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Ch. 5 Evolution and Community Ecology Study Guide What is the difference between primary and secondary succession? When is a species unlikely to become invasive? What is the cause if two populations spend several generations in isolation and the gene pool changes? What results from two species becoming specialized with their resources? When energy is transferred between trophic levels, how much energy is lost? Are humans generally carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, or detritivores? What is the difference between primary producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers? What type of succession will a forest be in after a fire? What makes an individual successful based on evolutionary terms? What happens to an organism if an environment changes too quickly for it to adapt? If two species’ traits begin to change over time based on resource specialization, what is this an example of? What is the difference between predation, parasitism, herbivory, mutualism, and commensalism? What is the ultimate source of energy? What has the greatest biomass in a food web? What is the difference between a fundamental niche and a realized niche? What is the difference between a specialist and a generalist? What is the difference between an ecosystem in equilibrium versus disequilibrium? What is a mutation? What is the difference between natural selection and artificial selection? What is symbiosis? What is a niche? What is coevolution? What do the arrows in a food web represent? What happens if a keystone species disappears from an ecosystem? Explain why understanding competition and niche could be important to controlling an invasive species or predicting whether an exotic species will become invasive. Explain the advantages to producing more offspring than might survive. How is this relevant to evolution? Explain how a sudden change in environment — either through a disaster or through shifts in conditions — might affect the evolution of species in the area. In a meadow community, you observe a high biomass of plants, a fairly high number of rodents, but only a single fox. Why?