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The Genesis of Science Arabic Science: • • • • Jim al-Khalili http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvH6dI3CyY4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5OA17j3wxrI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LspPkIV_VK0 • A term that is used to refer to the different activities that were sponsored by the Abbasid caliphs shortly after 750 in different scientific fields, including: mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and optics. Mathematics • Hisab or ‘ilm al-a‘dad is the Arabic term used for Arithmetic. • Arabic theory of ‘ilm al-’adad derives from two sources: - Books VII through IX of Euclid’s Elements and the Introduction to the Science of Numbers by Nicomachus of Gerasa (this work was translated by Thabit b. Qurrah). Mathematics • Our modern number system is called Hindu-Arabic in recognition of its origins in the number systems of India and Arabia. Our number system depends fundamentally on the number 0 (zero), which was invented by Arab mathematicians. A numeral is sometimes called a cipher (hence encipher, decipher) from the Arabic word sifr meaning zero. Mathematics • Ghiyath al-Din Abu ’l-Fath ‘Umar al-Khayyām Nishapuri (1048-1131) was a Persian polymath, philosopher, mathematician who contributed to the development of arithmetic, astronomer and poet. He also wrote treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, and Islamic theology. Mathematics • ‘Umar al-Khayyām wrote the influential Treatise on Demonstration of Problems of Algebra which developed the principles of algebra, part of the body of Persian Mathematics that was eventually transmitted to Europe. In particular, he derived general methods for solving cubic equations and even some higher orders. Mathematics Abu Abdullah Mohammad b. Musa alKhawarizmi (d. c. 225/840). • Adapted Ptolemy’s Geographike Hyphegesis • He wrote the first handbook in Arabic on Indian reckoning, • “Father of Algebra” • “algorithm” • He wrote an influential treatise on algebra Kitab al-Jabr wa al-Muqabala in the latter half of the twelfth century. The Development of Astronomy This science developed because of practical concerns and religious reasons among Muslims, and their needs to define the time of prayers. Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, and Maragha were major centers of astronomical research. The Arabs and Muslims developed major instruments for observation, including: • Astrolabe: it was used to determine the time of day or night. • The most popular type of astrolabe was Planispheric Astrolabe. • al-Zijes: a set of new tables with astronomical data. • Mibna and I’tibar are Arabic words that were used in Astronomy to render the concept of testing. • Al-Mumtahan: a new set of tables were made during the reign of al-Ma’mun by a group of astronomers. Astronomy • al-Shammasiyya district, on the left bank of the Tigris • Ibrahim al-Fazari (d. 179/796 or 190/806) • Translated the Indian book of Astronomy, Sindhind, into Arabic for al-Mansur • Helped plan the foundation of Baghdad • The first in the Arab world to make astrolabes Astronomy • Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Tusi (1201-1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi was a Persian polymath and prolific writer on a number of subjects including: architecture, astronomy, biology, chemistry, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, physics and theology. If we take all fields into account, he was more responsible for the revival of the Islamic sciences than any other individual. Astronomy • Tusi convinced Hulegu Khan to construct an observatory for establishing the most accurate astronomical tables for better astrological predictions. • Tusi made very accurate tables of planetary movements as depicted in his book Zij-i ilkhani (Ilkhanic Tables). • It was in his works that trigonometry achieved the status of an independent branch of pure mathematics. Astronomy • This book contains detailed astronomical tables for calculating the positions of the planets and the names of the stars. His model for the planetary system is believed to be the most advanced of his time, and was used extensively until the development of the heliocentric model in the time of Nicolaus Copernicus. Optics The sources for Arabic optics were: a) the writings of mathematicians Euclid, Ptolemy and Archimedes. b) the medical treatise of Galen c) the philosophical works of Aristotle. Hunayn Ibn Ishaq book “ the Ten treatise on the Eye” was based on Galen’s theory of vision. The Physics of Light • Abū ‘Ali al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham, known by the Latinized: Alhacen/Alhazen) (9651040) was a Muslim polymath, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher. • He made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to physics, astronomy, Arabic geometry, ophthalmology, philosophy, and to the scientific method. • He also wrote insightful commentaries on works by Aristotle, Ptolemy, and the Greek mathematician Euclid. The Physics of Light • Ibn al-Haytham wrote a famouse book Kitab al-Manazir (the Book of Optics). He proved that rays of light travel in straight lines, and carried out various experiments with lenses, mirrors, refraction, and reflection. • Ibn al-Haytham also gave the first clear description and early analysis of the camera obscura and pinhole camera. • An aspect associated with Ibn alHaytham’s optical research is related to systemic and methodological reliance on experimentation (i‘tibar) and controlled testing in his scientific inquiries. The Development of Medicine Baghdad was a major center for the study of medicine, and there were more than 800 doctors. There was interest and understanding of anatomy and the treatment of diseases. Muslims adopted Greek knowledge of medicine. Islamic medicine was influenced by the Jundishapur and the medical schools that developed in south-west Iran. It was also influenced by the Nestorians, who sought refuge, and taught Greek medicine in Syriac and Greek translations, and Jewish and Indian ideas. • The first earliest hospital in the Islamic world was built in Baghdad by Jibra’il b. Bkhtishu‘ who was the head of the school in Jundishapur, and who later became a court physician during the caliph al-Mansur. • Physicians had to pass medical exams before they could practice. • There were departments for quick treatments and emergency. Medicine • Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi known as Rhazes or Rasis after medieval Latinists (865-925), was a Persian polymath, a prominent figure in Islamic Golden Age, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar. • Numerous “firsts” in medical research, clinical care, and chemistry are attributed to him, including being the first to differentiate smallpox from measles, and the discovery of numerous compounds and chemicals including kerosene. Medicine • Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (936–1013), also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Arab physician who lived in al-Andalus. • He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World, and has been described by many as the father of modern surgery. His greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopaedia of medical practices. • His pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact in the East and West well into the modern period, where some of his discoveries are still applied in medicine to this day. • He was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, and the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia. Medicine • Ala’ al-Din Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali alDimashqi, known as Ibn al-Nafis, was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. • He was born in 1213 in Damascus and he attended the Medical College Hospital there. • In 1236, Ibn al-Nafis moved to Egypt. He worked at the al-Nasri Hospital, and subsequently at the al-Mansouri Hospital, where he became chief of physicians and the Sultan’s personal physician. When he died in 1288, he donated his house, library and clinic to the Mansuriya Hospital. Medicine • Ibn Sina, he was a famous medical scientist, and he is the most famous Muslim medical scientist in the west until today . • especially his Book The Canon of Medicine “ al-qanun fi at-tib.” This book included all the knowledge of the Arabs and Greeks about treating disease and had more than 4,000 prescriptions to treat diseases. • Ibn Sina also wrote “the Book of Healing” – “Kitab alShifa’a’” Hunayn Ibn Ishaq’s Book of the Ten Treatises the Eye was based on Galenic theory of vision. The Life of Science: Internal and Clinical Medicine Ibn al-Jazzar • Ibn al-Jazzar (died about 984) • He was a successful medical, practitioner, therapist and author in Qirawan in Tunisia. • He specialized in child care. • His books on child care, medicine and dietetic were translated into European languages. Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases • It is one of the main fields in which Arab physicians and oculists attained a level of proficiency that was never reached by the ancient and classical sages. • Hunayn b. Ishaq (the famous translator) was the first to write a systematic manual on ophthalmology. • The Study of ophthalmology reached its peak in the work of ‘Ali b. ‘Isa in Baghdad, who is the author of Dhakhirat alKahhalin (A Thesaurus for Ophthalmologists). • ‘Ali al-Mawsili was the first to introduce the technique of suction removal of the cataract to avoide the “aqueous calamity.” • Al-Ghafiqi of al-Andalus wrote also a guide to the oculist, in which he provided pictures of the surgical instruments he used in performing eye operations. Pharmacy and Pharmacology • It became an independent science under Islam. • Practiced by skilled specialists. • Sabur b. Sahl (d. 869) was the author of the first known formulary in Islam. Ibn al-Tilmidh also wrote Al-Aqrabadhin, a pharmaceutical text explaining how to prepare or prescribe a variety of medications. Geography Kitab Nuzhat al-Mushtaq fi Ikhtiraq al-Afaq by al-Idrisi. Agricultural Science • The Greeks, Nabateans legacies as well as the indigenous traditions all contributed to the development of agriculture in Islam. • Al-Filahah al-Rumiyah. • Ibn Wahshiyah wrote his famous book on al-Filahah al-Nabatiyah. • Ibn al-Bassal, the Andalusian wrote various books on the subject. • Al-‘Awwam of Seville wrote another book kitab al-Filahah.