating horse meat.
 Actions that are both
 To the left pork sausage
forbidden and punished.
(haram) and to the right
chicken sausage (halal).