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Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment Section 1 Force and Motion: Practice Problems For each of the following situations, specify the system and draw a motion diagram and a free-body diagram. Label all forces with their agents, and indicate the direction of the acceleration and of the net force. Draw vectors of appropriate lengths. Ignore air resistance unless otherwise indicated. 1. A sky diver falls downward through the air at constant velocity. (The air exerts an upward force on the person.) SOLUTION: 2. You hold a softball in the palm of your hand and toss it up. Draw the diagrams while the ball is still touching your hand. SOLUTION: 3. After the softball leaves your hand, it rises, slowing down. SOLUTION: 4. After the softball reaches its maximum height, it falls down, speeding up. SOLUTION: 5. Challenge You catch the ball in your hand and bring it to rest. SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 1 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 5. Challenge You catch the ball in your hand and bring it to rest. SOLUTION: 6. Two horizontal forces, 225 N and 165 N, are exerted on a canoe. If these forces are applied in the same direction, find the net horizontal force on the canoe. SOLUTION: 2 Fnet = 225 N + 165 N = 3.90×10 N in the direction of the two forces 7. If the same two forces as in the previous problem are exerted on the canoe in opposite directions, what is the net horizontal force on the canoe? Be sure to indicate the direction of the net force. SOLUTION: 1 Fnet = 225 N – 165 N = 6.0×10 N in the direction of the larger force. 8. Challenge Three confused sled dogs are trying to pull a sled across the Alaskan snow. Alutia pulls east with a force of 35 N, Seward also pulls east but with a force of 42 N, and big Kodiak pulls west with a force of 53 N. What is the net force on the sled? SOLUTION: Identify east as positive and the sled as the system. Fnet = FAlutia on sled + FSeward on sled – FKodiak on sled = 35 N + 42 N – 53 N = 24 N Fnet = 24 N east 9. A spring scale is used to exert a net force of 2.7 N on a cart. If the cart’s mass is 0.64 kg, what is the cart’s acceleration? SOLUTION: 10. Kamaria is learning how to ice skate. She wants her mother to pull her along so that she has an acceleration of 2 - Powered by Cognero eSolutions Manual Page 2 0.80 m/s . If Kamaria’s mass is 27.2 kg, with what force does her mother need to pull her? (Neglect any resistance between the ice and Kamaria’s skates.) Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 10. Kamaria is learning how to ice skate. She wants her mother to pull her along so that she has an acceleration of 2 0.80 m/s . If Kamaria’s mass is 27.2 kg, with what force does her mother need to pull her? (Neglect any resistance between the ice and Kamaria’s skates.) SOLUTION: Fnet = ma = (27.2 kg)(0.80 m/s2) = 22 N 11. Challenge Two horizontal forces are exerted on a large crate. The first force is 317 N to the right. The second force is 173 N to the left. a. Draw a force diagram for the horizontal forces acting on the crate. b. What is the net force acting on the crate? c. The box is initially at rest. Five seconds later, its velocity is 6.5 m/s to the right. What is the crate’s mass? SOLUTION: a. b. c. First, find the average acceleration. Then use the average acceleration to find the mass. Section 1 Force and Motion: Review 12. Main Idea Identify each of the following as either a, b, or c: mass, inertia, the push of a hand, friction, air resistance, spring force, gravity. and acceleration. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 3 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment Section 1 Force and Motion: Review 12. Main Idea Identify each of the following as either a, b, or c: mass, inertia, the push of a hand, friction, air resistance, spring force, gravity. and acceleration. a. a contact force b. a field force c. not a force SOLUTION: mass (c), inertia (c), push of a hand (a), friction (a), air resistance (a), spring force (a), gravity (b), acceleration (c) 13. Free-Body Diagram Draw a free-body diagram of a bag of sugar being lifted by your hand at an increasing speed. Specifically identify the system. Use subscripts to label all forces with their agents. Remember to make the arrows the correct lengths. SOLUTION: 14. Free-Body Diagram Draw a free-body diagram of a water bucket being lifted by a rope at a decreasing speed. Specifically identify the system. Label all forces with their agents and make the arrows the correct lengths. SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 4 15. Critical Thinking A force of 1 N is the only horizontal force exerted on a block, and the horizontal acceleration of Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 14. Free-Body Diagram Draw a free-body diagram of a water bucket being lifted by a rope at a decreasing speed. Specifically identify the system. Label all forces with their agents and make the arrows the correct lengths. SOLUTION: 15. Critical Thinking A force of 1 N is the only horizontal force exerted on a block, and the horizontal acceleration of the block is measured. When the same horizontal force is the only force exerted on a second block, the horizontal acceleration is three times as large. What can you conclude about the masses of the two blocks? SOLUTION: Because m = F/a and the forces are the same, the mass of the second block is one-third the mass of the first block. Section 2 Weight and Drag Force: Practice Problems 16. You place a watermelon on a spring scale calibrated to measure in newtons. If the watermelon’s mass is 4.0 kg, what is the scale’s reading? SOLUTION: The scale reads the weight of the watermelon: Fg = mg = (4.0 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 39 N 17. You place a 22.50-kg television on a spring scale. If the scale reads 235.2 N, what is the gravitational field at that location? SOLUTION: 18. A 0.50-kg guinea pig is lifted up from the ground. What is the smallest force needed to lift it? Describe the particular motion resulting from this minimum force. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero SOLUTION: Flift = Fg Page 5 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 18. A 0.50-kg guinea pig is lifted up from the ground. What is the smallest force needed to lift it? Describe the particular motion resulting from this minimum force. SOLUTION: Flift = Fg = mg = (0.50 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 4.9 N It would move at a constant speed. 19. Challenge A grocery sack can withstand a maximum of 230 N before it rips. Will 2 a bag holding 15 kg of groceries that is lifted from the checkout counter at an acceleration of 7.0 m/s hold? SOLUTION: Use Newton’s second law Fnet = ma. If Fbag on groceries > 230 N, then the bag rips. Fnet = Fbag on groceries + Fg Fbag on groceries = Fnet – Fg = (15 kg)(7.0 m/s2) – (15 kg)(–9.8 N/kg) = 105 N + 147 N = 252 N The bag does not hold. 20. On Earth, a scale shows that you weigh 585 N. a. What is your mass? b. What would the scale read on the Moon (g = 1.60 N/kg)? SOLUTION: a. The scale reads 585 N. Since there is no acceleration, your weight equals the downward force of gravity: b. On the moon, g changes: Fg = mgMoon = (59.7 kg)(1.60 N/kg) = 95.5 N 21. Challenge Use the results from Example Problem 3 to answer questions about a scale in an elevator on Earth. What force would be exerted by the scale on a person in the following situations? a. The elevator moves upward at constant speed. 2 b. It slows at 2.0 m/s while moving downward. c. It speeds up at 2.00 m/s2 while moving downward. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 6 d. It moves downward at constant speed. e . In what direction is the net force as the elevator slows to a stop as it is moving down? Fg = mgMoon = (59.7 kg)(1.60 N/kg) Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment = 95.5 N 21. Challenge Use the results from Example Problem 3 to answer questions about a scale in an elevator on Earth. What force would be exerted by the scale on a person in the following situations? a. The elevator moves upward at constant speed. 2 b. It slows at 2.0 m/s while moving downward. c. It speeds up at 2.00 m/s2 while moving downward. d. It moves downward at constant speed. e . In what direction is the net force as the elevator slows to a stop as it is moving down? SOLUTION: a. Constant speed, so a = 0 and Fnet = 0. Fscale = Fg = mg = (75.0 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 735 N b. 2 a = –2.00 m/s Fscale = Fnet + Fg = ma + mg 2 = (75.0 kg)(2.00 m/s ) + (75.0 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 150 N + 735 N = 885 N c. a = –2.00 m/s2 Fscale = Fnet + Fg = ma + mg = (75.0 kg)(–2.00 m/s2 ) + (75.0 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = –150 N + 735 N = 585 N d. Constant speed, so a = 0 and F =0 net Fscale= Fg = mg = (75.0 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 735 N e. The acceleration is upward, so the net force is also upward. Section 2 Weight and Drag Force: Review 22. MAIN IDEA The skydiver shown in Figure 13 falls at a constant speed in the spread-eagle position. Immediately after opening the parachute, is the skydiver accelerating? If so, in which direction? Explain your answer using Newton’s laws. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 7 = (75.0 kg)(9.8 N/kg) = 735 N Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment e. The acceleration is upward, so the net force is also upward. Section 2 Weight and Drag Force: Review 22. MAIN IDEA The skydiver shown in Figure 13 falls at a constant speed in the spread-eagle position. Immediately after opening the parachute, is the skydiver accelerating? If so, in which direction? Explain your answer using Newton’s laws. SOLUTION: Yes, for a while the diver is accelerating upward because there is an additional upward force due to air resistance on the parachute. The upward acceleration causes the diver’s downward velocity to decrease. Newton’s second law says that a net force in a certain direction will result in an acceleration in that direction (Fnet = ma). 23. Lunar Gravity Compare the force holding a 10.0-kg rock on Earth and on the Moon. The gravitational field on the Moon is 1.6 N/kg. SOLUTION: 24. Motion of an Elevator You are riding in an elevator holding a spring scale with a 1-kg mass suspended from it. You look at the scale and see that it reads 9.3 N. What, if anything, can you conclude about the elevator’s motion at that time? SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 8 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 24. Motion of an Elevator You are riding in an elevator holding a spring scale with a 1-kg mass suspended from it. You look at the scale and see that it reads 9.3 N. What, if anything, can you conclude about the elevator’s motion at that time? SOLUTION: 25. Apparent Weight You take a ride in a fast elevator to the top of a tall building and ride back down. During which parts of the ride will your apparent and real weights be the same? During which parts will your apparent weight be less than your real weight? More than your real weight? Sketch free-body diagrams to support your answers. SOLUTION: Apparent weight and real weight are the same when you are traveling either up or down at a constant velocity. Apparent weight is less than real weight when the elevator is slowing while rising or speeding up while descending. Apparent weight is greater when speeding up while rising or slowing while going down. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 9 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 25. Apparent Weight You take a ride in a fast elevator to the top of a tall building and ride back down. During which parts of the ride will your apparent and real weights be the same? During which parts will your apparent weight be less than your real weight? More than your real weight? Sketch free-body diagrams to support your answers. SOLUTION: Apparent weight and real weight are the same when you are traveling either up or down at a constant velocity. Apparent weight is less than real weight when the elevator is slowing while rising or speeding up while descending. Apparent weight is greater when speeding up while rising or slowing while going down. 26. Acceleration Tecle, with a mass of 65.0 kg, is standing on an ice-skating rink. His friend applies a force of 9.0 N to him. What is Tecle’s resulting acceleration? SOLUTION: Identify Tecle as the system and the direction away from the boards as positive. The ice can be treated as a resistance-free surface. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 10 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 26. Acceleration Tecle, with a mass of 65.0 kg, is standing on an ice-skating rink. His friend applies a force of 9.0 N to him. What is Tecle’s resulting acceleration? SOLUTION: Identify Tecle as the system and the direction away from the boards as positive. The ice can be treated as a resistance-free surface. 27. Critical Thinking You have a job at a meat warehouse loading inventory onto trucks for shipment to grocery stores. Each truck has a weight limit of 10,000 N of cargo. You push each crate of meat along a low-resistance roller belt to a scale and weigh it before moving it onto the truck. One night, right after you weigh a 1000-N crate, the scale breaks. Describe a way in which you could apply Newton’s laws to approximate the masses of the remaining crates. SOLUTION: Answers may vary. One possible answer is the following: You can neglect resistance if you do all your maneuvering on the roller belt. Because you know the weight of the 1000 N crate, you can use it as your standard. Pull on the 1000 N crate with a particular force for 1 s, estimate its velocity, and calculate the acceleration that your force gave to it. Next, pull on a crate of unknown mass with as close to the same force as you can for 1 s. Estimate the crate’s velocity and calculate the acceleration your force gave to it. The force you pulled with on each crate will be the net force in each case. Section 3 Newton's Third Law: Practice Problems 28. You lift a relatively light bowling ball with your hand, accelerating it upward. What are the forces on the ball? What forces does the ball exert? What objects are these forces exerted on? SOLUTION: The forces on the ball are the force of your hand and the gravitational force of Earth’s mass. The ball exerts a force on your hand and a gravitational force on Earth. All these forces are exerted on your hand, on the ball, or on Earth. 29. A brick falls from a construction scaffold. Identify any forces acting on the brick. Also identify any forces the brick exerts and the objects on which these forces are exerted. (Air resistance may be ignored.) SOLUTION: The only force acting on the brick is the gravitational attraction of Earth’s mass. The brick exerts an eSolutions Manual Powered byforce Cognero Page 11 equal and- opposite on Earth. 30. A suitcase sits on a stationary airport luggage cart, as in Figure 16. Draw a free-body diagram for each object and SOLUTION: The forces on the ball are the force of your hand and the gravitational force of Earth’s mass. The ball exerts a force on your hand and a gravitational force on Earth. All these forces are exerted on your hand, Chapter 4 Practice Problems, on the ball, or on Earth. Review, and Assessment 29. A brick falls from a construction scaffold. Identify any forces acting on the brick. Also identify any forces the brick exerts and the objects on which these forces are exerted. (Air resistance may be ignored.) SOLUTION: The only force acting on the brick is the gravitational attraction of Earth’s mass. The brick exerts an equal and opposite force on Earth. 30. A suitcase sits on a stationary airport luggage cart, as in Figure 16. Draw a free-body diagram for each object and specifically indicate any interaction pairs between the two. SOLUTION: 31. Challenge You toss a ball up in the air. Draw a free-body diagram for the ball after it has lost contact with your hand but while it is still moving upward. Identify any forces acting on the ball. Also identify any forces that the ball exerts and the objects on which these forces are exerted. Assume that air resistance is negligible. SOLUTION: The only force acting on the ball is the force of Earth’s mass on the ball, when ignoring air resistance. The ball exerts an equal and opposite force on Earth. 32. Diego and Mika are trying to fix a tire on Diego’s car, but they are having trouble getting the tire loose. When they pull together in the same direction, Mika with a force of 23 N and Diego with a force of 31 N, they just barely get eSolutions Manual - Powered Page 12 the tire to move offby theCognero wheel. What is the magnitude of the strength of the force between the tire and the wheel? SOLUTION: Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 32. Diego and Mika are trying to fix a tire on Diego’s car, but they are having trouble getting the tire loose. When they pull together in the same direction, Mika with a force of 23 N and Diego with a force of 31 N, they just barely get the tire to move off the wheel. What is the magnitude of the strength of the force between the tire and the wheel? SOLUTION: Identify the tire as the system and the direction of pulling as positive. 33. Challenge You are helping to repair a roof by loading equipment into a bucket that workers hoist to the rooftop. If the rope is guaranteed not to break as long as the tension does not exceed 450 N and you fill the bucket until it has a mass of 42 kg, what is the greatest acceleration that the workers can give the bucket as they pull it to the roof? SOLUTION: Identify the bucket as the system and up as positive. Section 3 Newton’s Third Law: Review 34. Main Idea Hold a ball motionless in your hand in the air as in Figure 20. Identify each force acting on the ball and its interaction pair. SOLUTION: The forces on the ball are downward force of gravity due to the mass of Earth and the upward force of the hand. The force of the ball on Earth and the force of the ball on the hand are the other halves of the interaction pairs. by Cognero eSolutions Manual - Powered Page 13 35. Force Imagine lowering the ball in Figure 20 at increasing speed. Do any of the forces or their interaction-pair Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment Section 3 Newton’s Third Law: Review 34. Main Idea Hold a ball motionless in your hand in the air as in Figure 20. Identify each force acting on the ball and its interaction pair. SOLUTION: The forces on the ball are downward force of gravity due to the mass of Earth and the upward force of the hand. The force of the ball on Earth and the force of the ball on the hand are the other halves of the interaction pairs. 35. Force Imagine lowering the ball in Figure 20 at increasing speed. Do any of the forces or their interaction-pair partners change? Draw separate free-body diagrams for the forces acting on the ball and for each set of interaction pairs. SOLUTION: Yes, the force of the hand on the ball becomes smaller so there is a downward acceleration. The force of the ball on the hand also becomes smaller; you can feel that. The interaction pair partners remain the same. 36. Tension A block hangs from the ceiling by a massless rope. A second block is attached to the first block and hangs below it on another piece of massless rope. If each of the two blocks has a mass of 5.0 kg, what is the tension in each rope? SOLUTION: For the bottom rope with the positive direction upward: Manual - Powered by Cognero eSolutions For the top rope, with the positive direction upward: Page 14 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 36. Tension A block hangs from the ceiling by a massless rope. A second block is attached to the first block and hangs below it on another piece of massless rope. If each of the two blocks has a mass of 5.0 kg, what is the tension in each rope? SOLUTION: For the bottom rope with the positive direction upward: For the top rope, with the positive direction upward: 37. Tension A block hangs from the ceiling by a massless rope. A 3.0-kg block is attached to the first block and hangs below it on another piece of massless rope. The tension in the top rope is 63.0 N. Find the tension in the bottom rope and the mass of the top block. SOLUTION: For the bottom rope with the positive direction upward: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero For the top mass with the positive direction upward: Page 15 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 37. Tension A block hangs from the ceiling by a massless rope. A 3.0-kg block is attached to the first block and hangs below it on another piece of massless rope. The tension in the top rope is 63.0 N. Find the tension in the bottom rope and the mass of the top block. SOLUTION: For the bottom rope with the positive direction upward: For the top mass with the positive direction upward: 38. Critical Thinking A curtain prevents two tug-of-war teams from seeing each other. One team ties its end of the rope to a tree. If the other team pulls with a 500-N force, what is the tension in the rope? Explain SOLUTION: The tension would be 500 N. The rope is in equilibrium, so the net force on it is zero. The team and the tree exert equal forces in opposite directions. Chapter Assessment Section 1 Force and Motion: Mastering Concepts 39. BIG Idea You kick a soccer ball across a field. It slows down and comes to a stop. You ask your younger brother to explain what happened to the ball. He says, “The force of your foot was transferred to the ball, which made it move. When that force ran out, the ball stopped.” Would Newton agree with that explanation? If not, explain how Newton's laws would describe it. SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 16 Newton would disagree. There was an interaction between your foot and the ball. A force was exerted by your foot on the ball, which accelerated it. When moving across the field there was an interaction rope to a tree. If the other team pulls with a 500-N force, what is the tension in the rope? Explain SOLUTION: Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and isAssessment The tension would be 500 N. The rope in equilibrium, so the net force on it is zero. The team and the tree exert equal forces in opposite directions. Chapter Assessment Section 1 Force and Motion: Mastering Concepts 39. BIG Idea You kick a soccer ball across a field. It slows down and comes to a stop. You ask your younger brother to explain what happened to the ball. He says, “The force of your foot was transferred to the ball, which made it move. When that force ran out, the ball stopped.” Would Newton agree with that explanation? If not, explain how Newton's laws would describe it. SOLUTION: Newton would disagree. There was an interaction between your foot and the ball. A force was exerted by your foot on the ball, which accelerated it. When moving across the field there was an interaction between the ball and the grass. A force was exerted on the ball that caused it to accelerate: it slowed down. 40. Cycling Imagine riding a single-speed bicycle. Why do you have to push harder on the pedals to start the bicycle moving than to keep it moving at a constant velocity? SOLUTION: A large force is required to accelerate the mass of the bicycle and rider. Once the desired constant velocity is reached, a much smaller force is sufficient to overcome the ever-present frictional forces. Chapter Asssessment Section 1 Force and Motion: Mastering Problems 41. What is the net force acting on a 1.0-kg ball moving at a constant velocity? (Level 1) SOLUTION: Fnet = ma; since a = 0, Fnet = 0 42. Skating Joyce and Efua are skating. Joyce pushes Efua, whose mass is 40.0 kg, with a force of 5.0 N. What is Efua’s resulting acceleration? (Level 1) SOLUTION: 2 43. A 2300-kg car slows down at a rate of 3.0 m/s when approaching a stop sign. What is the magnitude of the net force causing it to slow down? (Level 1) SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 17 44. Breaking the Wishbone After Thanksgiving, Kevin and Gamal use the turkey’s wishbone to make a wish. If Kevin pulls on it with a force 0.17 N larger than the force Gamal pulls with in the opposite direction and the wishbone has a mass of 13 g, what is the wishbone’s initial acceleration? (Level 1) Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 2 43. A 2300-kg car slows down at a rate of 3.0 m/s when approaching a stop sign. What is the magnitude of the net force causing it to slow down? (Level 1) SOLUTION: 44. Breaking the Wishbone After Thanksgiving, Kevin and Gamal use the turkey’s wishbone to make a wish. If Kevin pulls on it with a force 0.17 N larger than the force Gamal pulls with in the opposite direction and the wishbone has a mass of 13 g, what is the wishbone’s initial acceleration? (Level 1) SOLUTION: Chapter Assessment Section 2 Weight and Drag Force: Mastering Concepts 45. Suppose that the acceleration of an object is zero. Does this mean that there are no forces acting on the object? Give an example using an everyday situation to support your answer. SOLUTION: No, it only means the forces acting on it are balanced and the net force is zero. A book at rest on a table is not moving but the force of gravity pulls down on it and the normal force of the table pushes up on it. These forces are balanced so the net force is zero. 46. Basketball When a basketball player dribbles a ball, it falls to the floor and bounces up. Is a force required to make it bounce? Why? If a force is needed, what is the agent involved? SOLUTION: Yes, its velocity changed direction; thus, it was accelerated and a force is required to accelerate the basketball. The agent is the floor. 47. A cart has a net horizontal force acting on it to the right. Jon says that it must be moving to the right. Joanne says no, it could be moving in either direction. Is either of these two correct? If so, explain and describe the velocity and acceleration (if any) of the cart. SOLUTION: Joanne is correct. The force to the right means that the acceleration is to the right. If it is moving to the right it is speeding up; if moving to the left it is slowing down. 48. Before a skydiver opens her parachute, she might be falling at a velocity higher than the terminal velocity that she will have after the parachute deploys. a. Describe what happens to her velocity as she opens the parachute. b. Describe the sky diver’s velocity from when her parachute has been open for a time until she is about to land. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero SOLUTION: a. Because the force of air resistance suddenly becomes larger, the diver’s velocity drops suddenly. b. The force of air resistance and the gravitational force are equal. Their sum is zero, so there is no Page 18 acceleration (if any) of the cart. SOLUTION: Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment Joanne is correct. The force to the right means that the acceleration is to the right. If it is moving to the right it is speeding up; if moving to the left it is slowing down. 48. Before a skydiver opens her parachute, she might be falling at a velocity higher than the terminal velocity that she will have after the parachute deploys. a. Describe what happens to her velocity as she opens the parachute. b. Describe the sky diver’s velocity from when her parachute has been open for a time until she is about to land. SOLUTION: a. Because the force of air resistance suddenly becomes larger, the diver’s velocity drops suddenly. b. The force of air resistance and the gravitational force are equal. Their sum is zero, so there is no longer any acceleration. The sky diver continues downward at a constant velocity. 49. Three objects are dropped simultaneously from the top of a tall building: a shot put, an air-filled balloon, and a basketball. a. Rank the objects in the order in which they will reach terminal velocity, from first to last. b. Rank the objects according to the order in which they will reach the ground, from first to last. c. What is the relationship between your answers to parts a and b? SOLUTION: a. balloon, basketball, shot put b. shot put, basketball, balloon c. They are inverses of each other. Chapter Assessment Section 2 Weight and Drag Force: Mastering Problems 50. What is your weight in newtons? Show your work. (Level 1) SOLUTION: Answers will vary depending on the mass. This example is for a mass of 68 kg. 51. A rescue helicopter lifts two people using a winch and a rescue ring as shown in Figure 21. (Level 2) a. The winch is capable of exerting a 2000-N force. What is the maximum mass it can lift? b. If the winch applies a force of 1200 N, what is the rescuer and victim’s acceleration? Draw a free-body diagram for the people being lifted. c. Using the acceleration from part b, how long does it take to pull the people up to the helicopter? Assume the people are initially at rest. SOLUTION: a. Fnet = Fwinch on people – Fw = 0 N Fw = Fwinch on people mmaxg = Fwinch on people mmax = Fwinch on people / g = (2000 N) / (9.8 N/kg) = 200 kg eSolutions b. Manual - Powered by Cognero Fnet = Fwinch on people – Fw = ma ma = F – mg Page 19 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 51. A rescue helicopter lifts two people using a winch and a rescue ring as shown in Figure 21. (Level 2) a. The winch is capable of exerting a 2000-N force. What is the maximum mass it can lift? b. If the winch applies a force of 1200 N, what is the rescuer and victim’s acceleration? Draw a free-body diagram for the people being lifted. c. Using the acceleration from part b, how long does it take to pull the people up to the helicopter? Assume the people are initially at rest. SOLUTION: a. Fnet = Fwinch on people – Fw = 0 N Fw = Fwinch on people mmaxg = Fwinch on people mmax = Fwinch on people / g = (2000 N) / (9.8 N/kg) = 200 kg b. Fnet = Fwinch on people – Fw = ma ma = Fwinch on people – mg a = (Fwinch on people – mg) / m = [1200 N – (120 kg)(9.8 N/kg)] / (120 kg) 2 = 0.20 m/s The free-body diagram should show that Fwinch on people is slightly longer than Fw. c. 52. What force would a scale in an elevator on Earth exert on a 53-kg person standing on it during the following situations? (Level 2) a. The elevator moves up at a constant speed. 2 b. It slows at 2.0 m/s while moving upward. c. It speeds up at 2.0 m/s2 while moving downward. d. The elevator moves down at a constant speed. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero 2 e . It slows to a stop while moving downward with a constant acceleration of 2.5 m/s . Page 20 situations? (Level 2) a. The elevator moves up at a constant speed. Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 2 b. It slows at 2.0 m/s while moving upward. c. It speeds up at 2.0 m/s2 while moving downward. d. The elevator moves down at a constant speed. 2 e . It slows to a stop while moving downward with a constant acceleration of 2.5 m/s . SOLUTION: a. b. Slows while moving up, so acceleration is negative, c. Speeds up while moving down, so acceleration is negative, d. e. Slows while moving down, so acceleration is positive, eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero 53. Astronomy On the surface of Mercury, the gravitational field is 0.38 times its value on Earth. (Level 3) Page 21 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 53. Astronomy On the surface of Mercury, the gravitational field is 0.38 times its value on Earth. (Level 3) a. What would a 6.0-kg mass weigh on Mercury? b. If the gravitational field on the surface of Pluto is 0.08 times that of Mercury, what would a 7.0-kg mass weigh on Pluto? SOLUTION: a. b. 54. A 65-kg diver jumps off of a 10.0-m tower. Assume that air resistance is negligible. a. Find the diver’s velocity when the diver hits the water. b. The diver comes to a stop 2.0 m below the surface. Find the net force exerted by the water. SOLUTION: a. b. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Chapter Assessment Section 3 Newton’s Third Law: Mastering Concepts Page 22 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment Chapter Assessment Section 3 Newton’s Third Law: Mastering Concepts 55. A rock is dropped from a bridge. Earth pulls on the rock and accelerates it downward. According to Newton’s third law, the rock also pulls on Earth, but Earth does not seem to accelerate. Explain. SOLUTION: The rock does pull on Earth, but Earth’s enormous mass would undergo only a minute acceleration as a result of such a small force. This acceleration would go undetected. 56. Explain why the tension in a massless rope is constant throughout the rope. SOLUTION: If you draw a free-body diagram for any point on the rope, there will be two tension forces acting in opposite directions. Fnet = Fup – Fdown = ma = 0 (because it is massless). Therefore, Fup = Fdown. According to Newton’s third law, the force that the adjoining piece of rope exerts on this point is equal and opposite to the force that this point exerts on it, so the force must be constant throughout. 57. Ramon pushes on a bed as shown in Figure 22. Draw a free-body diagram for the bed and identify all the forces acting on it. Make a separate list of all the forces that the bed applies to other objects. SOLUTION: 58. Baseball A batter swings a bat and hits a baseball. Draw free-body diagrams for the baseball and the bat at the Page 23 moment of contact. Specifically indicate any interaction pairs between the two diagrams. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero SOLUTION: Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 58. Baseball A batter swings a bat and hits a baseball. Draw free-body diagrams for the baseball and the bat at the moment of contact. Specifically indicate any interaction pairs between the two diagrams. SOLUTION: 59. Ranking Task Figure 23 shows a block in three different situations. Rank them according to the magnitude of the normal force between the block and the surface, greatest to least. Specifically indicate any ties. SOLUTION: from greatest to least: right box > left box > center box Chapter Assessment Section 3 Newton’s Third Law: Mastering Problems 60. A 6.0-kg block rests on top of a 7.0-kg block, which rests on a horizontal table. (Level 1) a. What is the force (magnitude and direction) exerted by the 7.0-kg block on the 6.0-kg block? b. What is the force (magnitude and direction) exerted by the 6.0-kg block on the 7.0-kg block? SOLUTION: a. b. equal and opposite to that in part a; therefore, 59 N downward 61. Rain A 2.45-mg raindrop falls to the ground. As it is falling, what magnitude of force does it exert on Earth? (Level 1) SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 24 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, Assessment b. equal and opposite to that in partand a; therefore, 59 N downward 61. Rain A 2.45-mg raindrop falls to the ground. As it is falling, what magnitude of force does it exert on Earth? (Level 1) SOLUTION: 2 62. Male lions and human sprinters can both accelerate at about 10.0 m/s . If a typical lion weighs 170 kg and a typical sprinter weighs 75 kg, what is the difference in the force exerted by the ground during a race between these two species? (Both the forward and normal forces should be calculated.) (Level 2) SOLUTION: Use Newton’s second law, Fnet = ma. For the forward force, the difference between Flion and Fhuman is For the normal force, the difference between Fnormal on lion and Fnormal on human is 2 63. A 4500-kg helicopter accelerates upward at 2.0 m/s . What lift force is exerted by the air on the propellers? (Level 2) SOLUTION: 64. Three blocks are stacked on top of one another. The top block has a mass of 4.6 kg, the middle one has a mass of 1.2 kg, and the bottom one has a mass of 3.7 kg. Identify and calculate any normal forces between the objects. (Level 3) SOLUTION: Normal force on top block: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 25 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 64. Three blocks are stacked on top of one another. The top block has a mass of 4.6 kg, the middle one has a mass of 1.2 kg, and the bottom one has a mass of 3.7 kg. Identify and calculate any normal forces between the objects. (Level 3) SOLUTION: Normal force on top block: Normal force on middle block: Normal force on bottom block: Chapter Assessment: Applying Concepts 65. Whiplash If you are in a car that is struck from behind, you can receive a serious neck injury called whiplash. a. Using Newton’s laws, explain what happens to cause such an injury. b. How does a headrest reduce whiplash? SOLUTION: a. The car is suddenly accelerated forward. The seat accelerates your body, but your neck has to accelerate your head. This can hurt your neck muscles. b. The headrest pushes on your head, accelerating it in the same direction as the car. 66. When you look at the label of the product in Figure 24 to get an idea of how much the box contains, does it tell you its mass, weight, or both? Would you need to make any changes to this label to make it correct for consumption on the Moon? SOLUTION: The ounces tell you the weight in English units. The grams and kilograms tell you the mass in metric units. The label would need to read "Mass 0.85 kg” to be correct on the Moon. The grams and kilograms would remain unchanged. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 26 67. From the top of a tall building, you drop two table-tennis balls, one filled with air and the other with water. Both experience air resistance as they fall. Which ball reaches terminal velocity first? Do both hit the ground at the same time? SOLUTION: a. The car is suddenly accelerated forward. The seat accelerates your body, but your neck has to accelerate your head. This can hurt your neck muscles. Chapter 4 Practice andaccelerating Assessmentit in the same direction as the car. b. The headrestProblems, pushes on Review, your head, 66. When you look at the label of the product in Figure 24 to get an idea of how much the box contains, does it tell you its mass, weight, or both? Would you need to make any changes to this label to make it correct for consumption on the Moon? SOLUTION: The ounces tell you the weight in English units. The grams and kilograms tell you the mass in metric units. The label would need to read "Mass 0.85 kg” to be correct on the Moon. The grams and kilograms would remain unchanged. 67. From the top of a tall building, you drop two table-tennis balls, one filled with air and the other with water. Both experience air resistance as they fall. Which ball reaches terminal velocity first? Do both hit the ground at the same time? SOLUTION: The lighter, air-filled table tennis ball reaches terminal velocity first. Its mass is less for the same shape and size, so the friction force of upward air resistance becomes equal to the downward force of mg sooner. Because the force of gravity on the water-filled table-tennis ball (more mass) is larger, its terminal velocity is larger, and it strikes the ground first. 68. It can be said that 1 kg is equivalent to 2.21 lb. What does this statement mean? What would be the proper way of making the comparison? SOLUTION: It means that on Earth’s surface, the weight of 1 kg is equivalent to 2.2 lb. You should compare masses to masses and weights to weights. Thus 9.8 N equals 2.2 lb. 69. You toss a ball straight up into the air. Assume air resistance is negligible. a. Draw a free-body diagram for the ball at three points: on the way up, at the very top, and on the way down. Specifically identify the forces and agents acting on the ball. b. What is the ball’s velocity at the very top of the motion? c. What is the ball’s acceleration at this point? SOLUTION: a. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 27 making the comparison? SOLUTION: Chapter 4 Practice Review,the and Assessment It means that onProblems, Earth’s surface, weight of 1 kg is equivalent to 2.2 lb. You should compare masses to masses and weights to weights. Thus 9.8 N equals 2.2 lb. 69. You toss a ball straight up into the air. Assume air resistance is negligible. a. Draw a free-body diagram for the ball at three points: on the way up, at the very top, and on the way down. Specifically identify the forces and agents acting on the ball. b. What is the ball’s velocity at the very top of the motion? c. What is the ball’s acceleration at this point? SOLUTION: a. b. 0 m/s c. Because the only force acting on it is the gravitational attraction of Earth, the ball is in free fall with acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. 70. When receiving a basketball pass, a player doesn't hold his or her hands still but moves them in the direction of the moving ball. Explain in terms of acceleration and Newton's second law why the player moves his or hands in this manner. SOLUTION: The hands will reduce the velocity of the ball to zero. By moving them in the direction of the moving ball, the amount of time over which the acceleration will occur will be longer, thus reducing the acceleration. Reducing the acceleration reduces the force needed to stop the ball. Chapter Assessment: Mixed Review 71. A dragster completed a 402.3-m (0.2500-mi) run in 5.023 s. If the car had a constant acceleration, what was its acceleration and final velocity? (Level 1) SOLUTION: 2 x f = x i + vi t + (1/2)at x i = vi = 0, so a = 2x f / t2 = (2)(402.3 m) / (5.023 s)2 2 = 31.89 m/s x f = x i + (1/2)(vf – vi )t eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero x i = vi = 0, so vf = 2x f / t Page 28 SOLUTION: The hands will reduce the velocity of the ball to zero. By moving them in the direction of the moving ball, Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment the amount of time over which the acceleration will occur will be longer, thus reducing the acceleration. Reducing the acceleration reduces the force needed to stop the ball. Chapter Assessment: Mixed Review 71. A dragster completed a 402.3-m (0.2500-mi) run in 5.023 s. If the car had a constant acceleration, what was its acceleration and final velocity? (Level 1) SOLUTION: 2 x f = x i + vi t + (1/2)at x i = vi = 0, so a = 2x f / t2 = (2)(402.3 m) / (5.023 s)2 2 = 31.89 m/s x f = x i + (1/2)(vf – vi )t x i = vi = 0, so vf = 2x f / t = (2)(402.3 m) / (5.023 s) = 160.2 m/s 72. Space Station Pratish weighs 588 N on Earth but is currently weightless in a space station. If she pushes off the 2 wall with a vertical acceleration of 3.00 m/s , determine the force exerted by the wall during her push off. (Level 2) SOLUTION: Use Newton’s second law to obtain Pratish’s mass, mPratish. Use Newton’s third law: 6 6 73. Jet A 2.75×10 -N jet plane is ready for takeoff. If the jet’s engines supply a constant forward force of 6.35×10 N, how much runway will it need to reach its minimum takeoff speed of 285 km/h? (Level 2) SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 29 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 6 6 73. Jet A 2.75×10 -N jet plane is ready for takeoff. If the jet’s engines supply a constant forward force of 6.35×10 N, how much runway will it need to reach its minimum takeoff speed of 285 km/h? (Level 2) SOLUTION: 74. Drag Racing A 873-kg dragster, starting from rest, attains a speed of 26.3 m/s in 0.59 s. (Level 2) a. Find the average acceleration of the dragster. b. What is the magnitude of the average net force on the dragster during this time? eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 30 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 74. Drag Racing A 873-kg dragster, starting from rest, attains a speed of 26.3 m/s in 0.59 s. (Level 2) a. Find the average acceleration of the dragster. b. What is the magnitude of the average net force on the dragster during this time? c. What horizontal force does the seat exert on the driver if the driver has a mass of 68 kg? SOLUTION: a. b. c. 75. The dragster in the previous problem completed a 402.3-m track in 4.936 s. It crossed the finish line going 126.6 m/s. Does the assumption of constant acceleration hold true? What information is needed to determine whether the acceleration was constant? (Level 2) SOLUTION: The acceleration of the first 0.59 s was 45 m/s2. If the acceleration was constant, the final velocity would be: 126.6 m/s is slower than the final velocity based on constant acceleration, so the acceleration cannot be constant. 76. Suppose a 65-kg boy and a 45-kg girl use a massless rope in a tug-of-war on an icy, resistance-free surface as in 2 Figure 25. If the acceleration of the girl toward the boy is 3.0 m/s , find the magnitude of the acceleration of the boy toward the girl.(Level 2) SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 31 126.64m/s is slower than the final velocity based on constant acceleration, so the acceleration cannot be Chapter Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment constant. 76. Suppose a 65-kg boy and a 45-kg girl use a massless rope in a tug-of-war on an icy, resistance-free surface as in 2 Figure 25. If the acceleration of the girl toward the boy is 3.0 m/s , find the magnitude of the acceleration of the boy toward the girl.(Level 2) SOLUTION: 77. Baseball As a baseball is being caught, its speed goes from 30.0 m/s to 0.0 m/s in about 0.0050 s. The mass of the baseball is 0.145 kg. (Level 2) a. What is the baseball’s acceleration? b. What are the magnitude and direction of the force acting on it? c. What are the magnitude and direction of the force acting on the player who caught it? SOLUTION: a. b. c. 78. An automobile accelerates uniformly from 0 to 24 m/s in 6.0 s. If the car has a mass of 2.0×10 eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero accelerating it? (Level 3) SOLUTION: 3 kg, what is the Page force32 c. Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 3 78. An automobile accelerates uniformly from 0 to 24 m/s in 6.0 s. If the car has a mass of 2.0×10 kg, what is the force accelerating it? (Level 3) SOLUTION: The force is in the direction of the car’s motion and is exerted by the road on the car. 79. Air Hockey An air-hockey table works by pumping air through thousands of tiny holes in a table to support light pucks. This allows the pucks to move around on cushions of air with very little resistance. One of these pucks has a mass of 0.25 kg and is pushed along by a 12.0-N force for 0.90 s. (Level 3) a. What is the puck’s acceleration? b. What is the puck’s final velocity? SOLUTION: a. b. 80. Weather Balloon The instruments attached to a weather balloon in Figure 26 have a mass of 8.0 kg. The balloon is released and exerts an upward force of 98 N on the instruments. (Level 3) eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 33 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 80. Weather Balloon The instruments attached to a weather balloon in Figure 26 have a mass of 8.0 kg. The balloon is released and exerts an upward force of 98 N on the instruments. (Level 3) SOLUTION: a. b. c. just the instrument weight, –49 N (down) d. The velocity becomes negative after it passes through zero. Thus, use 81. When a horizontal force of 4.5 N acts on a block on a resistance-free surface, it produces an acceleration of 2 - Powered by Cognero eSolutions Manual the 34 2.5 m/s . Suppose a second 4.0-kg block is dropped onto the first. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of Page combination if the same force continues to act? Assume that the second block does not slide on the first block. (Level 3) Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 81. When a horizontal force of 4.5 N acts on a block on a resistance-free surface, it produces an acceleration of 2 2.5 m/s . Suppose a second 4.0-kg block is dropped onto the first. What is the magnitude of the acceleration of the combination if the same force continues to act? Assume that the second block does not slide on the first block. (Level 3) SOLUTION: 82. Figure 27 shows two blocks, masses 4.3 kg and 5.4 kg, being pushed across a frictionless surface by a 22.5-N horizontal force applied to the 4.3-kg block. (Level 3) a. What is the acceleration of the blocks? b. What is the force of the 4.3-kg block on the 5.4-kg block? c. What is the force of the 5.4-kg block on the 4.3-kg block? SOLUTION: a. Identify the two blocks together as the system, and right as positive. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 35 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 82. Figure 27 shows two blocks, masses 4.3 kg and 5.4 kg, being pushed across a frictionless surface by a 22.5-N horizontal force applied to the 4.3-kg block. (Level 3) a. What is the acceleration of the blocks? b. What is the force of the 4.3-kg block on the 5.4-kg block? c. What is the force of the 5.4-kg block on the 4.3-kg block? SOLUTION: a. Identify the two blocks together as the system, and right as positive. b. Identify the 5.4-kg block as the system and right as positive. c. According to Newton’s third law, this should be equal and opposite to the force found in part b, so the force is 12 N to the left. 83. A student stands on a bathroom scale in an elevator at rest on the 64th floor of a building. The scale reads 836 N. (Level 3) a. As the elevator moves up, the scale reading increases to 936 N. Find the acceleration of the elevator. b. As the elevator approaches the 74th floor, the scale reading drops to 782 N. What is the acceleration of the elevator? c. Using your results from parts a and b, explain which change in velocity, starting or stopping, takes the longer time. SOLUTION: a. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 36 c. According to Problems, Newton’s third law,and thisAssessment should be equal and opposite to the force found in part b, so the Chapter 4 Practice Review, force is 12 N to the left. 83. A student stands on a bathroom scale in an elevator at rest on the 64th floor of a building. The scale reads 836 N. (Level 3) a. As the elevator moves up, the scale reading increases to 936 N. Find the acceleration of the elevator. b. As the elevator approaches the 74th floor, the scale reading drops to 782 N. What is the acceleration of the elevator? c. Using your results from parts a and b, explain which change in velocity, starting or stopping, takes the longer time. SOLUTION: a. b. c. Stopping, because the magnitude of the acceleration is less and t = . 84. Two blocks, one of mass 5.0 kg and the other of mass 3.0 kg, are tied together with a massless rope as in Figure 28. This rope is strung over a massless, resistance-free pulley. The blocks are released from rest. Find the following. (Level 3) eSolutions Page 37 Manual - Powered by Cognero a. the tension in the rope b. the acceleration of the blocks c. Stopping, because the magnitude of the acceleration is less and t = . 84. Two blocks, one of mass 5.0 kg and the other of mass 3.0 kg, are tied together with a massless rope as in Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment Figure 28. This rope is strung over a massless, resistance-free pulley. The blocks are released from rest. Find the following. (Level 3) a. the tension in the rope b. the acceleration of the blocks Hint: you will need to solve two simultaneous equations. SOLUTION: a, b Equation 1 comes from a free-body diagram for the 5.0-kg block. Down is positive. Equation 2 comes from a free-body diagram for the 3.0-kg block. Up is positive. The forces of the rope on each block will have the same magnitude, because the tension is constant throughout the rope. Call this force T. Solve equation 2 for T and plug into equation 1: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 38 Solve equation 2 for T and plug into equation 1: Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment Chapter Assessment: Thinking Critically 85. Reverse Problem Write a physics problem with real-life objects for which the following equation would be part of the solution: SOLUTION: Answers will vary, but a correct form of the answer is, “You wish to give a small child on ice skates, total mass 23 kg, a push so that she has an acceleration of 1.8 m/s2. With what force must you push?” 86. Formulate Models A 2.0-kg mass (mA) and a 3.0-kg mass (mB) are connected to a lightweight cord that passes over a frictionless pulley. The pulley only changes the direction of the force exerted by the rope. The hanging masses are free to move. Choose coordinate systems for the two masses with the positive direction being up for mA and down for mB. a. Create a pictorial model. b. Create a physical model with motion and free-body diagrams. c. What is the acceleration of the smaller mass? SOLUTION: a. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 39 a. Create a pictorial model. b. Create a physical model with motion and free-body diagrams. c. What is the acceleration of the smaller mass? Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment SOLUTION: a. b. c. where m is the total mass being accelerated. Substituting into the equation for mA gives Therefore 87. Use Models Suppose that the masses in the previous problem are now 1.00 kg and 4.00 kg. Find the acceleration of the larger mass. SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 40 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 87. Use Models Suppose that the masses in the previous problem are now 1.00 kg and 4.00 kg. Find the acceleration of the larger mass. SOLUTION: 88. Observe and Infer Three blocks that are connected by massless strings are pulled along a frictionless surface by a horizontal force, as shown in Figure 29. a. What is the acceleration of each block? b. What are the tension forces in each of the strings? Hint: Draw a separate free-body diagram for each block. SOLUTION: a. Since they all move together, the acceleration is the same for all three blocks. b. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 41 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 88. Observe and Infer Three blocks that are connected by massless strings are pulled along a frictionless surface by a horizontal force, as shown in Figure 29. a. What is the acceleration of each block? b. What are the tension forces in each of the strings? Hint: Draw a separate free-body diagram for each block. SOLUTION: a. Since they all move together, the acceleration is the same for all three blocks. b. 89. Critique Using the Example Problems in this chapter as models, write a solution to the following problem. A 3.46kg block is suspended from two vertical ropes attached to the ceiling. What is the tension in each rope? SOLUTION: 1 Analyze and Sketch the Problem Draw free-body diagrams for the block and choose upward to be positive. eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 42 Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment 89. Critique Using the Example Problems in this chapter as models, write a solution to the following problem. A 3.46kg block is suspended from two vertical ropes attached to the ceiling. What is the tension in each rope? SOLUTION: 1 Analyze and Sketch the Problem Draw free-body diagrams for the block and choose upward to be positive. 2 Solve for the Unknown Use Newton’s second law to find the tension in the ropes. 3 Evaluate the Answer • Are the units correct? N is the correct unit for a tension, since it is a force. The positive sign indicates that the tension is pulling upwards. • Is the magnitude realistic? We would expect the magnitude to be on the same order as the block’s weight. 90. Think Critically You are serving as a scientific consultant for a new science-fiction TV series about space exploration. In episode 3, the heroine, Misty Moonglow, has been asked to be the first person to ride in a new interplanetary transport ship. She wants to be sure that the transport actually takes her to the planet she wants to get to, so she needs a device to measure the force of gravity when she arrives. To measure the force of gravity, the script writers would like Misty to perform an experiment involving a scale. It is your job to design a quick experiment Misty can conduct eSolutions Manual - Poweredinvolving by Cognero a scale to determine which planet she is on. Describe the experiment and include what Page 43 the results would be for Venus (g = 8.9 N/kg), which is where she is supposed to go, and Mercury (g = 3.7 N/kg), which is where the transport takes her. • Are the units correct? N is the correct unit for a tension, since it is a force. The positive sign indicates that the tension is pulling upwards. Chapter Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment magnitude realistic? We would expect the magnitude to be on the same order as the block’s • Is 4the weight. 90. Think Critically You are serving as a scientific consultant for a new science-fiction TV series about space exploration. In episode 3, the heroine, Misty Moonglow, has been asked to be the first person to ride in a new interplanetary transport ship. She wants to be sure that the transport actually takes her to the planet she wants to get to, so she needs a device to measure the force of gravity when she arrives. To measure the force of gravity, the script writers would like Misty to perform an experiment involving a scale. It is your job to design a quick experiment Misty can conduct involving a scale to determine which planet she is on. Describe the experiment and include what the results would be for Venus (g = 8.9 N/kg), which is where she is supposed to go, and Mercury (g = 3.7 N/kg), which is where the transport takes her. SOLUTION: Answers will vary. Here is one possible answer: She should take a known mass, say 5.00-kg, with her and place it on the scale. Since the gravitational force depends upon the local gravitational field, the scale will read a different number of newtons, depending on which planet she is on. The following analysis shows how to figure out what the scale would read on a given planet: Identify the mass as the system and upward as positive. 91. Apply Concepts Develop a lab that uses a motion detector and either a calculator or a computer program that graphs the distance a free-falling object moves over equal intervals of time. Also graph velocity versus time. Compare and contrast your graphs. Using your velocity graph, determine the gravitational field. Does it equal g? SOLUTION: Student labs will vary with equipment available and designs. x-t graphs and v-t graphs should reflect uniform acceleration. The gravitational field should be close to 9.8 N/kg. 92. Problem Posing Complete this problem so that it must be solved using the concept listed below: “A worker unloading a truck gives a 10-kg crate of oranges a push across the floor…” a. Newton’s second law b. Newton’s third law SOLUTION: a. “…If he pushes the crate with a force of 40 N, what is the acceleration of the crate?” b. “…If he pushes the crate with a force of 40 N, what force does the crate exert on him?” Chapter Assessment: Writing in Physics eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 44 93. Research Newton’s contributions to physics and write a one-page summary. Do you think his three laws of motion SOLUTION: a. “…If he pushes the crateReview, with a force of 40 N, what is the acceleration of the crate?” Chapter 4 Practice Problems, and Assessment b. “…If he pushes the crate with a force of 40 N, what force does the crate exert on him?” Chapter Assessment: Writing in Physics 93. Research Newton’s contributions to physics and write a one-page summary. Do you think his three laws of motion were his greatest accomplishments? Explain why or why not. SOLUTION: Answers will vary. Newton’s contributions should include his work on light and color, telescopes, astronomy, laws of motion, gravity, and perhaps calculus. One argument in favor of his three laws of motion being his greatest accomplishments is that mechanics is based on the foundation of these laws. His advances in the understanding of the concept of gravity may be suggested as his greatest accomplishment instead of his three laws of motion. 94. Review, analyze, and critique Newton’s first law. Can we prove this law? Explain. Be sure to consider the role of resistance. SOLUTION: Answers will vary. Newton’s first law of motion involves an object whose net forces are zero. If the object is at rest, it remains at rest; if it is in motion, it will continue to move in the same direction at a constant velocity. Only a force acting on an object at rest can cause it to move. Likewise, only a force acting on an object in motion can cause it to change its direction or speed. The two cases (object at rest, object in motion) could be viewed as two different frames of reference. This law can be demonstrated, but it cannot be proven. 95. Physicists classify all forces into four fundamental categories: gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear and strong nuclear. Investigate these forces and describe the situations in which they are found. SOLUTION: The gravitational force is a long-range force between two or more masses. The electromagnetic force is a long-range force that acts on electric charges and magnets. The weak nuclear force plays a role in beta decay. During the earliest moments of the universe, when the universe was very hot and dense, the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force were unified in one force called the electroweak force. The strong nuclear force has a very short range and is what holds protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom. Chapter Assessment: Cumulative Review 96. Cross-Country Skiing Your friend is training for a cross-country skiing race, and you and some other friends have agreed to provide him with food and water along his training route. It is a bitterly cold day, so none of you wants to wait outside longer than you have to. Taro, whose house is the stop before yours, calls you at 8:25 a.m. to tell you that the skier just passed his house and is planning to move at an average speed of 8.0 km/h. If it is 5.2 km from Taro’s house to yours, when should you expect the skier to pass your house? SOLUTION: eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 45 long-range force that acts on electric charges and magnets. The weak nuclear force plays a role in beta decay. During the earliest moments of the universe, when the universe was very hot and dense, the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force were unified in one force called the electroweak force. The strong nuclear force has a veryand short range and is what holds protons and neutrons together in the Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, Assessment nucleus of an atom. Chapter Assessment: Cumulative Review 96. Cross-Country Skiing Your friend is training for a cross-country skiing race, and you and some other friends have agreed to provide him with food and water along his training route. It is a bitterly cold day, so none of you wants to wait outside longer than you have to. Taro, whose house is the stop before yours, calls you at 8:25 a.m. to tell you that the skier just passed his house and is planning to move at an average speed of 8.0 km/h. If it is 5.2 km from Taro’s house to yours, when should you expect the skier to pass your house? SOLUTION: 97. Figure 30 is a position-time graph of the motion of two cars on a road. a. At what time(s) does one car pass the other? b. Which car is moving faster at 7.0 s? c. At what time(s) do the cars have the same velocity? d. Over what time interval is car B speeding up all the time? e . Over what time interval is car B slowing down all the time? SOLUTION: a. 3 s, 8 s b. car A c. 5 s d. none e. ~3 s to 10 s eSolutions Manual - Powered by to Figure 30 toCognero find the 98. Refer a. car B at 2.0 s instantaneous speed for the following: Page 46 a. 3 s, 8 s b. car A c. 5 s d. none Chapter 4 Practice Problems, Review, and Assessment e. ~3 s to 10 s 98. Refer to Figure 30 to find the instantaneous speed for the following: a. car B at 2.0 s b. car B at 9.0 s c. car A at 2.0 s SOLUTION: a. 0 m/s b. ~0 m/s c. ~1 m/s eSolutions Manual - Powered by Cognero Page 47